Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Introducing Adaptive Flood Risk Management in England, New Zealand, and the Netherlands : The Impact of Administrative Traditions
    Buuren, Arwin van; Lawrence, Judy ; Potter, Karen ; Warner, Jeroen F. - \ 2018
    Review of Policy Research 35 (2018)6. - ISSN 1541-132X - p. 907 - 929.
    adaptive flood risk management - administrative traditions - climate change adaptation - implementation - policy change

    Climate change adaptation creates significant challenges for decision makers in the flood risk-management policy domain. Given the complex characteristics of climate change, adaptive approaches (which can be adjusted as circumstances evolve) are deemed necessary to deal with a range of uncertainties around flood hazard and its impacts and associated risks. The question whether implementing adaptive approaches is successful highly depends upon how the administrative tradition of a country enable or hinder applying a more adaptive approach. In this article, we discern how the administrative tradition in the Netherlands, England, and New Zealand impact upon the introduction of adaptive flood risk management approaches. Using the concept of administrative traditions, we aim to explain the similarities and/or differences in how adaptive strategies are shaped and implemented in the three different state flood management regimes and furthermore, which aspects related to administrative traditions are enablers or barriers to innovation in these processes.

    Holy Grail or inflated expectations? The success and failure of integrated policy strategies
    Candel, Jeroen J.L. - \ 2017
    Policy Studies 38 (2017)6. - ISSN 0144-2872 - p. 519 - 552.
    implementation - integrated policy strategy - policy failure - Policy integration - policy outcome - policy success

    Governments and international organizations increasingly pursue the development of integrated policy strategies to govern persistent societal problems that crosscut the boundaries of traditional jurisdictions. In spite of the rising popularity of such integrated strategies, little is known about their effects. Although it is generally assumed that integrated strategies result in better outcomes, the evidence base to support this claim is sparse. This is not to say that no attempts to study the relationship between integrated strategies and policy outcomes have been undertaken at all; this paper presents a research synthesis of the fragmented evidence base. Eligible studies are interpreted and discussed by using a heuristic that distinguishes between programmatic and political success and failure. Apart from synthesizing the impacts that integrated strategies have had, the paper reflects on associated explanatory conditions and methodological approaches that have been used. The review almost exclusively finds reports of failure and constraining conditions. At the same time, methodological approaches are found to be largely unconvincing and considerable research gaps remain. The paper, therefore, ends with a nuanced answer to the question of whether integrated strategies are worth pursuing and sets out various avenues for further research.

    An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development
    Seijger, C. ; Douven, W. ; Halsema, G. van; Hermans, L. ; Evers, J. ; Phi, H.L. ; Khan, M.F. ; Brunner, J. ; Pols, L. ; Ligtvoet, W. ; Koole, S. ; Slager, K. ; Vermoolen, M.S. ; Hasan, S. ; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo - \ 2017
    Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60 (2017)8. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1485 - 1509.
    actor coalitions - implementation - innovations - participatory planning tools - Strategic delta planning
    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to actions and means for implementation in the short-term, in line with long-term strategic choices. This paper introduces an analytical framework that focuses on the role of actors, innovative solutions and participatory planning tools in negotiating consent for the strategic choices in a delta plan and its implementation. Cases of Bangladesh, the Netherlands and Vietnam are discussed as a plausibility probe to explore the framework's potential. The probe reveals that the framework is promising to explain the process and outcomes of strategic delta planning in urbanizing deltas. The paper ends with an initial research agenda to stimulate research and discussion on this new delta planning approach.
    New Practices of Farm-Based Community-Oriented Social Care Services in The Netherlands
    Hassink, Jan ; Grin, John ; Hulsink, Willem - \ 2015
    Journal of Social Service Research 41 (2015)1. - ISSN 0148-8376 - p. 49 - 63.
    boundary spanning - care farming - community-oriented services - cross-sector collaboration - implementation

    Social care services provided by farmers provide a community-based collaboration that can empower people and improve their quality of life. The objective of this study was to increase understanding of the collaboration between care organizations and farmers. The study involves 4 cases, and all stakeholders involved in the collaboration were interviewed using boundary spanning and the quest of innovative practices for legitimacy as sensitizing concepts. In this study, 2 types of boundary spanners were identified: initiators of collaboration and top-level managers. Successful collaboration expressed by structural implementation of farm-based services in the care organization and the positive reactions of clients, care organizations, and farmers is initiated by committed and strategically operating boundary spanners with different backgrounds. Support from top-level management of the care organizations involved is crucial for overall success. Future research needs to focus on collaboration with other types of newcomers in the care sector, the impact of budget cuts in the social and care domains, and the increasing pressure on participation of service users in society in collaboration processes.

    Current performance of food safety management systems of dairy processing companies in Tanzania
    Kussaga, J.B. ; Luning, P.A. ; Tisekwa, B.P.M. ; Jacxsens, L. - \ 2015
    International Journal of Dairy Technology 68 (2015)2. - ISSN 1364-727X - p. 227 - 252.
    microbiological quality - raw-milk - pasteurized milk - developing-country - burkina-faso - bamako mali - haccp - industry - plants - implementation
    food safety management system (FSMS)-diagnostic instrument was applied in 22 dairy processing companies to analyse the set-up and operation of core control and assurance activities in view of the risk characteristics of the systems' context. Three clusters of companies were identified differing in levels of set-up and operation of this FSMS and system outputs, but all operated in a similar moderate-risk context. Microbiological assessment of products, environmental and hand samples indicated a poor to moderate food safety level. A two stage intervention approach has been proposed to enable commitment and sustainable improvement for the longer term.
    Factors affecting the status of food safety management systems in the global fresh produce chain
    Kirezieva, K.K. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Allende, A. ; Johannessen, G.S. ; Tondo, E.C. ; Rajkovicb, A. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Boekel, T. van - \ 2015
    Food Control 52 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 85 - 97.
    developing-countries - private standards - o104h4 outbreak - performance - quality - challenges - vegetables - industry - implementation - exports
    Increase in global trade raised questions regarding status of food safety management systems in fresh produce companies, especially from developing and emerging countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of food safety management systems (FSMSs) implemented at primary production companies of fresh produce, to examine the potential differences between companies operating in European Union (EU) and non-EU (developing and emerging) countries, and to explore the underlying factors. Primary production companies (n = 118), located in the EU and in international cooperation partner countries exporting to the EU, were assessed by using a diagnostic tool. The results from the study indicated that several factors have a dominating effect on the status of FSMSs in the global fresh produce chain. International export supply chains promote capacity building within companies in the chain, to answer the stringent requirements of private brand standards. This was shown to be an important factor in emerging and developing countries, where local institutional environments often fail to support companies in setting and implementing their FSMSs. Moreover, the legislative framework in these countries still requires improvements in the establishment and enforcement. All this has negative consequences for the FSMSs in companies supplying the local markets. In companies located in the EU, sector and other produce organisations facilitate the sampling for pesticide residues and collaboration in the sector. Overall, farmers showed less knowledge and overall awareness regarding microbiological hazards, which is related to the less attention paid to these in the current legislation and standards. Furthermore, standards are an important tool to trigger the maturation of the systems as companies that were lacking any pressure to comply to standards operated at a very basic level - with only few activities implemented. The insights from this study indicate the need of stratified measures and policies to support companies in the fresh produce chain in designing and operating their FSMSs according to the institutional environment in which they operate.
    Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production
    Zheng, C. ; Liu, Y. ; Bluemling, B. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Chen, J. - \ 2015
    Science of the Total Environment 502 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 149 - 156.
    spatial models - phosphorus - innovation - implementation - modernization - agriculture - simulation - diffusion
    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.
    The construction of legitimacy in European nature policy: expertise and participation in the service of cost-effectiveness
    Turnhout, E. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Ferranti, F. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2015
    Environmental Politics 24 (2015)3. - ISSN 0964-4016 - p. 461 - 480.
    environmental-policy - ecosystem services - democratic legitimacy - conservation policy - governance - implementation - network - netherlands - science - union
    In environmental governance, the European Union draws on norms of effectiveness, decentralisation, and participation to ensure that its policies and regulations are considered legitimate. This article analyses how the construction of legitimacy in European nature policy has changed over time. Although the norms of participation and decentralisation are increasingly evoked to address the needs of stakeholders and member states in the implementation and financing of Natura 2000, the norm of effectiveness continues to dominate the construction of legitimacy. Effectiveness first acquired its meaning in the context of a science-based approach to Natura 2000 to emphasise the importance of achieving its conservation objectives. More recently, it has become increasingly re-articulated as cost-effectiveness, which reflects a growing influence of neoliberal discourse. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for the legitimacy of European environmental governance.
    Adapting an effective lifestyle intervention towards individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins: the design of the MetSLIM study
    Teuscher, D. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Meershoek, A. ; Renes, R.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Baak, M.A. van - \ 2015
    BMC Public Health 15 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 10 p.
    tolerance maastricht slim - to-height ratio - glucose-tolerance - risk-factors - cardiovascular-disease - physical-activity - health-promotion - screening tool - implementation - prevalence
    Background People with low socioeconomic status (SES) and some ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in lifestyle programmes. Therefore, a lifestyle programme was developed especially targeting these groups. Developing this lifestyle programme and designing an intervention study to test the effectiveness of this programme was an informative process in which several obstacles were encountered and choices had to be made. Study protocols, however, rarely describe these obstacles encountered in the protocol design process, and it is not always clear why researchers made certain choices. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe both the final MetSLIM study protocol and the considerations and choices made in designing this study protocol. Methods/Design The developed MetSLIM study has a quasi-experimental design, targeting 30- to 70-year-old adults with an elevated waist circumference, living in deprived neighbourhoods, of Dutch, Turkish or Moroccan descent. The intervention group participates in a 12-month lifestyle programme consisting of individual dietary advice, four group sessions and weekly sports lessons. The control group receives written information about a healthy lifestyle and one group session provided by a dietician. The study contains an elaborate effect, process and economic evaluation. Outcome measures are, among other things, change in waist circumference and the other components of the metabolic syndrome. Discussion Matching the preferences of the target group, such as their preferred setting, has implications for the entire study protocol. The process evaluation of the MetSLIM study will provide insight into the consequences of the choices made in the MetSLIM study protocol in terms of reach, acceptability and delivery of the programme, and the effect and economic evaluation will provide insight into the (cost)effectiveness of the lifestyle programme in order to reduce waist circumference among individuals with low SES of different ethnic origins.
    Regional restrictions on environmental impact assessment approval in China: the legitimacy of environmental authoritarianism
    Zhu, X. ; Zhang, L. ; Ran, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 100 - 108.
    public-participation - politics - implementation - management - democracy - power - law
    The poor enforcement and effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) on construction and investment projects in China has long been blamed for not preventing environmental pollution and degradation. At the same time, freezing EIA approval of all new projects in an administrative region, introduced in 2006 as a punishment for failing to meet regional environmental quality targets, has been regarded as an innovative administrative instrument used by higher level environmental authorities on local governments. But it also raised controversies. Applying an environmental authoritarianism perspective, this study analyzed the legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of freezing EIA approval procedures by reviewing all 25 national cases and 12 provincial cases of so-called EIA Restrictions Targeting Regions between 1 December 2006 and 31 December 2013. The results show that such an environmental authoritarian measure is to some extent environmentally effective but lacks legality and transparency towards and participation of third parties, and hence falls short in legitimacy. Legal foundations and wider third party participation are essential for the long term effectiveness of this policy and its transfer to other countries.
    The EU legal framework for the management of marine complex social–ecological systems
    Bigagli, E. - \ 2015
    Marine Policy 54 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 44 - 51.
    ecosystem-based management - adaptive management - implementation - resilience - dynamics - insights - strategy - europe - seas
    This paper evaluates the European Union (EU) legal framework for the management of marine complex, adaptive systems. The entire EU legal framework, consisting of 12421 Directives, Regulations and Decisions, is reviewed against a framework of reference, grounded on the theoretical approaches of Adaptive Management and Transition Management. According to this framework, marine complex systems management should: (1) be calibrated at the scale of social–ecological systems; (2) aim to achieve or maintain their ecological resilience; and (3) implement iterative, learning-based management strategies, supported by periodical assessments and monitoring. The results show that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the implementation of a complex systems approach to the management of EU marine social–ecological systems. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and prioritise complexity and ecological resilience over sectorial approaches.
    Forest Carbon Offsets Revisited: Shedding Light on Darkwoods
    Kooten, G.C. van; Bogle, T. ; Vries, F.P. de - \ 2015
    Forest Science 61 (2015)2. - ISSN 0015-749X - p. 370 - 380.
    land management - policy design - sequestration - emissions - redd - implementation - deforestation - framework - prospects - programs
    This paper investigates the viability of carbon offset credits created through forest conservation and preservation. A detailed forest management model based on a case study of a forest estate in southeastern British Columbia, owned by The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is used to demonstrate the challenging nature of estimating forest carbon offsets. For example, the NCC management plan creates substantial carbon offset credits because the counterfactual is that of a private forest liquidator, but when sustainable management of the site is assumed, the commercial operator would sequester much more carbon than under the NCC plan. The broader message is that the creation of carbon offsets is highly sensitive to ex ante assumptions and whether physical carbon is discounted. We demonstrate that more carbon gets stored in wood products as the discount rate on carbon rises (addressing climate change is more urgent). A high discount rate on carbon favors greater harvests and processing of biomass into products, while a low rate favors reduced harvest intensity. Further, since carbon credits earned by protecting forests may find their way onto world carbon markets, they lower the costs of emitting CO2 while contributing little to mitigating climate change.
    Assessing uncertainty associated with the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas
    Stelzenmueller, V. ; Fernandez, T.V. ; Cronin, K. ; Rockmann, C. ; Jak, R.G. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van - \ 2015
    Marine Policy 51 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 151 - 162.
    environmental assessment - north-sea - framework - science - implementation - indicators - quality - nusap
    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is advocated to support an ecosystem approach to marine management, as it allows consideration of multiple management objectives including marine conservation. The monitoring and evaluation of both implemented marine plans and the planning process itself is susceptible to various uncertainties. Here, uncertainties related to a stepwise monitoring and evaluation framework for spatially managed areas were characterised and quantified with the help of two modified and developed tools. In particular, Walker-type and pedigree matrices were utilised to assess both the sources and respective relative levels of uncertainty present in the assessment of nine European case studies that conducted a stepwise monitoring and evaluation process applying a common framework. Across the southern and northern European case studies major sources of uncertainty were found in relation to the knowledge base, management scenarios with related objectives and data availability. Although case studies made flexible use of the framework to account for the particularities of the local realms, the revealed pattern of associated uncertainty was highly consistent across the case studies. The scored pedigree matrices showed that the criteria ‘stakeholder engagement’ and ‘cross validation’ had greatest influence on the overall robustness of the case study assessments. The observed distribution of median pedigree scores was within acceptable ranges with respect to simulated possible score distributions. In addition, a sensitivity analysis revealed that the scoring of the pedigree criteria by five or more experts would result in less variable interquartile ranges of respective median scores. In conclusion, the developed complementary tools showed great flexibility in characterising and assessing uncertainty despite context-dependent differences among case studies such as geographical area, quality of available data, level of spatial management implementation or management objectives. Moreover, the obtained findings allow prioritising efforts and future research to support an iterative monitoring and evaluation of marine spatial plans.
    Delineating active citizenship: The subjectification of citizens' initiatives
    Dam, R.I. van; Duineveld, M. ; During, R. - \ 2015
    Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 17 (2015)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 163 - 179.
    big society - power - netherlands - governance - implementation - community - systems - policy - nimby
    Based on three case studies on citizens' initiatives in their local governance contexts, we analyse the process of subjectification as a performative effect of the dialectical relationship between governmental organizations and citizens' initiatives. We argue that discourses produced by governmental organizations on what it entails to be an active citizen have a performative effect on citizens' initiatives, which adapt themselves, anticipate on what is expected from them and act strategically towards these discourses. As a consequence, some people become ‘good’ citizens meeting the expectations of the governmental discourse. The process of subjectification shows that this not a unilateral act, but mutually activated by both governmental organizations and citizens' initiatives.
    On noice in data assimilation schemes for improved flood forecasting using distributed hydrological models
    Noh, S.J. ; Rakovec, O. ; Weerts, A.H. ; Tachikawa, Y. - \ 2014
    Journal of Hydrology 519 (2014)part D. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 2707 - 2721.
    sequential data assimilation - ensemble kalman filter - surface soil-moisture - probabilistic forecasts - river-basin - streamflow - water - uncertainty - states - implementation
    We investigate the effects of noise specification on the quality of hydrological forecasts via an advanced data assimilation (DA) procedure using a distributed hydrological model driven by numerical weather predictions. The sequential DA procedure is based on (1) a multivariate rainfall ensemble generator, which provides spatial and temporal correlation error structures of input forcing, and (2) lagged particle filtering to update past and current state variables simultaneously in a lag-time window to consider the response times of internal hydrologic processes. The procedure is evaluated for streamflow forecasting of three flood events in two fast-responding catchments in Japan (Maruyama and Katsura). The rainfall ensembles are derived from ground-based rain gauge observations for the analysis step and numerical weather predictions for the forecast step. The ensemble simulation performs multi-site updating using information from the streamflow gauging network and considers the artificial effects of reservoir release. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impacts of noise specification in DA, comparing a different setup of random state noise and input forcing with/without multivariate conditional simulation (MCS) of rainfall ensembles. The results show that lagged particle filtering (LPF) forced with MCS provides good performance with small and consistent random state noise, whereas LPF forced with Thiessen rainfall interpolation requires larger random state noise to yield performance comparable to that of LPF + MCS for short lead times.
    Natura 2000 and climate change—Polarisation, uncertainty, and pragmatism in discourses on forest conservation and management in Europe
    Koning, J. de; Winkel, G. ; Sotirov, M. ; Blondet, M. ; Borras, L. ; Ferranti, F. ; Geitzenauer, M. - \ 2014
    Environmental Science & Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 129 - 138.
    change impacts - policy - biodiversity - network - implementation - perspectives - experiences - countries - areas - trees
    European forests are a resource that is targeted by several EU environmental and land use policies as forests can be of critical importance to mitigate climate change. At the same time, they are central to the EU's biodiversity policy, and particular the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Yet, the interlinkage between climate change and biodiversity policy is complex and discursively contested. In this paper, we assess how the debate on climate change adaptation affects forest conservation and management under Natura 2000. Drawing on the concept of argumentative discourse analysis, we present evidence from 213 qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders and practitioners that were conducted at both the European policy level and the local country level in 6 EU member states. Our results demonstrate that the nexus between climate change adaptation and forest conservation policy is conceptualised differently by different stakeholders and practioners at different levels. Three major discourses can be made out (pragmatic discourse, dynamics discourse, threat discourse), which are characterised by a set of partially overlapping story lines. These discourses are employed by four discourse coalitions (environmental, forest users’, expert, and grass root coalition). As a general rule, debates at the European level are more polarised and politicised, while the local debates on climate change and Natura 2000 remain rather vague and are less polarised. This seems to indicate that the link between climate change adaptation and forest conservation is mostly an issue for an abstract high-level policy debate. At this level, climate change is used to influence well-known policies, and to legitimise distinct interests that were already present before the climate change debate has emerged.
    Community Monitoring of Carbon Stocks for REDD+: Does Accuracy and Cost Change over Time?
    Brofeldt, S. ; Theilade, I. ; Burgess, N.D. ; Danielsen, F. ; Poulsen, M.K. ; Adrian, T. ; Nguyen Bang, T. ; Budiman, A. ; Jensen, J. ; Jensen, A.E. ; Kurniawan, Y. ; Laegaard, S.B.L. ; Mingxu, Z. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Rahayu, S. ; Rutishauser, E. ; Schmidt-Vogt, D. ; Warta, Z. ; Widayati, A. - \ 2014
    Forests 5 (2014)8. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1834 - 1854.
    local people - forests - implementation - conservation - tanzania - payments
    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropical countries are working towards implementing. Thus far, limited practical consideration has been paid to local rights to forests and forest resources in REDD+ readiness programs, beyond noting the importance of these issues. Previous studies have shown that community members can reliably and cost-effectively monitor forest biomass. At the same time, this can improve local ownership and forge important links between monitoring activities and local decision-making. Existing studies have, however, been static assessments of biomass at one point in time. REDD+ programs will require repeated surveys of biomass over extended time frames. Here, we examine trends in accuracy and costs of local forest monitoring over time. We analyse repeated measurements by community members and professional foresters of 289 plots over two years in four countries in Southeast Asia. This shows, for the first time, that with repeated measurements community members’ biomass measurements become increasingly accurate and costs decline. These findings provide additional support to available evidence that community members can play a strong role in monitoring forest biomass in the local implementation of REDD+.
    Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries
    Parsa, S. ; Mores, S. ; Bonifacio, A. ; Chancellor, T. ; Condori, B. ; Crespo-Perez, V. ; Hobbs, S. ; Kroshel, J. ; Ba, M. ; Rebaudo, F. ; Sherwood, S.G. ; Vanek, S.J. ; Faye, E. ; Herrera, M. ; Dangles, O. - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)10. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3889 - 3894.
    ipm - implementation - security - farmers - future
    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.
    "The man, the administration and the counter-discourse”: An analysis of the sudden turn in Dutch nature conservation policy
    Buijs, A.E. ; Mattijssen, T. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2014
    Land Use Policy 38 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 676 - 684.
    management - restoration - netherlands - implementation - institutions - valuation - conflicts - state
    The Netherlands were at the forefront of European nature conservation policy until recently. For years, a stable ‘social contract’ around Dutch nature conservation existed. To the surprise of many, this stability suddenly disappeared and Dutch nature policy has taken a dramatic shift with changing discourses on nature conservation, the halting of implementation of several key-policies and budget cuts up to 70%. This paper engages with discursive-institutionalism to understand such abrupt institutional changes through emerging ideas and discourses that reshape and undermine existing institutional arrangements. We show how the institutionalization of policy not only engendered but also restricted the impact of critical discourses in the 1990s and 2000s. However, critical discourses eventually played an important role in the sudden turn in nature conservation policy. The rise of a general populist discourse and the economic crisis contributed to the credibility of critical discourses and their translation into popular frames and storylines. Authoritative actors such as a new State Secretary opened up popular media for the critical discourses and contributed to their resonance among larger audiences. As such, the man and his new administration successfully used already existing counter-discourses to de-legitimise nature policy and break down important institutional arrangements at a pace unseen in Dutch politics. Adding a discursive element to institutionalism provides for analytical tools to understand change from both external as well as internal forces. In turn, enriching discourse theory with insights from neo-institutionalism helps to evaluate which ideas and discourses become materialized in policy and practice
    Why the complex nature of integrated ecosystem assessments requires a flexible and adaptive approach
    Dickey-Collas, M. - \ 2014
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (2014)5. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1174 - 1182.
    fisheries management - ecological indicators - mixed-fisheries - framework - implementation - policy - uncertainty - thresholds - scientists - support
    This article considers the approach taken by the ICES to integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) in the context of the wider evolution of IEAs and the science/policy landscape within the ICES region. It looks forward and considers the challenges facing the development of IEAs, specifically those of scoping for objectives, participatory engagement, developing indicators and targets, risk analysis, and creating tools to evaluate management measures for marine anthropogenic activities. It concludes that expectations that the implementation of IEAs will take an ordered, stepwise approach will lead to disappointment and frustration. This is a consequence of the need to operate in an adaptive manner in a complex system. The ecosystem, the science support infrastructure, and the governance systems are all complex. Plus when engaged in a debate about societal objectives, we expect to encounter a complex and changing landscape. As a community, the challenge is to find leverage mechanisms to encourage IEA efforts to provide insights and tools within resources. We will need to innovate and be responsive to the complexity of the ecosystem and governance structures encountered when performing IEA.
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