In situ remediation of contaminated sediments using carbonaceous materials
Rakowska, M.I. ; Kupryianchyk, D. ; Harmsen, J. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2012
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31 (2012)4. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 693 - 704.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - polychlorinated biphenyl sorption - hydrophobic organic contaminants - polychaete neanthes-arenaceodentata - activated carbon - black carbon - marine sediment - macoma-balthica - mass-transfer - lumbriculus-variegatus
Carbonaceous materials (CM), such as activated carbons or biochars, have been shown to significantly reduce porewater concentrations and risks by binding hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) present in aquatic sediments. In the present study, the authors review the current state-of-the-art use of CM as an extensive method for sediment remediation, covering both technical and ecological angles. The review addresses how factors such as CM type, particle size and dosage, sediment characteristics, and properties of contaminants affect the effectiveness of CM amendment to immobilize HOCs in aquatic sediments. The authors also review the extent to which CM may reduce bioaccumulation and toxicity of HOCs and whether CM itself has negative effects on benthic species and communities. The review is based on literature and datasets from laboratory as well as field trials with CM amendments. The presence of phases such as natural black carbon, oil, or organic matter in the sediment reduces the effectiveness of CM amendments. Carbonaceous material additions appear to improve the habitat quality for benthic organisms by reducing bioavailable HOC concentrations and toxicity in sediment. The negative effects of CM itself on benthic species, if any, have been shown to be mild. The beneficial effects of reducing toxicity at low CM concentrations most probably outweigh the mild negative effects observed at higher CM concentrations
Uptake of sediment-bound bioavailable polychlorobiphenyls by benthivorous carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Moermond, C.T.A. ; Roozen, F.C.J.M. ; Zwolsman, J.J.G. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2004
Environmental Science and Technology 38 (2004)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4503 - 4509.
sediment - biologische beschikbaarheid - polychloorbifenylen - benthos - karper - zoetwatervissen - meren - waterinvertebraten - chemicaliën - opname (uptake) - organische scheikunde - ecotoxicologie - waterbodems - sediment - bioavailability - polychlorinated biphenyls - benthos - carp - freshwater fishes - lakes - aquatic invertebrates - chemicals - uptake - organic chemistry - ecotoxicology - water bottoms - hydrophobic organic contaminants - aquatic food webs - contact time - pore-water - ingested sediment - extraction - lake - pollutants - fish
It is unclear whether accumulation of sediment-bound chemicals in benthivorous fish depends on the degree of sequestration in the sediment like it does for invertebrates. Here, we report on the potential of slow and fast desorbing sediment-bound polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) fractions for accumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in lake enclosures treated with different nutrient doses
It is unclear whether accumulation of sediment-bound chemicals in benthivorous fish depends on the degree of sequestration in the sediment like it does for invertebrates. Here, we report on the potential of slow and fast desorbing sediment-bound polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) fractions for accumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in lake enclosures treated with different nutrient doses. Routes of PCB uptake were quantitatively evaluated for 15 PCBs (log K-0W range 5.6-7.8) using model analysis. Fast-desorbing PCB fractions in the sediment were defined as the ratio of 6-h Tenax-extractable to (total) Soxhlet-extractable concentrations. These fractions varied between 4 and 22% and did not show a clear trend with log K-0W. However, bioaccumulation of PCBs in carp correlated much better with Tenax-extractable concentrations than with total-extractable concentrations. Nutrient additions in the enclosures had a positive effect on PCB accumulation. Model results show that PCB uptake in carp can be explained from (1) uptake through invertebrate food, (2) uptake from fast-desorbing fractions in ingested sediments, and (3) uptake from water, where PCBs are in partitioning equilibrium with fast-desorbing fractions. The main implication of this research is that fast-desorbing PCB fractions in sediments have great predictive potential for bioaccumulation in benthivorous fish.