Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
    Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51
    transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
    The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
    A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
    An overview of fertilizer-P recommendations in Europe: soil testing, calibration and fertilizer recommendations
    Jordan-Meille, L. ; Rubaek, G.H. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Genot, V. ; Hofman, G. ; Goulding, K. ; Recknagel, J. ; Provolo, G. ; Barraclough, P. - \ 2012
    Soil Use and Management 28 (2012)4. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 419 - 435.
    available phosphorus - i test - phosphate - eutrophication - adsorption - management - hungary - systems - crops - olsen
    The procedure for applying phosphorus (P) fertilizer to soil can be divided into three consecutive steps: (i) Measurement of soil-P availability, (ii) calibration of the soil-P fertility level and (iii) estimation of the recommended P dose. Information on each of these steps was obtained for 18 European countries and regions with the aim of comparing P fertilizer recommendation systems at the European scale. We collected information on P fertilizer recommendations through conventional or grey literature, and personal contacts with researchers, laboratories and advisory services. We found much variation between countries for each of the three steps: There are more than 10 soil-P tests currently in use, apparent contradictions in the interpretation of soil-P test values and more than 3-fold differences in the P fertilizer recommendations for similar soil-crop situations. This last result was confirmed by conducting a simple experimental inter-laboratory comparison. Moreover, soil properties (pH, clay content) and crop species characteristics (P responsiveness) are used in some countries in the calibration and recommendation steps, but in different ways. However, there are also common characteristics: soil-P availability is determined in all countries by extraction with chemical reagents and the calibration of the soil-P test values, and the fertilizer recommendations are based on the results from empirical field trials. Moreover, the fertilizer recommendations are nearly all based on the amount of P exported in the crops. As long as rational scientific and theoretical backgrounds are lacking, there is no point in trying to synchronize the different chemical methods used. We therefore call for a mechanistic approach in which the processes involved in plant P nutrition are truly reproduced by a single standard method or simulated by sorption-desorption models.
    Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : case study report organisational mechanisms to solve collective action challenges in vegetables marketing
    Ton, G. ; Szabó, G. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 28
    coöperatieve marketing - groenten - landbouwkrediet - veilingen - belgië - nederland - hongarije - cooperative marketing - vegetables - agricultural credit - auctions - belgium - netherlands - hungary
    Environmental and economic profile of present greenhouse production systems in Europe. Annex
    Montero, J.I. ; Antón, A. ; Torrellas, M. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Vermeulen, P.C.M. - \ 2011
    2011 : European Commission (Euphoros reports Deliverable 5 Annex) - 53
    glastuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - agrarische productiesystemen - landbouw en milieu - agrarische economie - vergelijkend onderzoek - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - rozen - nederland - hongarije - spanje - europa - greenhouse horticulture - protected cultivation - agricultural production systems - agriculture and environment - agricultural economics - comparative research - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - roses - netherlands - hungary - spain - europe
    The EUPHOROS project is co-funded by the European Commission, Directorate General for Research, within the 7th Framework Programme of RTD, Theme 2 – Biotechnology, Agriculture & Food, contract 211457. The views and opinions expressed in this Deliverable are purely those of the writers and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission. This Deliverable 5 Annex is the latest updated version in September 2011.
    Seasonal evaluation of the land surface sheme HTESSEL against remote sensing derived energy fluxes of the Transdanubian regions in Hungary
    Wipfler, E.L. ; Metselaar, K. ; Dam, J.C. van; Feddes, R.A. ; Meijgaard, E. van; Ulft, L.H. van; Hurk, B. van den; Zwart, S.J. ; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M. - \ 2011
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15 (2011)4. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1257 - 1271.
    aardoppervlak - evapotranspiratie - remote sensing - klimaatverandering - modellen - hongarije - land surface - evapotranspiration - remote sensing - climatic change - models - hungary - terrestrial water storage - era-40 reanalysis - balance closure - climate models - field - atmosphere - hydrology - impact - basin
    The skill of the land surface model HTESSEL is assessed to reproduce evaporation in response to land surface characteristics and atmospheric forcing, both being spatially variable. Evaporation estimates for the 2005 growing season are inferred from satellite observations of the Western part of Hungary and compared to model outcomes. Atmospheric forcings are obtained from a hindcast run with the Regional Climate Model RACMO2. Although HTESSEL slightly underpredicts the seasonal evaporative fraction as compared to satellite estimates, the mean, 10th and 90th percentile of this variable are of the same magnitude as the satellite observations. The initial water as stored in the soil and snow layer does not have a significant effect on the statistical properties of the evaporative fraction. However, the spatial distribution of the initial soil and snow water significantly affects the spatial distribution of the calculated evaporative fraction and the models ability to reproduce evaporation correctly in low precipitation areas in the considered region. HTESSEL performs weaker in dryer areas. In Western Hungary these areas are situated in the Danube valley, which is partly covered by irrigated cropland and which also may be affected by shallow groundwater. Incorporating (lateral) groundwater flow and irrigation, processes that are not included now, may improve HTESSELs ability to predict evaporation correctly. Evaluation of the model skills using other test areas and larger evaluation periods is needed to confirm the results.
    Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities
    Marko, V. ; Bogya, S. ; Kondorosy, E. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2010
    International Journal of Pest Management 56 (2010)3. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 189 - 199.
    pest-management systems - arthropod - aphid - coccinellidae - insecticide - assemblages - populations - pesticides - coleoptera - hungary
    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abundance and species richness of the communities and also altered their composition and diversity. The treatments disrupted many non-target groups notably mycophagous, predacious and tourist beetles, zoophagous bugs and spiders. Among spiders, wanderer spiders (Thomisidae, Philodromidae) were most affected, whereas web building spiders (Dictynidae) were least affected. After ceasing the applications in July, the between-treatment differences in composition of all communities and diversity of heteropterans and spiders diminished while the differences in abundance and species richness remained for a long time, until the end of September. Many predator species with good colonisation ability recovered slowly after the treatments, mainly due to the scarcity of prey.
    Adaptation to climate related risks in managed river basins : diversifying land use and water management activities to adapt to climate related risks in the Netherlands and Hungary
    Werners, S.E. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Pavel Kabat. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856412 - 168
    stroomgebieden - klimaatverandering - landgebruik - hoogwaterbeheersing - besluitvorming - aanpassingsvermogen - participatie - nederland - hongarije - governance - watersheds - climatic change - land use - flood control - decision making - adaptability - participation - netherlands - hungary - governance
    Het centrale thema van mijn onderzoek is aanpassing aan klimaatverandering in rivierstroomgebieden. De wetenschappelijke literatuur over aanpassing aan klimaatverandering besteedt veel aandacht aan klimaateffecten, kwetsbaarheid en barrières voor aanpassing. Veel minder is bekend over de voorwaarden die het mensen mogelijk maakt zich in de praktijk aan te passen. Begrip van deze voorwaarden is echter van cruciaal belang voor het duurzaam realiseren van klimaataanpassing. Deze studie conceptualiseerde aanpassing aan klimaatverandering als het proces waarin actoren strategieën ontwikkelen en implementeren om een bepaalde doelstelling te halen. Wat betreft participatie, bevestigde de Hongaarse studie, dat samenwerking in de beleidsvoorbereiding ten goede kwam aan de eensgezindheid en het begrip tussen partijen.
    Opponents and supporters of water policy change in the Netherlands and Hungary
    Werners, S.E. ; Warner, J.F. ; Roth, D. - \ 2010
    Water Alternatives 3 (2010)1. - ISSN 1965-0175 - p. 26 - 47.
    waterbeleid - verandering - individuen - interacties - communicatie - hongarije - nederland - invloeden - water policy - change - individuals - interactions - communication - hungary - netherlands - influences
    This paper looks at the role of individuals and the strategies that they use to bring about or oppose major policy change. Current analysis of the role that individuals or small collectives play in periods of major policy change has focussed on strategies that reinforce change and on the supporters of change. This paper adds the perspective of opponents, and asks whether they use similar strategies as those identified for supporters. Five strategies are explored: developing new ideas, building coalitions to sell ideas, using windows of opportunity, playing multiple venues and orchestrating networks. Using empirical evidence from Dutch and Hungarian water policy change, we discuss whether individuals pursued these strategies to support or oppose major policy change. Our analysis showed the significance of recognition of a new policy concept at an abstract level by responsible government actors, as well as their engagement with a credible regional coalition that can contextualise and advocate the concept regionally. The strategies of supporters were also used by opponents of water policy change. Opposition was inherent to policy change, and whether or not government actors sought to engage with opponents influenced the realisation of water policy change.
    Final Results of the Tisza, Guadiana and Inner Mongolia Regional Case-studies
    Werners, S.E. ; Bindi, M. ; Cots, F. ; Dai, X. ; Flachner, Z. ; Harnos, Z. ; Matczak, P. ; McEvoy, D. ; Moriondo, M. ; Lugeri, N. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Neufeldt, H. ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Trombi, G. ; West, J. - \ 2008
    Norwich, UK : ADAM (ADAM Deliverables D-P3D.4 (M39)) - 238
    klimaatverandering - landgebruik - waterbeheer - rivieren - stroomgebieden - spanje - portugal - hongarije - china - climatic change - land use - water management - rivers - watersheds - spain - portugal - hungary - china
    This deliverable reports on the work done in ADAM work package P3d. It examines the constraints and opportunities for mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in land use and water management in three study regions: the Guadiana River Basin in Spain and Portugal, the Tisza River Basin in Hungary and the Alxa region in western Inner Mongolia, China
    Migranten bij de Demka-staalfabrieken in Utrecht (1915-1983)
    Rommes, R.N.J. ; Schrover, M. - \ 2008
    Utrecht : Matrijs - ISBN 9789053453537 - 184
    migranten - migrantenarbeid - fabrieksarbeiders - staal - werknemers in de industrie - arbeidsverhoudingen - huisvesting - vrije tijd - sociale economie - duitsland - belgië - hongarije - italië - spanje - griekenland - turkije - nederland - geschiedenis - utrecht - groningen - friesland - migrants - migrant labour - factory workers - steel - industrial workers - labour relations - housing - leisure - socioeconomics - germany - belgium - hungary - italy - spain - greece - turkey - netherlands - history - utrecht - groningen - friesland
    Investeren in de varkenskolom in Hongarije, Roemenië, Oekraïne en Rusland
    Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Schutter, L. de - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151974 - 152
    agrarische economie - investering - particuliere investering - vee- en vleesindustrie - varkenshouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - veevoederindustrie - hongarije - roemenië - oekraïne - rusland - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - investment - private investment - meat and livestock industry - pig farming - farm management - feed industry - hungary - romania - ukraine - russia - supply chain management
    De varkenskolom in Hongarije, Roemenië, Oekraïne en Rusland biedt ruime mogelijkheden voor investeerders met westers management. Vleesindustrie, varkenshouderij en veevoerbedrijven hebben vaak een grote technologische achterstand en behoefte aan investeringskapitaal, kennis, kennisintensieve producten en management.
    EUREP-GAP in the European Union : quality management and food safety in apple and onion chains in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and The Netherlands
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Baricicova, V. ; Dandar, M. ; Grzegorzewska, M. ; Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Szabo, C. ; Zmarlicki, K. - \ 2007
    Lelystad : PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegroententeelt (EU access report / Applied Plant Research, Research Unit Arable Farming and Vegetable Production 07) - 46
    appels - malus - uien - allium cepa - voedselveiligheid - hongarije - polen - slowakije - kwaliteitszorg - apples - malus - onions - allium cepa - food safety - hungary - poland - slovakia - quality management
    This project is financed by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, nature and Food Quality and is part of the research programme 'Sustainable and competetive agriculture supply chains in pre- and post-European Union accession countries (EU access)'
    Agriculture and dairy in Eastern Europe after transition focused on Poland and Hungary
    Tonini, A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Roel Jongeneel. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045908 - 206
    overgangslandbouw - overgangseconomieën - melkveehouderij - centraal-europa - hongarije - polen - landbouw - productiviteit - efficiëntie - micro-economie - economische theorie - melkproductie - prestatieniveau - modellen - transitional farming - transition economies - dairy farming - central europe - hungary - poland - agriculture - productivity - efficiency - performance - microeconomics - economic theory - models - milk production

    Keywords: CEECs, Hungary, Poland, dairy, micro economic theory, efficiency, productivity, allocative efficiency, stochastic frontier, profit function, Markov chain, and maximum entropy econometrics.

    This thesis analyzes the transition of an economic sector, from a socialist system to a market economy. By using microeconomic theory, available data and elaborated econometric methods, the thesis shows that this joint effort leads to sensible results. The first part deals with sectoral economic analysis for Central Eastern European Countries (CEECs) that signed agreement for the European Union (EU) accession in 1998. The second part is focused on two countries (Poland and Hungary) and the dairy sector. Analytical methods used are: stochastic frontier, distance function, profit function, and Markov chain. The data were sourced from Eurostat, FAO, OECD and national statistical offices. The observations related to the former socialist regime were discarded removing the possibility of relying on traditional estimation techniques. Easier applicability was exchanged for more relevance. Maximum Entropy, which is a non-conventional estimation technique suitable for dealing with "ill-posed", and/or "ill-conditioned" problems, was largely used. By reconciling sample information and non-sample information in a rigorous and transparent manner this thesis sought to make the best estimates possible from the available information. Results of the first part indicate that despite the decrease in output, total factor productivity growth rates were positive across all CEECs analysed during the post socialist period. Countries which during the socialist regime were characterised by large-scale operators were more technologically efficient compared with the other countries analysed. This supports the view that large-scale farming performs better than small-scale farming in the period following transition when there were missing markets and uncertain economic conditions. The agricultural output mix was largely influenced by transition. Results indicate that it is going to be difficult to increase chicken meat getting rid of the other agricultural products. Adjustment costs were greater and increasing over time for Hungary as compared to Poland. The mode! detected overspecialization for sugar beet production. In the second half of the 1990s the degree of complementarity and substitutability is increased.

    Second the thesis analyzed the primary dairy production of Hungary and Poland modelling their dairy and beef supplies as well as their dairy farm structures. The developed supply model showed an original and empirically based way for satisfying theoretical consistency as well as plausibility. Final supply elasticities estimates were not so different from those found for EU-15 countries in the pre-quota period. This confirms that dairy operations rely on a similar production technology and that the calibrated elasticities used in the literature are not far from reality. The dairy farm size projections showed that the number of dairy farms will continue to decline in the coming decade, although with an increase in the number of farms of medium and large size. The exit from the sector of the subsistence dairy farms is predicted to proceed more slowly in Poland than in Hungary. The findings suggest a convergence to a dairy farm structure similar to the one encountered in the former EU-15 members with a predominance of medium size farms. The degree of convergence will largely depend on the mediating role of a we!l-defmed and functioning land market.

    Is the collapse of agricultural output in the CEECs a good indicator of economic performance? A total factor productivity analysis
    Tonini, A. ; Jongeneel, R.A. - \ 2006
    Eastern European Economics 44 (2006)4. - ISSN 0012-8775 - p. 32 - 59.
    eastern-europe - technological-progress - production frontiers - efficiency change - index numbers - transition - countries - hungary - growth
    This paper analyzes total factor productivity (TFP) growth in agriculture for the ten Central and East European countries (CEECs) that began formal negotiations for EU accession in September 1998. A panel data set is constructed consisting of pooled time series data for the ten CEECs from 1993 to 2002, and it is used to estimate a time-varying stochastic production frontier. A Malmquist index of TFP growth is estimated and decomposed into efficiency change and technical change. The results show that despite the fall in output, TFP growth rates were positive for all ten CEECs. This suggests that the collapse of agricultural output in the CEECs is not necessarily a good indicator of agricultural performance. An analysis that only focuses on output decline provides a partial and misleading interpretation of the success of agricultural reforms. Also, estimates of technical efficiency confirm the hypothesis that large-scale farming performs better than small-scale farming when markets are missing and economic conditions are uncertain.
    Streken vergeleken: hoofdlijnen imago, implementatie, interpretatie en integratie van Natura 2000 in Europees perspectief
    Neven, M.G.G. ; Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1222.2) - 49
    natuurbescherming - europese unie - eu regelingen - vogels - habitats - interpretatie - integratie - internationale vergelijkingen - verenigd koninkrijk - zweden - spanje - frankrijk - hongarije - natuur - natura 2000 - nature conservation - european union - eu regulations - birds - habitats - interpretation - integration - international comparisons - uk - sweden - spain - france - hungary - nature - natura 2000
    Dit vergelijkend onderzoek behandelt de Natura 2000 gebiedsbescherming van de Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn langs de kernthema¿s van imago, implementatie, interpretatie en integratie van Natura 2000 gebieden. Na een zoektocht naar relevante kwesties in 25 lidstaten werden vijf landen geselecteerd voor nader onderzoek, te weten: Verenigd Koninkrijk, Zweden, Spanje, Frankrijk en Hongarije. Na een zestal leerervaringen wordt onder meer geconcludeerd dat een casuïstische benadering de meeste kansen beidt en een omgevingswet niet noodzakelijkerwijs leidt tot één integrale omgevingsvergunning
    Highlights Eurosites insights; highlights on image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary
    Neven, M.G.G. ; Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1222.3) - 51
    natuurbescherming - europese unie - eu regelingen - vogels - habitats - interpretatie - integratie - internationale vergelijkingen - verenigd koninkrijk - zweden - spanje - frankrijk - hongarije - nature conservation - european union - eu regulations - birds - habitats - interpretation - integration - international comparisons - uk - sweden - spain - france - hungary
    Highlighting the main report Eurosites Insights this comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quick scanned the EU25, five member states have been selected for further investigation: UK, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary. After six learning¿s it is stated that (inter alia) an in concreto case law approach offers most progress opportunities and an often hallowed integrated environmental code however does not auto¬matically lead to one integrated licensing system
    Eurosites insights; image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary
    Neven, M.G.G. ; Kistenkas, F.H. ; Apeldoorn, R.C. van - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1222.1) - 178
    natuurbescherming - europese unie - eu regelingen - vogels - habitats - interpretatie - integratie - internationale vergelijkingen - verenigd koninkrijk - zweden - spanje - frankrijk - hongarije - nature conservation - european union - eu regulations - birds - habitats - interpretation - integration - international comparisons - uk - sweden - spain - france - hungary
    This comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quickscanned the EU25, five member states have been selected for further investigation: UK, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary. After six learnings it is stated that (inter alia) an in concreto case law approach offers most progress opportunities and an often hallowed integrated environmental code however does not automatically lead to one integrated licensing system
    Biologische landbouw in Midden- en Oost-Europa
    Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. ; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Berkum, S. van; Goddijn, S.T. - \ 2005
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9789052429311 - 91
    biologische landbouw - economische situatie - aanbod - vraag - verwerking - distributie - polen - hongarije - tsjechië - primaire productie - organic farming - economic situation - supply - demand - processing - distribution - poland - hungary - czech republic - primary production
    Dit rapport geeft inzicht in de concurrentiekracht van de biologische landbouwsector in Mid-den- en Oost-Europa. Daarbij is vooral gekeken naar de landen waarvan de concurrentiekracht het grootst wordt geacht: Hongarije, Polen en de Tsjechische Republiek. Er wordt een be-schrijving gegeven van de ontwikkelingen in zowel aanbod als vraag in de betreffende landen, waarbij het niet alleen gaat om de primaire productie maar ook de verwerking en distributie.
    Long-term risks of inadequate management practices on the sustainability of agricultural soils
    Vries, W. de; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Murányi, A. ; Curlík, J. ; Sefcík, P. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Bril, J. ; Modin, A.K. ; Sverdrup, H.U. ; Alloway, B.J. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 816) - 229
    landbouwgronden - bodembeheer - oefening - risicoschatting - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - langdurige zorg - besmetting - bodemverontreiniging - hongarije - bodemchemie - verzuring - agricultural soils - soil chemistry - acidification - soil management - practice - risk assessment - sustainability - long term care - contamination - soil pollution - hungary
    This report describes the major result of a research project funded by the INCO-Copernicus programma of European Commission under Contract number ERB-IC15-CT98-0133. The study focused on the long-term environmental risk of soil acidification on: (i) mobilisation and leaching and (ii) plant uptake of potentially toxic heavy metals (i.e. lead, cadmium, zinc and copper) from well-drained agricultural soils in Slovakia and Hungary. The research was mainly carried out in the period 1998-2001, but there was a strong delay in the final reporting of the results as summarised in this report. This report includes the major papers resulting from this study. The major result obtained from the various studies is that transfer functions and soil-to-plant transfer relationships, allowing the calculation of dissolved metal concentrations and plant meta contents from soil metal contents accounting for differences in soil properties, such as pH and organic matter content, in the solid phase, are practical and reasonably reliable approaches for use in regional risk assessments, as carried out for Hungary and Slovakia.
    Multi-scale hydraulic pedotransfer functions for Hungarian soils
    Nemes, A. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Bouma, co-promotor(en): Henk Wösten. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088048 - 143
    erosie - geologische sedimentatie - hydrologische factoren - simulatiemodellen - transportprocessen - hydrodynamische verplaatsing - databanken - hongarije - erosion - geological sedimentation - hydrological factors - simulation models - transport processes - hydrodynamic displacement - databases - hungary
    Water and nutrient balance are among the main concerns about the sustainability of our soils. Numerous computer models have been developed to simulate soil water and solute transport and plant growth. However, use of these models has often been limited by lack of accurate input parameters. Often, the limiting input parameters are water retention and hydraulic conductivity. For many applications, estimation of soil hydraulic characteristics with pedotransfer functions (PTFs) may offer an alternative to costly and troublesome field or laboratory measurements. Many environmental problems are not restricted to national boundaries and therefore solutions require international co-operation. Soil particle-size distribution (PSD) is among the key predictors to most soil hydraulic PTFs. However, despite a number of recognised international standards, those data are rarely compatible across national frontiers, which hinders the establishment of international databases. The performance of four different interpolation procedures was evaluated to achieve compatibility of PSD data. Based on the number and distribution of measured points on the cumulative PSD curve, a general rule was formulated as when to fit a spline function or use a novel 'similarity procedure' to estimate missing values. The 'similarity procedure' uses an external source of soil information from which soils are selected with PSD that match the distribution of the soil under investigation. Fitting a non-parametric spline function to the PSD data showed similar accuracy and is independent of any external data sources, however, it is more sensitive to low data density on the PSD curve. International soil hydraulic databases can be valuable alternatives to smaller (e.g. national) databases when seeking solutions to soil water management related problems with international significance. Focusing on soil hydraulic data, the international UNsaturated SOil hydraulic DAtabase (UNSODA) was developed. The format, structure and operation of the redesigned second version of the database (UNSODA V2.0) were discussed. The 'similarity procedure' for the interpolation of PSD was tested for it's validity for soils of different geographical areas using data of UNSODA V2.0. While applying the procedure, a large European data set was used to help interpolate PSD of non-European soils. It was hypothesized that the procedure would not perform equally well for soils of other geographical areas, however, the study rejected this hypothesis. It was recognised that many soil hydraulic data have also been collected in Hungary in the framework of various independent projects. However, only part of those were stored in a common database. The HUNSODA database is introduced, which serves as storage for soil physical and hydraulic data as well as basic soil information on 840 soil horizons. The structure, contents and basic operations of the database are discussed. Data were then used to develop class pedotransfer functions for Hungarian soils according to both the FAO and USDA soil texture classes. There is considerable overlap between average curves of different classes if many small classes are distinguished. A less detailed classification system yields more distinction between class functions. In most PTF comparisons it remains unclear what the main sources of the estimation errors are. National, continental and intercontinental scale data collections were used to derive PTFs to estimate soil water retention. The same methodology (neural network model) and the same sets of predictors were used to allow the source database to be the only variable that is changed. We evaluated the performance of 11 different PTFs developed from each of the data sets, in order to study the influence of different combinations of predictors. All PTFs were tested using independent Hungarian data. Water retention estimations showed an improving trend as the list of input variables increased. Using a small set of relevant (local) data - when available - is better than using a large but more general data set. Estimated water retention curves (WRCs) were then used to simulate soil moisture time series of seven Hungarian soils. Small differences were found among the PTFs derived from different scale data collections. PTF estimates were only marginally worse than estimates using laboratory measured WRCs. Differences between estimations using different scale data sets (or measured WRCs) were not the main source of error in the simulation model. Scenario studies can be used in planning and prevention to fine-tune expert knowledge, as those give a quantitative dimension to the outcome of implemented changes. PTFs can provide important soil physical data at relatively low costs and at no risk to the environment. Three scenario studies demonstrate how PTFs may help improve land management planning. Exploratory modeling was used to give estimates of (i) benefits and risks associated with irrigating a heterogeneous field, in terms of soil water balance components and the soil's ability to supply the vegetation with water, (ii) the effect of changes in physical properties of a soil on flux balance and plant water deficit, and (iii) the risk of leaching to deeper horizons in different soil types of Hungary, based on the simulation of 20 years. Using an exploratory research approach, quantitative answers were provided to "what if" type of questions, allowing the distinction of trends in potential problems and successes.
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