Oxidative stress, and iron and antioxidant status in elderly men: differences between the Mediterranean south (Crete) and northern Europe (Zutphen)
Buijsse, B. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Moschandreas, J. ; Jansen, E.H. ; Jacobs, D.R. ; Kafatos, A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2007
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 14 (2007)4. - ISSN 1741-8267 - p. 495 - 500.
gamma-glutamyl-transferase - improves endothelial function - coronary-artery disease - cardiovascular mortality - heart-disease - risk - hypertension - genotype - adults
Background: Oxidative stress may accelerate ageing and increase the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed differences in oxidative stress, and iron and antioxidant status between elderly men living in Mediterranean southern Europe (Crete, Greece) and northern Europe (Zutphen, The Netherlands). Design: A cross-sectional study using data from two cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Methods: Non-fasting blood samples were drawn in 2000 from 105 men from Crete and 139 men from Zutphen, all aged 79 years or over. All assays were performed in the same laboratory. Results: After multiple adjustments, serum levels of the markers of oxidative stress were lower in Cretan men than in men from Zutphen, as indicated by lower mean levels of hydroperoxides (33.2 versus 57.3 [mu]mol/l; P=0.005) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (20.3 versus 26.1 U/l; P=0.003). The most pronounced difference in iron status was a twofold lower mean serum ferritin level in Cretan men (69.8 [mu]g/l) compared with men from Zutphen (134.2 [mu]g/l; P
Flavonoids and heart health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop may 31-june 1, 2005, Washington DC
Erdman, J.W. ; Balentine, D. ; Arab, L. ; Beecher, G. ; Dwyer, J.T. ; Folts, J. ; Harnly, J. ; Hollman, P.C.H. ; Keen, C.L. ; Mazza, G. ; Messina, M. ; Scalbert, A. ; Vita, J. ; Williamson, G. ; Burrows, J. - \ 2007
The Journal of Nutrition 137 (2007)3. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 718s - 737s.
low-density-lipoprotein - coronary-artery-disease - potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids - environmental estrogenic compounds - estradiol-induced tumorigenesis - improves endothelial function - liquid-chromatographic method - catechol o-methyltransferase - ran
This article provides an overview of current research on flavonoids as presented during a workshop entitled, "Flavonoids and Heart Health," held by the ILSI North America Project Committee on Flavonoids in Washington, DC, May 31 and June 1, 2005. Because a thorough knowledge and understanding about the science of flavonoids and their effects on health will aid in establishing dietary recommendations for bioactive components such as flavonoids, a systematic review of the science of select flavonoid classes (i.e., flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins) was presented. The objectives of the workshop were to 1) present and discuss current research on flavonoid intake and the relation between flavonoids and heart health; 2) develop information that could lead to expert consensus on the state-of-the-science of dietary intake of flavonoids on heart health; and 3) summarize and prioritize the research needed to establish the relations between specific flavonoids and heart health. Presentations included the basics of the biology of flavonoids, including the types and distribution in foods, analytical methodologies used to determine the amounts in foods, the bioavailability, the consumption patterns and potential biomarkers of intake, risk assessment and safety evaluation, structure/function claims, and the proposed mechanism(s) of the relation between certain flavonoids and heart health endpoints. Data presented support the concept that certain flavonoids in the diet can be associated with significant health benefits, including heart health. Research gaps were identified to help advance the science.
Within-subject variability of flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery in healthy men and women: implications for experimental studies
Roos, N.M. de; Bots, M.L. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2003
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 29 (2003). - ISSN 0301-5629 - p. 401 - 406.
improves endothelial function - dependent dilatation - conduit arteries - nitric-oxide - dysfunction - disease - young - dilation - children - adults
Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery is used as a marker of cardiovascular disease risk. It is defined as the percentage dilation from the baseline diameter in response to a provoked increase in blood flow. The within-subject variability, crucial in the design of trials with FMD as an endpoint, appears to vary widely between studies. We assessed the analytical and within-subject variability of FMD in healthy subjects and estimated the number of subjects needed to detect various treatment effects in intervention trials and observational studies. FMD was assessed with B-mode high-resolution ultrasound (US). A total of 13 volunteers were measured on six occasions, after they had fasted overnight. Within-subject variability was assessed from all six scans per subject. Analytical variation or reading variation was assessed by reading one scan of each subject twice by one observer. The mean (+/-tSD) FMD was 5.60 +/- 2.15 FMD% of the baseline diameter. The within-subject SD was 2.8 FMD%, resulting in a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.8/5.6 x 100% = 50.3%. The CVs for the baseline and maximum diameter were much smaller: 4.8% (SD 0.193 mm at a mean of 4.060 mm) for the baseline and 5.2% (SD 0.222 mm at a mean of 4.285 mm) for the maximum. The CV for reading variation was 34%. The number of subjects needed to detect a treatment difference of 2 FMD% with a probability of 0.05 and a power of 0.80 would be 31 in a crossover design and 62 per group in a parallel design for comparison of group changes. We conclude that the within-subject variability of FMD is large, about 50% of the mean response. This includes biologic and reading variation. Repeated measurements and repeated readings of recorded measurements are recommended to reduce variability. (C) 2003 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine Biology.