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Effect of dietary phosphorus deprivation on leukocyte function in transition cows
Eisenberg, S.W.F. ; Ravesloot, L. ; Koets, A.P. ; Grünberg, W. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1559 - 1570.
hypophosphatemia - immune function - lymphoproliferation test - phagocytosis assay
Phosphorus depletion and hypophosphatemia have been described to hamper immune function in different species, an effect barely studied in dairy cows commonly developing hypophosphatemia in early lactation. Dietary P deprivation in mid lactating dairy cows was associated with a decline of the number of granulocytes and impaired granulocyte survival, whereas the phagocytic activity remained unaffected. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the effect of P deprivation on the leukocyte function of periparturient dairy cows. Eighteen multiparous and late pregnant dairy cows were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that was offered a markedly P-deficient diet or a control group receiving the same ration with adequate P content. The study consisted of a 2-wk acclimation period that was followed by a P deprivation period extending from 4 wk before to 4 wk after parturition and a P repletion period of 2 wk thereafter. Blood samples for leukocyte counts and leukocyte function analysis were obtained at the end of the acclimation period, after 2 wk of P deprivation, within the first week of lactation, at the end of the P depletion period and after 2 wk of dietary P supplementation. Blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained weekly. Immune function was assessed by means of a phagocytosis assay and a lymphocyte stimulation test. Dietary P deprivation resulted in pronounced and sustained hypophosphatemia. Time effects were observed on the counts of different leukocyte fractions, the relative number of phagocytic granulocytes, the degree of phagocytosis, and the lymphocyte proliferation. Differences between P-deprived and control cows were only identified for the degree of phagocytosis that was lower in P-deprived cows compared with control cows. The correlation and regression analyses, however, revealed positive associations of the plasma phosphate concentration and the granulocyte count, the relative number of phagocytic granulocytes, and the degree of phagocytosis at the end of the dietary P deprivation when P depletion was most severe. The results of the study reported here indicate a mild negative effect of pronounced and sustained hypophosphatemia on the granulocyte count and the phagocytic activity of granulocytes in transition dairy cows. The clinical relevance of this effect for health and productivity of dairy cows remains to be determined.
The impact of dietary fibers on dendritic cell responses in vitro is dependent on the differential effects of the fibers on intestinal epithelial cells
Bermudez-Brito, M. ; Sahasrabudhe, N.M. ; Rösch, C. ; Schols, H.A. ; Faas, M.M. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2015
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 59 (2015)4. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 698 - 710.
immune function - receptor 2 - health - homeostasis - modulation - mortality - polysaccharides - activation - mechanisms - prebiotics
Scope In the present study, the direct interaction of commonly consumed fibers with epithelial or dendritic cells (DCs) was studied. Methods and results The fibers were characterized for their sugar composition and chain length profile. When in direct contact, fibers activate DCs only mildly. This was different when DCs and fibers were co-cultured together with supernatants from human epithelial cells (Caco spent medium). Caco spent medium enhanced the production of IL-12, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein), and MIP-1a but this was strongly attenuated by the dietary fibers. This attenuating effect on proinflammatory cytokines was dependent on the interaction of the fibers with Toll-like receptors as it was reduced by Pepinh-myd88. The interaction of galacto-oligosaccharides, chicory inulin, wheat arabinoxylan, barley ß-glucan with epithelial cells and DCs led to changes in the production of the Th1 cytokines in autologous T cells, while chicory inulin, and barley ß-glucan reduced the Th2 cytokine IL-6. The Treg-promoting cytokine IL-10 was induced by galacto-oligosaccharides whereas chicory inulin decreased the IL-10 production. Conclusions Our results suggest that dietary fibers can modulate the host immune system not only by the recognized mechanism of effects on microbiota but also by direct interaction with the consumer's mucosa. This modulation is dietary fiber type dependent.
A simple assay for measurement of ovotransferrin - a marker of inflammation and infection in birds
Horrocks, N.P.C. ; Tieleman, B.I. ; Matson, K.D. - \ 2011
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2 (2011)5. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 518 - 526.
acute-phase protein - immune function - trade-offs - serum - transferrin - chicken - haptoglobin - iron - diseases - binding
1. Ovotransferrin is an acute-phase protein with iron-binding and immunomodulatory functions. In poultry, ovotransferrin levels increase in response to inflammation or infection, but little is known about responses in wild bird species. 2. We present a simple assay for the determination of ovotransferrin-like activity in the plasma of wild birds. The assay uses very small sample volumes, works with previously frozen plasma, is inexpensive to run, and requires only standard laboratory equipment and a spectrophotometer. Importantly, the assay does not require species-specific antibodies, making it applicable to a wide variety of species and particularly useful in comparative studies of immune function. 3. We detected significant variation in ovotransferrin concentrations among 22 bird species. Ovotransferrin concentrations were significantly repeatable among individuals, and concentrations increased significantly in response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge. 4. Within but not among species, concentrations of ovotransferrin were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of haptoglobin, another acute-phase protein that also binds iron. Differences in concentrations of acute-phase proteins might reflect broader differences in immune strategies and responses to infection. Measuring ovotransferrin in addition to haptoglobin therefore provides fresh insights into differences in immunological defences among populations and species. 5. This assay will serve as a useful addition to the existing arsenal of field-friendly assays that have been developed for addressing questions in ecological immunology. 5. This assay will serve as a useful addition to the existing arsenal of field-friendly assays that have been developed for addressing questions in ecological immunology.
Effect of nutrient deficiencies on in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Plasmodium falciparum infection
Mbugi, E.V. ; Meijerink, M. ; Veenemans, J. ; Jeurink, P.V. ; McCall, M. ; Olomi, R.M. ; Shao, J.F. ; Chilongola, J. ; Verhoef, H. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. - \ 2010
Malaria Journal 9 (2010). - ISSN 1475-2875 - 15 p.
rapid diagnostic-test - serum-free medium - zinc-deficiency - immune function - t-cells - malaria - iron - children - system - supplementation
Background - An appropriate balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that mediate innate and adaptive immune responses is required for effective protection against human malaria and to avoid immunopathology. In malaria endemic countries, this immunological balance may be influenced by micronutrient deficiencies. Methods - Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Tanzanian preschool children were stimulated in vitro with Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells to determine T-cell responses to malaria under different conditions of nutrient deficiencies and malaria status. Results - The data obtained indicate that zinc deficiency is associated with an increase in TNF response by 37%; 95% CI: 14% to 118% and IFN-¿ response by 74%; 95% CI: 24% to 297%. Magnesium deficiency, on the other hand, was associated with an increase in production of IL-13 by 80%; 95% CI: 31% to 371% and a reduction in IFN-¿ production. These results reflect a shift in cytokine profile to a more type I cytokine profile and cell-cell mediated responses in zinc deficiency and a type II response in magnesium deficiency. The data also reveal a non-specific decrease in cytokine production in children due to iron deficiency anaemia that is largely associated with malaria infection status. Conclusions - The pathological sequels of malaria potentially depend more on the balance between type I and type II cytokine responses than on absolute suppression of these cytokines and this balance may be influenced by a combination of micronutrient deficiencies and malaria status
Effects of vitamin E supplementation on and the association of body condition score with changes in peroxidative biomarkers and antioxidants around calving in dairy heifers
Dobbelaar, P. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Goselink, R.M.A. ; Jorritsma, R. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Jansen, E.H.J.M. - \ 2010
Journal of Dairy Science 93 (2010)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3103 - 3113.
oxidative stress - periparturient period - in-vitro - superoxide-dismutase - metabolic syndrome - follicular-fluid - immune function - oxidant stress - fatty-acids - milk-yield
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative status in blood, liver, milk, and ovarian follicular fluid in periparturient heifers. Vitamin E supplementation started 8 wk before calving and continued until 8 wk postpartum. Grass silage was the main forage fed during the experiment. In addition, supplemented heifers (n = 9) received 3,000 IU of vitamin E daily on a carrier food; control heifers (n = 9) consumed only the carrier food. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken frequently throughout the study and ovarian follicular fluid was sampled at 8 wk postpartum. Body condition score was scored weekly and milk yield was measured daily. A marker of oxidative damage, determinable reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM), and a set of antioxidants were measured in blood, liver, milk, and ovarian follicular fluid. Control heifers had a low vitamin E status, and selenium status was marginal in control and supplemented heifers. Vitamin E supplementation increased vitamin E concentrations in blood, liver, and ovarian follicular fluid and increased triacylglycerol in liver. Serum d-ROM were not reduced by vitamin E supplementation. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in red blood cells and liver and glutathione peroxidase activity in ovarian follicular fluid were not affected by vitamin E supplementation and they were not increased around calving. Protein thiol groups and ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione were also not increased around calving. These results suggest that heifers around calving experience a low level of oxidative processes. This might be caused by lower than expected milk production attributed to a low forage intake. Serum d-ROM were negatively correlated with protein thiol groups and positively correlated with the activity of glutathione peroxidase in red blood cells, oxidized glutathione, and the ratio of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione in serum. The lack of treatment effects allowed estimation of the effects of body condition 4 wk before calving and the loss of body condition on markers of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. A trend that a body condition of =3 might result in more oxidative damage measured by serum d-ROM was observed, but fatter heifers had a significantly higher ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione
Immunomodulation by food: promising concept for mitigating allergic disease?
Wichers, H.J. - \ 2009
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395 (2009)1. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 37 - 45.
placebo-controlled trial - functional foods - immune function - beta-glucan - aureobasidium-pullulans - flammulina-velutipes - cytokine production - dietary modulation - metabolic syndrome - mononuclear-cells
The importance of a properly functioning and well-balanced immune system for maintaining health has become strikingly evident over the past decades. Roughly since World War II, there has been an apparent decrease in the prevalence of “traditional” infectious diseases, with a concomitant increase in immune-related disorders, such as allergies. Causally, a relationship with changes in life-style-related factors such as the increasing use of hygienic practices seems likely. Diet and nutrition can affect the functioning of various immune parameters. This concept can be utilised in attempts to prevent or mitigate allergic reactions via the development of targeted food products or ingredients. This review describes recent findings with respect to food products and ingredients that show potential in this respect, with special emphasis on pro- and prebiotics, ß-glucans and fungal immunomodulatory proteins. What all of these approaches have in common is that they appear to strengthen Th1-mediated immunity, thus possibly restoring defective immune maturation due to overly hygienic living conditions: a little bit of dirt does not seem bad!
Supplementation of healthy volunteers with nutritionally relevant amounts of selenium increases the expression of lymphocyte protein biosynthesis genes
Pagmantidis, V. ; Méplan, C. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. ; Hesketh, J.E. - \ 2008
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (2008)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 181 - 189.
cytosolic glutathione-peroxidase - risk chinese population - messenger-rna stability - microarray data - selenophosphate synthetase - selenocysteine insertion - selenoprotein synthesis - cancer prevention - esophageal mucosa - immune function
Background: Selenium is incorporated into 25 selenoproteins in humans. Low dietary selenium has deleterious effects on health and may result in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immune dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Lymphocytes are a target tissue; they can be assessed in healthy persons, and their response has not been explored by using global gene expression profiling techniques. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the overall effect of selenium supplementation within a normal physiological range on the pattern of lymphocyte gene expression and to identify downstream processes affected by selenium intake. Design: Gene expression was assessed in lymphocytes isolated from 39 healthy persons before and after a 6-wk supplementation with 100 eta g Se/d as sodium selenite. Presupplementation and postsupplementation RNA samples from 16 subjects were chosen at random for microarray analysis. Differential gene expression was analyzed by using individual labeling and hybridization with human whole-genome microarrays. Array data were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The study subjects had an average 19% increase in plasma selenium concentration, which was within a normal range. Fold changes in gene expression were small, but data analysis using biological process identification showed that selenium predominantly affected the genes that encode proteins functioning in protein biosynthesis. Gene expression changes were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 3 representative target genes (RPL37A, RPL30, and EEF1E1). Conclusions: Ribosomal protein and translation factor genes were up-regulated in response to increased selenium intake. We hypothesize that this up-regulation is linked to increased selenoprotein production and enhanced lymphocyte function.
The case for strategic international alliances to harness nutritional genomics for public and personal health
Kaput, J. ; Ordovas, J.M. ; Ferguson, L. ; Ommen, B. van; Müller, M.R. - \ 2005
The British journal of nutrition 94 (2005)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 623 - 632.
diabetes-related traits - coronary-heart-disease - genetic association - population stratification - carbohydrate ingestion - complex diseases - immune function - hapmap project - messenger-rna - dietary fiber
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene-nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient-genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries