High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants
Roriz, M. ; Carvalho, S.M.P. ; Wilton Vasconcelos, M. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Plant Science 5 (2014). - ISSN 1664-462X - 24 p.
metabolic-responses - greenhouse plants - nutrient-uptake - human-nutrition - seed treatment - chlorosis - homeostasis - roots - salinity - crops
Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient deficiency is essential. Several studies showed that relative humidty (RH) may influence the long distance transport of mineral elements and the nutrient status of plants. Thus, we decided to analyze the response of an ‘Fe-efficient’ (EF) and an ‘Fe-inefficient’ (INF) soybean accession grown under Fe-sufficient and deficient conditions under low (60%) and high (90%) RH, evaluating morphological and physiological parameters. Furthermore, the mineral content of different plant organs was analyzed. Our results showed beneficial effects of high RH in alleviating IDC symptoms as seen by increased SPAD values, higher plant dry weight, increased plant height, root length and leaf area. This positive effect of RH in reducing IDC symptoms was more pronounced in the EF accession. Also, Fe content in the different plant organs of the EF accession grown under deficient conditions increased with RH. The lower partitioning of Fe to roots and stems of the EF accessions relative to dry matter also supported our hypothesis, suggesting a greater capacity of this accession in Fe translocation to the aerial parts under Fe deficient conditions, when grown under high RH.
Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa
Li, J. ; Liu, B. ; Cheng, F. ; Wang, X. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Wu, J. - \ 2014
New Phytologist 203 (2014)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 182 - 194.
hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens - ferric-chelate reductase - arabidopsis-thaliana - metal homeostasis - human-nutrition - deficiency - tolerance - plants - toxicity - protein
Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana
Nutrient composition of selected newly bred and established mung bean varieties
Dahiya, P.K. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Grewal, R.B. - \ 2013
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 54 (2013)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 249 - 256.
greengram vigna-radiata - arietinum-l cultivars - phytic acid content - protein digestibility - antinutritional factors - starch digestibility - zinc bioavailability - human-nutrition - legume seeds - phytate
Seven newly bred and three established varieties of mung bean were analysed for proximate composition, minerals, anti-nutrients and in vitro mineral accessibility. They contained 18–23 g protein, 4.0–5.6 g crude fibre and 2.5–4.1 g ash per 100 g dry sample. Iron, zinc, calcium, sodium and potassium ranged from 3.4 to 4.6, 1.2 to 2.3, 79 to 115, 8.1 to 13.5 and 362 to 415 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. Phytic acid and polyphenols averaged 769 and 325 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. Varieties differed significantly in terms of nutrient and anti-nutrient contents. Phytic acid and polyphenols were negatively correlated with in vitro mineral accessibility and nutrient digestibility. Protein and starch digestibility ranged from 53 to 67 g/100 g dry weight and 20 to 29 mg maltose released/g dry weight, respectively. Average molar ratios of phytic acid to iron and zinc were 16.8 and 52.7, respectively. Differences in in vitro iron and zinc accessibility could not be explained by phytic acid to calcium nor magnesium molar ratios. However, the phytic acid amount in mung beans suffices to bind all minerals into indigestible complexes. The newly bred varieties have better agronomic yields but no better nutritional potential than the established varieties tested.
Not just a grain of rice: the quest for quality
Fizgerald, M.A. ; McCouch, S.R. ; Hall, R.D. - \ 2009
Trends in Plant Science 14 (2009)3. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 133 - 139.
starch-synthase-iia - oryza-sativa l. - betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase - cooked rice - physicochemical properties - cooking properties - high-temperature - transgenic rice - human-nutrition - qtl detection
A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the overall grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa) will lay the foundation for developing new breeding and selection strategies for combining high quality, with high yield. This is necessary to meet the growing global demand for high quality rice while offering producing countries additional opportunities for generating higher export revenues. Several recent developments in genetics, genomics, metabolomics and phenomics are enhancing our understanding of the pathways that determine several quality traits. New research strategies, as well as access to the draft of the rice genome, will not only advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to quality rice but will also pave the way for efficient and targeted grain improvement
Does increased zinc uptake enhance grain zinc mass concentration in rice?
Jiang, W. ; Struik, P.C. ; Keulen, H. van; Zhao, M. ; Jin, L.N. ; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2008
Annals of Applied Biology 153 (2008)1. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 135 - 147.
developing wheat grains - deficient calcareous soils - human-nutrition - aerobic rice - hypercholesterolemic men - micronutrient density - edible portions - blood-pressure - phytic acid - brown rice
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the worlds' most important cereal and potentially an important source of zinc (Zn) for people who eat mainly rice. To improve Zn delivery by rice, plant Zn uptake and internal allocation need to be better understood. This study reports on within-plant allocation and potential Zn accumulation in the rice grain in four so-called aerobic rice cultivars (Handao297, K150, Handao502 and Baxiludao). Two controlled-condition experiments were carried out, one with a wide range of constant Zn concentrations in the medium and one with a range of plant growth rate-related supply rates. In both experiments, increased Zn supply induced increased plant Zn uptake rate throughout crop development, when expressed as daily Zn uptake (¿g day¿1) or as daily Zn uptake per gram of plant dry matter (¿g g¿1). Zinc mass concentration (ZnMC) in all plant organs increased with an increase in Zn supply but to various degrees. At higher uptake levels, the ZnMC in stems increased most, while the ZnMC in hulled grains (brown rice) increased least. The increase in leaf ZnMC was generally small, but at toxic levels in the medium, leaf ZnMC increased significantly. It appears that regulation of grain Zn loading differs from regulation of Zn loading to other organs. A milling test on seeds of Baxiludao and Handao502 showed that when ZnMC in brown rice increased from 13 to 45 mg kg¿1, ZnMC in polished rice grains (endosperm) also increased from 9 to 37 mg kg¿1 but remained three to five times lower than that in the bran. Irrespective of the ZnMC in the brown rice, around 75% of total grain Zn was present in the endosperm. In both cultivars, there was a major difference in ZnMC between bran and endosperm (120 and 37 mg kg¿1, respectively), suggesting a barrier for Zn transport between the two tissues. There seems to be a second barrier between stem and rachis, as their ZnMCs also differed greatly (300 and 100 mg kg¿1, respectively) in both cultivars at higher plant ZnMC. It is concluded that there is too little scope from a human nutrition perspective to enhance ZnMC in rice endosperm by simply increasing the Zn supply to rice plants because Zn allocation to the endosperm is limited, while observed genotypic differences indicate scope for improvement through breeding.