Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==in vitro gas production
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Relationships between chemical composition and in vitro gas production parameters of maize leaves and stems
He, Yuan ; Cone, John W. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2019
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2019). - ISSN 0931-2439
cell wall degradation - in vitro gas production - maize leaves - maize stems

This study investigated the chemical composition (proximate and Van Soest analysis) and in vitro gas production parameters of maize leaves and stems separately, and related the in vitro gas production parameters with the chemical composition, of thirteen maize cultivars. After harvest in September 2016, all plants were separated into two morphological fractions: leaves and stems. The crude protein (CP) content was greater, and the ratio of acid detergent lignin (ADL) to potentially rumen degradable fibre (calculated as the difference between neutral detergent fibre and ADL; ADL:pRDF) was lower in the leaves than in the stems in all 13 cultivars. For the leaves, the cumulative gas production between 3 and 20 hr (A2), representing cell wall fermentation in the rumen fluid, and the cumulative 72-hr gas production (GP72), representing total organic matter (OM) degradation, were moderately to weakly correlated with the chemical composition, including hemicellulose, cellulose, ADL and CP content (R2 < 0.40), whilst the best relationship between the half-time value (B2), representing the rate of cell wall degradation, and chemical composition had an R2 of 0.63. For the stems, the best relationship between A2, B2 and GP72 with chemical composition was greater (R2 ≥ 0.74) and the best relationship included hemicellulose (A2 only), cellulose and ADL (GP72 and A2 only) contents. In conclusion, maize leaves and stems differed in chemical composition, in particular CP content and ADL:pRDF. The A2 and GP72 of the stems, but not of the leaves, were highly correlated with the chemical composition, indicating that the cell wall and OM degradation of maize stems can be better predicted by its chemical composition.

Evaluation of fungal degradation of wheat straw cell wall using different analytical methods from ruminant nutrition perspective
Nayan, Nazri ; Erven, Gijs van; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2019
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99 (2019)8. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 4054 - 4062.
carbohydrates - in vitro gas production - lignin - lignin quantification - pyrolysis-GC/MS - white-rot fungi

BACKGROUND: White rot fungi have been used to improve the nutritive value of lignocellulose for ruminants. In feed analysis, the Van Soest method is widely used to determine the cell wall contents. To assess the reliability of this method (Method A) for determination of cell wall contents in fungal-treated wheat straw, we compared a combined monosaccharide analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) (Method B). Ruminal digestibility, measured as in vitro gas production (IVGP), was subsequently used to examine which method explains best the effect of fungal pretreatment on the digestibility of wheat straw. RESULTS: Both methods differed considerably in the mass recoveries of the individual cell wall components, which changed on how we assess their degradation characteristics. For example, Method B gave a higher degradation of lignin (61.9%), as compared to Method A (33.2%). Method A, however, showed a better correlation of IVGP with the ratio of lignin to total structural carbohydrates, as compared to Method B (Pearson's r of −0.84 versus −0.69). Nevertheless, Method B provides a more accurate quantification of lignin, reflecting its actual modification and degradation. With the information on the lignin structural features, Method B presents a substantial advantage in understanding the underlying mechanisms of lignin breakdown. Both methods, however, could not accurately quantify the cellulose contents – among others, due to interference of fungal biomass. CONCLUSION: Method A only accounts for the recalcitrant residue and therefore is more suitable for evaluating ruminal digestibility. Method B allows a more accurate quantification of cell wall, required to understand and better explains the actual modification of the cell wall. The suitability of both methods, therefore, depends on their intended purposes.

Improving ruminal digestibility of various wheat straw types by white-rot fungi
Nayan, Nazri ; Erven, Gijs van; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2019
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99 (2019)2. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 957 - 965.
in vitro gas production - lignocellulosic biomass - ruminant feed - wheat straw cultivar - wheat straw maturity - white-rot fungi

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the ruminal degradability of various wheat straw types by the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CS) and Lentinula edodes (LE). Different cultivars (CV) of wheat straw at different maturity stages (MS) were treated with the fungi for 7 weeks and assessed for chemical composition and in vitro gas production (IVGP). RESULTS: Both fungi showed a more pronounced degradation of lignin on a more mature straw (MS3; 89.0%) in comparison with the straw harvested at an earlier stage (MS1; 70.7%). Quantitative pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, using 13C lignin as an internal standard 13C-IS Py-GC/MS revealed that lignin in more mature straw was degraded and modified to a greater extent. In contrast, cellulose was less degraded in MS3, as compared to MS1 (8.3% versus 14.6%). There was no effect of different MS on the IVGP of the fungus-treated straws. Among the different straw cultivars, the extent of lignin degradation varied greatly (47% to 93.5%). This may explain the significant (P < 0.001) effect of cultivar on the IVGP of the fungal-treated straws. Regardless of the factors tested, both fungi were very capable of improving the IVGP of all straw types by 15.3% to 47.6%, (as compared to untreated straw), with CS performing better than LE – on different MS (33.6% versus 20.4%) and CVs (43.2% versus 29.1%). CONCLUSION: The extent of lignin degradation caused by fungal treatment was more pronounced on the more mature and lignified straw, while variable results were obtained with different cultivars. Both fungi were capable of improving the IVGP of various straw types.

Screening of white-rot fungi for bioprocessing of wheat straw into ruminant feed
Nayan, N. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Microbiology 125 (2018)2. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 468 - 479.
degradability - different strains/species - in vitro gas production - ruminant - screening - wheat straw - white-rot fungi

Aim: In this study, the biological variation for improvement of the nutritive value of wheat straw by 12 Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, 10 Pleurotus eryngii and 10 Lentinula edodes strains was assessed. Screening of the best performing strains within each species was made based on the in vitro degradability of fungal-treated wheat straw. Methods and Results: Wheat straw was inoculated with each strain for 7 weeks of solid state fermentation. Weekly samples were evaluated for in vitro gas production (IVGP) in buffered rumen fluid for 72 h. Out of the 32 fungal strains studied, 17 strains showed a significantly higher (P < 0·05) IVGP compared to the control after 7 weeks (227·7 ml g−1 OM). The three best Ceriporiopsis subvermispora strains showed a mean IVGP of 297·0 ml g−1 OM, while the three best P. eryngii and L. edodes strains showed a mean IVGP of 257·8 and 291·5 ml g−1 OM, respectively. Conclusion: Ceriporiopsis subvermispora strains show an overall high potential to improve the ruminal degradability of wheat straw, followed by L. edodes and P. eryngii strains. Significance and Impact of the Study: Large variation exists within and among different fungal species in the valorization of wheat straw, which offers opportunities to improve the fungal genotype by breeding.

Preservation of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes treated wheat straw under anaerobic conditions
Mao, Lei ; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2018
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98 (2018)3. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1232 - 1239.
Anaerobic storage - Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - in vitro gas production - Lentinula edodes - Wheat straw
BACKGROUND: No attention has been paid so far to the preservation of fungal-treated lignocellulose for longer periods. In the present study, we treated wheat straw (WS) with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8weeks and assessed changes in pH, chemical composition and in vitro gas production (IVGP) weekly. Fungal-treated WS was also stored for 64days 'as is', with the addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or with a combination of LAB and molasses in airtight glass jars mimicking ensiling conditions. RESULTS: Both fungi significantly reduced the lignin and hemicellulose content of WS, and increased the cellulose content. The IVGP increased with increasing time of incubation, indicating the increase in digestibility. Both fungi lowered the pH of WS under 4.3, which guarantees an initial and stable low pH during anaerobic storage. Minor changes in fibre composition and IVGP were observed for stored L. edodes treated WS, whereas no change occurred for C. subvermispora. CONCLUSION: It is possible to conserve C. subvermispora and L. edodes treated straw under anaerobic condition without additives up to 64days. This finding is important for practical application to supply fungi-treated feed to ruminant animals for a prolonged period.
Differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for ruminants
Nayan, N. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2017
Journal of Applied Microbiology 123 (2017)2. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 352 - 361.
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - Enzymes - in vitro gas production - Lignin degradation - Ruminants - Strains differences - Wheat straw
Aim: This study evaluated differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value and in vitro degradability of wheat straw. Methods and Results: Wheat straw was treated with the fungi for 7 weeks. Weekly samples were analysed for ergosterol content, in vitro gas production (IVGP), chemical composition and lignin-degrading enzyme activity. Ergosterol data showed CS1 to have a faster initial growth than CS2 and reaching a stationary phase after 3 weeks. The IVGP of CS1-treated wheat straw exceeded the control earlier than CS2 (4 vs 5 weeks). CS1 showed a significantly higher (P < 0·001) selectivity in lignin degradation compared to CS2. Both strains showed peak activity of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) at week 1. CS1 showed a significantly higher (P < 0·001) laccase activity, but lower (P = 0·008) MnP activity compared to CS2. Conclusion: Both CS strains improved the nutritive value of wheat straw. Variation between strains was clearly demonstrated by their growth pattern and enzyme activities. Significance and Impact of the Study: The differences among the two strains provide an opportunity for future selection and breeding programs in improving the extent and selectivity of lignin degradation in agricultural biomass.
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