Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8301 - 8306.
logistic recovery model - systematic review - metaanalysis - impacts - trawling
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after trawling. Depletion of biota and trawl penetration into the seabed are highly correlated. Otter trawls caused the least depletion, removing 6% of biota per pass and penetrating the seabed on average down to 2.4 cm, whereas hydraulic dredges caused the most depletion, removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed on average 16.1 cm. Median recovery times posttrawling (from 50 to 95% of unimpacted biomass) ranged between 1.9 and 6.4 y. By accounting for the effects of penetration depth, environmental variation, and uncertainty, the models explained much of the variability of depletion and recovery estimates from single studies. Coupled with
large-scale, high-resolution maps of trawling frequency and habitat, our estimates of depletion and recovery rates enable the assessment of trawling impacts on unprecedented spatial scales.
How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment?
Biber, P. ; Borges, J.G. ; Moshammer, R. ; Barreiro, S. ; Botequim, B. ; Brodrechtová, Y. ; Brukas, V. ; Chirici, G. ; Cordero-Debets, R. ; Corrigan, E. ; Eriksson, L.O. ; Favero, M. ; Galev, E. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kavaliauskas, M. ; Marchetti, M. ; Marques, S. ; Mozgeris, G. ; Navrátil, R. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Orazio, C. ; Paligorov, I. ; Pettenella, D. ; Sedmák, R. ; Smrecek, R. ; Stanislovaitis, A. ; Tomé, M. ; Trubins, R. ; Tucek, J. ; Vizzarri, M. ; Wallin, I. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Sallnäs, O. - \ 2015
Forests 6 (2015)5. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1666 - 1695.
scenario analysis - simulator silva - climate-change - management - growth - tree - impacts - regions - yield - stand
While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.
Sectorial Water Use Trends in the Urbanizing Pearl River Delta, China
Yao, M. ; Werners, S.E. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Kabat, P. ; Huang, H.Q. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 20 p.
south china - climate-change - demand model - availability - drainage - impacts - streams - system - growth
Assessing and managing water use is crucial for supporting sustainable river basin management and regional development. The first consistent and comprehensive assessment of sectorial water use in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is presented by analysing homogenized annual water use data from 2000 to 2010 in relation to socio economic statistics for the same period. An abstraction of water use, using the concept of water use intensity, and based on equations inspired by those used in global water resource models, is developed to explore the driving forces underlying water use changes in domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. We do this at both the level of the region as a whole, as well as for the nine cities that constitute the PRD separately. We find that, despite strong population and economic growth, the PRD managed to stabilize its absolute water use by significant improvements in industrial water use intensities, and early stabilisation of domestic water use intensities. Results reveal large internal differentiation of sectorial water use among the cities in this region, with industrial water use intensity varying from -80 to +95% and domestic water use intensity by +/- 30% compared to the PRD average. In general, per capita water use is highest in the cities that industrialised first. Yet, all cities except Guangzhou are expected to approach a saturation value of per capita water use much below what is suggested in recent global studies. Therefore, existing global assessments probably have overestimated future domestic water use in developing countries. Although scarce and uncertain input data and model limitations lead to a high level of uncertainty, the presented conceptualization of water use is useful in exploring the underlying driving forces of water use trends.
Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system
Chen, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; dikgwatlhe, S.B. ; Xue, J. ; Qiu, K. ; Tang, H. ; Chen, F. - \ 2015
Journal of Integrative Agriculture 14 (2015)8. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 1551 - 1560.
no-tillage - organic-matter - conservation tillage - climate-change - sequestration - impacts - agriculture - phosphorus - nitrogen
The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and residue management on distribution, storage and stratification of SOC, and the yield of rice under double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in the southern China. A tillage experiment was conducted in the southern China during 2005-2011, including plow tillage with residue removed (PT0), plow tillage with residue retention (PT), rotary tillage with residue retention (RT), and no-till with residue retention on the surface (NT). The soil samples were obtained at the harvesting of late rice in October of 2005, 2007 and 2011. Multiple-year residue return application significantly increased rice yields for the two rice-cropping systems; yields of early and late rice were higher under RT than those under other tillage systems in both years in 2011. Compared with PT0, SOC stocks were increased in soil under NT at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths by 33.8, 4.1, 6.6, and 53.3%, respectively, in 2011. SOC stocks under RT were higher than these under other tillage treatments at 0-30 cm depth. SOC stocks in soil under PT were higher than those under PT0 in the 0-5 and 20-30 cm soil layers. Therefore, crop residues played an important role in SOC management, and improvement of soil quality. In the 0-20 cm layer, the stratification ratio (SR) of SOC followed the order NT>RT>PT>PT0; when the 0-30 cm layer was considered, NT also had the highest SR of SOC, but the SR of SOC under PT was higher than that under RT with a multiple-year tillage practice. Therefore, the notion that conservation tillage lead to higher SOC stocks and soil quality than plowed systems requires cautious scrutiny. Nevertheless, some benefits associated with RT system present a greater potential for its adoption in view of the multiple-year environmental sustainability under double rice cropping system in the southern China.
Identifying marine pelagic ecoystem management objectives and indicators
Trenkel, V.M. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Farnsworth, K. ; Olesen, C. ; Reid, D. ; Rindorf, A. ; Shephard, S. ; Dickey-Collas, M. - \ 2015
Marine Policy 55 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 23 - 32.
north-sea - fisheries management - celtic sea - continental-shelf - functional-groups - fish communities - forage fish - atlantic - seabirds - impacts
International policy frameworks such as the Common Fisheries Policy and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive define high-level strategic goals for marine ecosystems. Strategic goals are addressed via general and operational management objectives. To add credibility and legitimacy to the development of objectives, for this study stakeholders explored intermediate level ecological, economic and social management objectives for Northeast Atlantic pelagic ecosystems. Stakeholder workshops were undertaken with participants being free to identify objectives based on their own insights and needs. Overall 26 objectives were proposed, with 58% agreement in proposed objectives between two workshops. Based on published evidence for pressure-state links, examples of operational objectives and suitable indicators for each of the 26 objectives were then selected. It is argued that given the strong species-specific links of pelagic species with the environment and the large geographic scale of their life cycles, which contrast to demersal systems, pelagic indicators are needed at the level of species (or stocks) independent of legislative region. Pelagic community indicators may be set at regional scale in some cases. In the evidence-based approach used in this study, the selection of species or region specific operational objectives and indicators was based on demonstrated pressure-state links. Hence observed changes in indicators can reliably inform on appropriate management measures.
Offshore wind park monitoring programmes, lessons learned and recommendations for the future
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Degraer, S. ; Dannheim, J. ; Gill, A.B. ; Wilhelmsson, D. - \ 2015
Hydrobiologia 756 (2015)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 169 - 180.
renewable energy development - north-sea - communities - impacts - benthos - farms - power - biodiversity - assemblages - management
Over a decade of monitoring offshore wind park environmental impact triggered a reflection on the overall objectives and how to best continue with the monitoring programmes. Essentially, basic monitoring has to be rationalised at the level of the likelihood of impact detection, the meaningfulness of impact size and representativeness of the findings. Targeted monitoring is crucial and should continue to be applied to disentangle processes behind observed impacts, for instance the overarching artificial reef effect caused by wind parks. The major challenge, however, remains to achieve a reliable assessment of the cumulative impacts. A continuous international consultation and collaboration with marine scientists, managers, government officials and industry will be needed to ensure an optimisation of the future monitoring programmes.
Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action
Aschemann-Witzel, J. ; Hooge, I.E. de; Amani, P. ; Bech-Larsen, T. ; Oostindjer, M. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015). - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 6457 - 6477.
climate-change - behavior - consumption - households - separation - emissions - knowledge - attitude - impacts - system
In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.
Creating a safe operating space for iconic ecosystems
Scheffer, M. ; Barrett, S. ; Carpenter, S.R. ; Folke, C. ; Green, A.J. ; Holmgren, M. ; Hughes, T.P. ; Kosten, S. ; Leemput, I.A. van de; Nepstad, D.C. ; Nes, E.H. van; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Walker, B. - \ 2015
Science 347 (2015)6228. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1317 - 1319.
climate-change - coral-reefs - deforestation - resilience - impacts - amazon - shifts - fire
Although some ecosystem responses to climate change are gradual, many ecosystems react in highly nonlinear ways. They show little response until a threshold or tipping point is reached where even a small perturbation may trigger collapse into a state from which recovery is difficult (1). Increasing evidence shows that the critical climate level for such collapse may be altered by conditions that can be managed locally. These synergies between local stressors and climate change provide potential opportunities for proactive management. Although their clarity and scale make such local approaches more conducive to action than global greenhouse gas management, crises in iconic UNESCO World Heritage sites illustrate that such stewardship is at risk of failing.
Stakeholder integrated research (STIR): a new approach tested in climate change adaptation research
Gramberger, M. ; Zellmer, K. ; Kok, K. ; Metzger, M.J. - \ 2015
Climatic Change 128 (2015)3-4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 201 - 214.
policy - engagement - knowledge - impacts - science
Ensuring active participation of stakeholders in scientific projects faces many challenges. These range from adequately selecting stakeholders, overcoming stakeholder fatigue, and dealing with the limited time available for stakeholder engagement, to interacting with, and integrating, the research itself. At the same time, stakeholder participation is seen as a key component in developing research results that are conclusive to political and societal decision-making, and conducive to practical application. This article puts forward the Stakeholder Integrated Research (STIR) approach, designed to address these challenges by proving a structured method for stakeholder engagement in research. An assessment of the stakeholder engagement process within the CLIMSAVE project, including evaluations by participating stakeholders, is used to illustrate the STIR approach, highlighting its value for improving stakeholder involvement within two case studies of a highly complex climate change adaptation project. In comparison to other approaches, STIR directly addresses major stakeholder engagement challenges and simultaneously covers new ground to provide an encompassing and structured approach for integrating stakeholder engagement in research. Further attention needs to be given to involving stakeholder in project set-up and over the course of multiple years, as well as to improving stakeholder-science data translation.
Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth: Many models are better than one
Martre, P. ; Wallach, D. ; Asseng, S. ; Ewert, F. ; Jones, J.W. ; Rötter, R.P. ; Boote, K.J. ; Ruane, A.C. ; Thorburn, P. ; Cammarano, D. ; Hatfield, J.L. ; Rosenzweig, C. ; Aggarwal, P.K. ; Angula, C. ; Basso, B. ; Bertuzzi, P. ; Biernath, C. ; Brisson, N. ; Challinor, A. ; Doltra, J. ; Gayler, S. ; Goldberg, R.A. ; Grant, R.F. ; Heng, L. ; Hooker, J. ; Hunt, L.A. ; Ingwersen, J. ; Izaurralde, C. ; Kersebaum, K.C. ; Mueller, C. ; Kumar, S. ; Nendel, C. ; O'Leary, G.J. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Osborne, T.M. ; Palosuo, T. ; Priesack, E. ; Ripoche, D. ; Semenov, M.A. ; Shcherbak, I. ; Steduto, P. ; Stöckle, C.O. ; Stratonovitch, P. ; Streck, T. ; Supit, I. ; Tao, Fulu ; Travasso, M. ; Waha, K. ; White, J.W. ; Wolf, J. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 911 - 925.
climate-change - crop production - impacts - yield - simulations - calibration - australia - billion - europe - grain
Crop models of crop growth are increasingly used to quantify the impact of global changes due to climate or crop management. Therefore, accuracy of simulation results is a major concern. Studies with ensembles of crop models can give valuable information about model accuracy and uncertainty, but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24-38% for the different end-of-season variables including grain yield (GY) and grain protein concentration (GPC). There was little relation between error of a model for GY or GPC and error for in-season variables. Thus, most models did not arrive at accurate simulations of GY and GPC by accurately simulating preceding growth dynamics. Ensemble simulations, taking either the mean (e-mean) or median (e-median) of simulated values, gave better estimates than any individual model when all variables were considered. Compared to individual models, e-median ranked first in simulating measured GY and third in GPC. The error of e-mean and e-median declined with an increasing number of ensemble members, with little decrease beyond 10 models. We conclude that multimodel ensembles can be used to create new estimators with improved accuracy and consistency in simulating growth dynamics. We argue that these results are applicable to other crop species, and hypothesize that they apply more generally to ecological system models.
Dark green electricity comes from the sea: Capitalizing on ecological merits of offshore wind power?
Toonen, H.M. ; Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2015
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42 (2015). - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 1023 - 1033.
sustainable fisheries - energy - policy - farms - governance - management - strategies - responses - impacts - germany
European consumers are willing to pay more for “green” electricity, as they highly value renewable energy sources for the contribution to combating climate change. There is a push for getting higher levels of sustainability, leading to a differentiation of Europe‘s electricity market. In this differentiation, the large potential of wind energy is recognized. More specifically, North Sea countries prefer to plan wind arrays (far) out at sea. This article offers a review of the main arguments for offshore wind energy, described in comparison with its onshore counterpart. It is stated that offshore wind farms (OWFs) generate “dark green” electricity as they mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the protection of (some) marine life. Applying an informational governance framework, this article further assesses whether this dark green message has been exploited through further differentiation of the electricity market, and provides an analysis of why this is not (yet) the case. It is concluded that the dominant discourse in onshore wind power development hinders a favorable ecological differentiation toward offshore wind power.
Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles
Koelmans, A.A. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Velzeboer, I. - \ 2015
Environmental Pollution 196 (2015). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 171 - 175.
engineered nanomaterials - tio2 nanoparticles - fate models - aggregation - environment - sediment - exposure - heteroaggregation - impacts - release
For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hydraulic loadings covered the widest possible range among existing lakes. Sedimentation accounted for natural colloid as well as suspended solid settling regimes. An ENP-specific mixed sedimentation regime is proposed. This regime combines ENP sedimentation through slow settling with natural colloids from the water column, with faster settling with suspended solids from a selected part of the water column. Although sedimentation data and hydrodynamic concepts as such were not new, their first time combination for application to ENPs shows in which cases lake retention is important for these particles. In combination with ENP emission data, lake retention translates directly into potential risks of ENPs for lake benthic communities.
Integrating ecosystem services and climate change responses in coastal wetlands development plans for Bangladesh
Sarwar, M.H. ; Hein, L.G. ; Rip, F.I. ; Dearing, J.A. - \ 2015
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20 (2015)2. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 241 - 261.
adaptation - impacts - vulnerability - management - framework - mexico - system - basin
This study explores the integration of ecosystem services and climate change adaptation in development plans for coastal wetlands in Bangladesh. A new response framework for adaptation is proposed, based on an empirical analysis and consultations with stakeholders, using a modified version of the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) framework. The framework is tested in the Narail district of Bangladesh, where temperature has increased by about 1 °C in the summer in combination with an increase in rainfall of 0.70 mm day-1 yr-1 in the last decade. Calibrated model (MAGICC/SENGEN) projections forecast, on average, a temperature increase of up to 5 °C and an increase in rainfall of 25 % by the end of this century. Water diversion in the upstream regions of the Ganges River delta contributes to increase water scarcity in the dry season. Enhanced rainfall and the immense pressure of water discharges from upstream water sources are increasing the risk of floods and river erosion in the dry season. An increase in the water holding capacity of rivers, wetlands and canals by dredging is urgently required. The empirical model of this study is intended to support adaptation planning and monitoring in Bangladesh and can be used in other data-poor areas which will suffer from climate change.
Punishment and compliance: Exploring scenarios to improve the legitimacy of small-scale fisheries management rules on the Brazilian coast
Karper, M.A.M. ; Lopes, P.P.M. - \ 2014
Marine Policy 44 (2014). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 457 - 464.
marine protected areas - resource-management - crime - enforcement - regulations - impacts - ocean - age
This study investigated the effects of legal and societal punishment on fishermen's compliance behaviour, according to fishermen's age and level of dependency on fisheries, through the use of interviews and scenarios. Ninety-five fishermen living in a coastal park (Ponta do Tubardo Sustainable Development Reserve) in the Brazilian northeast, where controlled exploitation of natural resources is allowed, took part in this study. The results showed that age alone would not affect compliance, regardless of the level of enforcement. However, it was noticed that the fishermen who claimed to depend on the money provided by fisheries, regardless of their age, were more likely to say that they would not comply, even if enforcement were stricter. The scenario analysis showed that increased monitoring and punishment (including societal pressure) could enhance compliance, especially among younger fishermen, who claimed not to depend solely on fisheries. Therefore, fisheries management should also consider differences in social groups, and not focus solely on the enforcement and punishment mechanisms, assuring that livelihood options that consider different social needs are provided. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natural disasters and economic growth: A meta-analysis
Klomp, J.G. ; Valckx, K. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 26 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 183 - 195.
climate-change - civil conflict - consequences - impacts - matter - bias
Using more than 750 estimates, we perform a meta-regression analysis of studies examining the relationship between economic growth per capita and natural disasters. The studies considered are very different with respect to the type of disasters considered, the sample of countries and time periods covered, model specification, estimators used and publication outlet. After extensive testing of our results, we conclude that there exists a negative genuine effect of natural disasters on economic growth which is increasing over the period of our analysis. Still, the magnitude differs across disasters included and country sample used. In particular, it turns out that climatic disasters in developing countries have the most significant adverse impact on economic growth. However, we also find some evidence that a part of the negative impact of natural disasters found in these studies is caused by a publication bias. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Interacting Regional-Scale Regime Shifts for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Leadley, P. ; Proenca, V. ; Fernandez-Manjarres, J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Biggs, R. ; Bruley, E. ; Cheung, W. ; Cooper, D. ; Figueiredo, J. ; Gilman, E. ; Guenette, S. ; Hurtt, G. ; Mbow, C. ; Oberdorff, T. ; Revenga, C. ; Scharlemann, J.P.W. ; Scholes, R. ; Smith, M.S. ; Sumaila, U.R. ; Walpole, M. - \ 2014
Bioscience 64 (2014)8. - ISSN 0006-3568 - p. 665 - 679.
climate-change - marine biodiversity - ocean acidification - global fisheries - tipping points - amazon basin - land-use - impacts - deforestation - forests
Current trajectories of global change may lead to regime shifts at regional scales, driving coupled human-environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. For business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, regime shifts are projected to occur within the next several decades, to be difficult to reverse, and to have regional- to global-scale impacts on human society. We provide an overview of ecosystem, socioeconomic, and biophysical mechanisms mediating regime shifts and illustrate how these interact at regional scales by aggregation, synergy, and spreading processes. We give detailed examples of interactions for terrestrial ecosystems of central South America and for marine and coastal ecosystems of Southeast Asia. This analysis suggests that degradation of biodiversity and, ecosystem services over the twenty-first century could be far greater than was previously predicted. We identify key policy and management opportunities at regional to global scales to avoid these shifts.
Attribution of climate change, vegetation restoration, and engineering measures to the reduction of suspended sediment in the Kejie catchment, southwest China
Ma, X. ; Lu, X. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Li, J.T. ; Xu, J.C. - \ 2014
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18 (2014). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1979 - 1994.
upper yangtze-river - loess plateau - nonparametric-tests - water-quality - yellow-river - swat model - check dams - load - impacts - erosion
Suspended sediment transport in rivers is controlled by terrain, climate, and human activities. These variables affect hillslope and riverbank erosion at the source, transport velocities and sedimentation opportunities in the river channel, and trapping in reservoirs. The relative importance of those factors varies by context, but the specific attribution to sediment transfer is important for policymaking, and has wide implications on watershed management. In our research, we analyzed data from the Kejie watershed in the upper Salween River (Yunnan Province, China), where a combination of land cover change (reforestation, as well as soil and water conservation measures) and river channel engineering (sand mining and check dam construction) interact with a changing climate. Records (1971–2010) of river flow and suspended sediment loads were combined with five land-use maps from 1974, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2009. Average annual sediment yield decreased from 13.7 t ha-1 yr-1 to 8.3 t ha-1 yr-1 between the period 1971–1985 and the period 1986–2010. A distributed hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tools, SWAT) was set up to simulate the sediment sourcing and transport process. By recombining land-use and climate data for the two periods in model scenarios, the contribution of these two factors could be assessed with engineering effects derived from residual measured minus modeled transport. Overall, we found that 47.8% of the decrease was due to land-use and land cover change, 19.8% to climate change, resulting in a milder rainfall regime, 26.1% to watershed engineering measures, and the remaining 6.3% was due to the simulation percent bias. Moreover, mean annual suspended sediment yield decreased drastically with the increase of forest cover, making diverse forest cover one of the most effective ecosystems to control erosion. For consideration of stakeholders and policymakers, we also discuss at length the modeling uncertainty and implications for future soil and water conservation initiatives in China.
Contagious animal diseases: The science behind trade policies and standards (Personal View)
Boqvist, S. ; Dekker, A. ; Depner, K. ; Grace, D. ; Hueston, W. ; Stark, K.D.C. ; Sternberg Lewerin, S. - \ 2014
The Veterinary Journal 202 (2014)1. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 7 - 10.
pcr detection methods - swine-fever virus - mouth-disease - ring test - vaccination - transmission - products - drivers - impacts - trends
Editorial : Seeds and places: The geographies of transgenic crops in the global south
Dowd-Uribe, B. ; Glover, D. ; Schnurr, M.A. - \ 2014
Geoforum 53 (2014). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 145 - 148.
genetically-modified crops - food security - bio-hegemony - bt cotton - biotechnology - science - poor - argentina - dynamics - impacts
Multiple data sets and modelling choices in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups
Harst, E.J.M. van der; Potting, J. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 494-495 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 129 - 143.
life-cycle assessment - global warming contributions - environmental assessment - greenhouse gases - paper - system - pulp - management - impacts - options
This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as waste processing options, and for the PLA and biopaper cup also composting and anaerobic digestion. Multiple data sets and modelling choices were systematically used to calculate average results and the spread in results for each disposable cup in eleven impact categories. The LCA results of all combinations of data sets and modelling choices consistently identify three processes that dominate the environmental impact: (1) production of the cup's basic material (PS, PLA, biopaper), (2) cup manufacturing, and (3) waste processing. The large spread in results for impact categories strongly overlaps among the cups, however, and therefore does not allow a preference for one type of cup material. Comparison of the individual waste treatment options suggests some cautious preferences. The average waste treatment results indicate that recycling is the preferred option for PLA cups, followed by anaerobic digestion and incineration. Recycling is slightly preferred over incineration for the biopaper cups. There is no preferred waste treatment option for the PS cups. Taking into account the spread in waste treatment results for all cups, however, none of these preferences for waste processing options can be justified. The only exception is composting, which is least preferred for both PLA and biopaper cups. Our study illustrates that using multiple data sets and modelling choices can lead to considerable spread in LCA results. This makes comparing products more complex, but the outcomes more robust.