Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Crop Wild Relatives (CWRs) in Nederland
    Hoekstra, R. ; Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2016
    wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - natuurgebieden - genenbanken - nederland - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - natural areas - gene banks - netherlands
    http://www.cwrnl.nl
    Overview and assessment of support measures for endangered livestock breeds : Subsibreed : Final project report
    Kompan, D. ; Klopcic, M. ; Martyniuk, E. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2014
    Germany : European Regional Focal Point for Animal Genetic Resources (ERFP ) - 262
    bedreigde rassen - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - rassen (dieren) - subsidies - in-situ conservering - genetische diversiteit - monitoring - overheidsbeleid - europa - endangered breeds - animal genetic resources - breeds - in situ conservation - genetic diversity - government policy - europe
    Livestock production has contributed to food security and economic development for thousands of years. Adaptation to wide range of environmental conditions and artificial selection has led to the development of numerous indigenous breeds that are part of the wealth of diversity in agriculture. They are producing a wide range of products for local and domestic consumption as well as for international trade. Livestock are for many local communities, invaluable sources of food and other products and essential sources of income. Maintaining the diversity of breeds in various species of domestic animals enables farmers and breeders to respond to ever changing consumer demands as well as changing production conditions, especially in light of climate change. No one can predict future demands and production conditions, and thus, maintaining the greatest diversity of animal genetic resources provides an insurance policy to enable necessary adaptation. Lack of appreciation for the need to maintain genetic diversity or inadequate farmer and breeder support programmes has resulted in the rapid global erosion of local breeds. Greater effort is required to stem this erosion.
    Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes
    Cadima Fuentes, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; Rob van Treuren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571686 - 229
    solanum - bolivia - wilde verwanten - gewassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - conservering - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - genenbanken - biosystematiek - genetische diversiteit - verzamelmissies - solanum - bolivia - wild relatives - crops - plant genetic resources - conservation - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - gene banks - biosystematics - genetic diversity - collecting missions

    Abstract thesis Ximena Cadima Fuentes (to be defended on 8 Dec 2014):

    Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes

    The wild relatives of potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota) form the genetic reservoir for the improvement of the cultivated potato. Bolivia harbours 39 wild taxa of these wild potatoes, 21 of which are endemic species. This study aimed to evaluate to what level the current ex situ and in situ management efforts have conserved the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potato species, and what recommendations can be formulated for improvement.

    The current conservation status of Bolivian endemic wild potato species was assessed using both the globally accepted IUCN criteria and a methodology developed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF-Crop Wild Relative Project (CWR Project). These two methods led to different estimates of threat status for some of the species. Spatial analysis allowed to distinguish eight priority areas for in situ conservation of the 21 Bolivian endemic wild potato species. These areas represent a high concentration of endemic species and have a relatively low level of threat, but only one of them has a conservation status. This is a first step to direct the conservation efforts for wild potato species.

    The genetic stability and diversity of material from different species under ex situ management was evaluated using microsatellite markers. The analysis was performed on accessions that went through a process of seed regeneration and multiplication during ex situ conservation. Genetic changes between different generations of ex situ germplasm were observed for the majority, but not all, of the investigated species. Potential causes of these changes include genetic drift and contamination resulting from human error during regeneration. The populations generated under ex situ conditions were also compared with re-collected in situ populations from the same location or area as the original collection. The results showed highly significant differences in all cases. Potential causes for these differences are changes during ex situ maintenance, sampling effects during collecting and in situ genetic change over time.

    The integrated conservation of Bolivian wild potatoes requires a combination of in situ and ex situ activities. The principle recommendation for the in situ conservation is to move from a passive to an active approach, where conservation areas are prioritized, conservation plans are designed according to the type of area (protected area or agro-ecosystem) and local stake holders are involved. To make sure that ex situ material provides a good representation of the in situ genetic variability, regular re-collecting of species with few accessions (and therefore less variability), endangered in situ, and with known or potential favorable traits is necessary. Gene bank management procedures should follow the FAO gene bank standards and this should be monitored by a national body responsible for genetic resources. And finally, periodic monitoring of the genetic integrity should be implemented as part of good practices during regeneration procedures in order to detect possible changes and to help combat human errors.

    First National Report on Forest Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture,The Netherlands : country report for the FAO first state of the world's forest genetic resources for food and agriculture, Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague, November 2012
    Buiteveld, J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : CGN/DLO Foundation (CGN Rapport 23) - 64
    genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bossen - in-situ conservering - ex-situ conservering - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forests - in situ conservation - ex situ conservation - forest management - sustainability - netherlands
    The Dutch national report is designed to contribute to a regional and global sysnthesis of the state of forest genetic resources and in particular to examine trends over the past ten years. After a general introduction to the Dutch forest sector and the historical background of today's forests, it describes the current state of forest genetic diversity in the Netherlands and the main factors influencing it
    An ecogeographic analysis of Oryza series Sativae in Asia and the Pacific
    Banaticla-Hilario, M.C.N. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg; K.L. McNally. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733788 - 237
    oryza - oryza sativa - oryza nivara - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengeografie - plantenecologie - diversiteit - in-situ conservering - plantenmorfologie - taxonomie - genetica - genenbanken - azië - oryza - oryza sativa - oryza nivara - plant genetic resources - phytogeography - plant ecology - diversity - in situ conservation - plant morphology - taxonomy - genetics - gene banks - asia

    The non-cultivated speciesof the genus Oryza can provide a genetic arsenal of useful traits for improving the widely cultivated and consumed Asian rice (O. sativa). The diversity of these valuable plant resources must be well understood to ensure their effective in- and ex-situ conservation. In this thesis, we examined the ecogeographic variations within and between the three species of Oryza series Sativae in Asia and the Pacific. We looked at species differentiation from different spatial scales by analysing sympatric accession pairs of O. meridionalis and O. rufipogon and of O. nivara and O. rufipogon.

    We conducted phenotypic analyses in Chapter 2. The strong influence of ecology on species morphology was demonstrated in the ordination and cluster analyses results where O. meridionalis and O. nivara grouped together and were separated from O. rufipogon. We detected greater differentiation of O. nivara and O. rufipogon in South Asia and positive correlations between spatial and intraspecific (interpopulation) morphological distances in continental Asia. We found significant correlations between geoclimatic factors and certain character measurements within species and observed that seedling height, culm number and diameter, leaf size, and anther length exhibit contrasting responses for O. nivara and O. rufipogon. We confirmed significant morphological differences between the three species, between the South and Southeast Asian populations of O. nivara, and between the Australasian and the non-Australasian populations of O. rufipogon and provided botanical descriptions to delineate O. meridionalis, O. nivara and O. rufipogon morphologically.

    In Chapter 3, we genotyped the same set of accessions with 29 SSR markers and applied a variety of methods for genetic diversity analysis. Based on ordination and phylogenetic results, we verified that O. meridionalis is a genetically distinct species and that O. nivara and O. rufipogon overlap genetically across their geographic distribution. However, Bayesian clustering analysis recognized local-scale species separation of O. nivara and O. rufipogon implying stronger interspecific gene flow barriers in smaller spatial units. Concurrently, AMOVA indicated that the bulk (64%) of genetic variation in Asia Pacific series Sativae can be found among accessions and the lesser portions within accessions (26%) and among species (10%). We captured contrasting intraspecific variation patterns for O. nivara and O. rufipogon where the former exhibited low diversity, high population differentiation and isolation by distance mainly in South Asia while the latter displayed high diversity, low population differentiation and isolation by distance primarily in continental Southeast Asia. We established that altitude is correlated negatively to accession diversity and positively to local-scale species differentiation. Using Bayesian inference, we identified eight genetically distinct population groups: C1) Indian and Bangladeshi O. nivara; C2) Cambodian O. nivara; C3) Southeast Asian O. rufipogon; C4) O. meridionalis; C5) Nepalese O. nivara; C6) non-Cambodian Southeast Asian O. nivara; C7) Australasian O. rufipogon; and C8) South Asian O. rufipogon. Cluster analysis grouped the aromatic and japonica cultivar groups of O. sativa with O. rufipogon in South Asia and the indica and aus groups with O. nivara from Thailand and Cambodia, respectively. O. nivara from Nepal seemed genetically isolated from the other population groups. We also detected variation patterns that agreed with the results in Chapter 1 such as the South and Southeast Asian divisions of O. nivara, the divergence of Australasian populations from the rest of O. rufipogon and the greater differentiation of O. nivara and O. rufipogon in South Asia.

    In Chapter 4, we conducted artificial crossing experiments to 15 selected parental accessions of O. meridionalis, O. nivara, and O. rufipogon and assessed the extent of several post-pollination isolating mechanisms in Oryza series Sativae. We observed reproductive incompatibility within and between the inbreeding species O. meridionalis and O. nivara and high intraspecific crossability of the outcrossing O. rufipogon where viable and non-sterile F1 hybrids were produced only by combinations with a parental distance that ranged from 1062 to 3813 kilometers. Insular Southeast Asian and/or Australasian accessions of O. rufipogon were the most reproductively successful parents. O. rufipogon exhibited significant pre-zygotic species isolation (in terms of seed set) and reduced post-zygotic isolation, and seemed symmetrically compatible with O. nivara and asymmetrically compatible with O. meridionalis. We obtained few annual hybrids with relatively high fertilities from crosses between O. rufipogon and O. nivara and numerous perennial hybrids with low fertilities from crosses between O. rufipogon and O. meridionalis. Crossability estimates did not show significant correlations with geographic distance between parents. However, we discerned reduced seed set and F1 fertility in interspecific combinations with sympatric parents compared to crosses with non-sympatric parents, indicative of reinforced species isolation in sympatry. We evaluated the F1 offspring of different cross combinations and found a mixture of intermediate and parental character traits in interspecific hybrids.

    We discussed the taxonomic implications of the research results in Chapter 5 where we specifically dealt with the opposing views of lumping or splitting of O. nivara and O. rufipogon. We concluded that these two taxadeserve to be treated as separate species based on the following biosystematic evidence obtained from the thesis: 1) ecological distinction; 2) considerable prezygotic barriers; 3) opposing patterns of gene flow and genetic variation; 4) local-scale genetic divergence and 5) enhanced reproductive barriers under sympatric conditions. We identified ecogeography as a major driving force in the diversification of Oryza series Sativae in Asia and the Pacific and suggested that ecological speciation gave rise to O. nivara and O. rufipogon. We also presented recognizable geographic races within species.

    Ultimately in Chapter 6, we emphasized the importance of our study in several aspects of rice science and identified results that agreed with prior Oryza diversity studies. At the same time, we presented previously unreported morphological and genetic variation patterns that were established in this thesis. We discussed the possible applications of the research results to wild rice conservation, covering in situ strategies as well as gene bank practices. We also highlighted the potential role of O. nivara in Asian rice domestication where it could have either directly given rise to the indica cultivar group or hybridized/introgressed with migrated japonica cultivars in India, eventually leading to the development of indica.

    Farm seed opportunities : conservation, breeding and production
    Kik, C. ; Louwaars, N.P. ; Burg, W.J. van der; Almekinders, C.J.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Centre for Genetic Resources - 25
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - zaadproductie - vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenveredeling - genetische diversiteit - conservering - in-situ conservering - plant genetic resources - seed production - propagation materials - plant breeding - genetic diversity - conservation - in situ conservation
    Farm Seed Opportunities (FSO), a research project in the FP6 European Research Framework (2007-2009), was targeted to support the implementation of seed regulations on conservation varieties (directive 98/95/EC and new directives 2008/62/EC and 2009/145/CE) and to propose complementary seed regulation scenarios taking into account the diversity of the European seed systems. The FSO project is a collaborative effort of farmers and scientists from France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This publication highlights the main FSO conclusions and presents FSO policy recommendations.
    The Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands : moving from the first 25 years into the future
    Visser, L. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. ; Pistorius, R. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 51
    genenbanken - genetische bronnen - geschiedenis - ex-situ conservering - in-situ conservering - genetische diversiteit - gegevensbeheer - gewassen - vee - gene banks - genetic resources - history - ex situ conservation - in situ conservation - genetic diversity - data management - crops - livestock
    The ambition of this booklet is to show to CGN's stakeholders what its agenda looks like, and why this agenda has developed the way it did. The last chapter gives an outlook into the future.
    Towards self-sustainable European regional cattle breeds : breed demonstration cases
    Haas, Y. de; Diaz, C. ; Collado, D.M. ; Duclos, D. ; Colinet, F. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 410) - 21
    belgisch witblauw - rassen (dieren) - inheems vee - rundveerassen - in-situ conservering - multi-stakeholder processen - avilena-iberisch zwartvee - groninger blaarkop - dierveredeling - belgian blue - breeds - native livestock - cattle breeds - in situ conservation - multi-stakeholder processes - avilena-black iberian - groningen white headed - animal breeding
    This report describes the process to re-develop the breed conservation and development strategy in Belgium, France, Spain and the Netherlands with involvement of multistakeholders.
    Inclusion Of The Spatial Dimension Of Population Data In Developing Policies For The Management Of AnGR –The Case Of The Heritage Sheep Breeds
    Ligda, C. ; Mizeli, C. ; Carson, A. ; Duclos, D. ; Haas, Y. de; Kompan, D. ; Bowles, D. ; Georgoudis, A. - \ 2010
    schapenrassen - inheems vee - in-situ conservering - bedreigde rassen - dierlijke producten - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - europa - geoinformatie - sheep breeds - native livestock - in situ conservation - endangered breeds - animal products - animal genetic resources - europe - geoinformation
    The sustainable use of farm animal genetic resources is connected with the recognition of their contribution to the society and the environment and the assessment of the threats they are facing. The category of the heritage breeds, which are genetically distinct, geographically concentrated, adapted to their environment, commercially farmed to contribute to the local economy were considered in the frame of the HERITAGESHEEP project. The aim of this project was to deliver the potential of the heritage sheep breeds for a sustainable future for medium to low input production systems, which support local rural communities throughout Europe. This was achieved by addressing the conservation of these breeds, defining the current and future threats and developing new uses and markets for products.
    Development of Policies and Strategies to Strengthen (Self) Sustainability of European Local Cattle Breeds
    Hiemstra, S.J. ; Diaz, C. ; Duclos, D. ; Haas, Y. de; Mäki-Tanila, A. ; Martin, D. ; Pizzi, F. ; Soini, K. ; Gandini, G. - \ 2010
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rundveerassen - beleid - europa - inheems vee - cultureel erfgoed - in-situ conservering - ex-situ conservering - sustainability - cattle breeds - policy - europe - native livestock - cultural heritage - in situ conservation - ex situ conservation
    In Europe, about 45% of local cattle breeds are categorized “at risk”. In Europe, member states may provide incentive payments to support ‘local breeds in danger of being lost to farming’. However, there is a general aim that incentive payments should not be permanent and making local breeds (self) sustainable should be promoted. The aim of the EC co-funded project EURECA was to get a better understanding of the breed (self) sustainability and the factors affecting it in Europe, which may help in defining policies and strategies.
    Variatie in vee : biodiversiteit op de boerderij bedreigd
    Zegwaard, A. ; Buiter, R. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. ; Everdingen, J. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : Stichting Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier / Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij 29e jrg., nr. 3) - ISBN 9789073196599 - 88
    genetische bronnen van diersoorten - zeldzame rassen - domesticatie - huisdieren - genetica - rassen (dieren) - dierveredeling - genetische diversiteit - in-situ conservering - bedreigde rassen - agrarische geschiedenis - ex-situ conservering - animal genetic resources - rare breeds - domestication - domestic animals - genetics - breeds - animal breeding - genetic diversity - in situ conservation - endangered breeds - agricultural history - ex situ conservation
    Op de boerderij wordt de diversiteit van het leven bedreigd. Steeds minder dieren krijgen steeds meer nakomelingen. Een gebrek aan genetische variatie in het gevolg. Door inteelt kunnen gezondheidsproblemen ontstaan, en ongemerkt kunnen bepaalde eigenschappen verdwijnen. Ook de variatie in ons landschap en zelfs op ons bord verdwijnt. Dit cahier biedt een helder overzicht van de stand van de wetenschap rond het behoud van zeldzame huisdierrassen.
    Potato diversity at height: multiple dimensions of farmer-driven in-situ conservation in the Andes
    Haan, S. de - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen, co-promotor(en): Conny Almekinders; M. Bonierbale; G. Thiele. - - 245
    Solanum - potatoes - in situ conservation - plant genetic resources - species - cultivars - taxonomy - diversity - andes - Solanum - aardappelen - in-situ conservering - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - soorten - cultivars - taxonomie - diversiteit - andes
    In-situ conservation
    Two types of in-situ conservation of crop genetic resources can be distinguished: farmer-driven and
    externally driven. The first is subject of this thesis and refers to the persistence of potato genetic resources
    in areas where everyday practices of farmers maintain diversity on-farm. The second concerns the more
    recent phenomenon of Research & Development (R&D) interventions which aim to support in-situ
    conservation by farmers. In this study, farmer-driven in-situ conservation of the potato in the central Andes
    of Peru is investigated at different system levels from alleles, cultivars, and botanical species up to the level
    of the landscape, as well as the interconnected seed and food systems. Dimensions of time and space are
    inferred upon by taking both annual and longer-term spatial patterns into account. Further, diversity is
    linked to selected farmer-based and external drivers.
    Objective and study area
    The overall objective of the study is to enhance our understanding of farmer-driven in-situ conservation
    and the context in which it takes place. The main field research was conducted between 2003 and 2006 in
    eight farmer communities following a north-south transect through the department of Huancavelica.
    Communities were selected on the basis of distribution and distance along the north-south transect,
    tradition of potato cultivation, ethnicity, and relative distance from major markets or cities. Depending on
    the specific dimension of farmer-driven in-situ conservation investigated, a range of different methods
    and tools were used. Chapter 1 provides a brief description of the study area and an overview of the research
    methods used.
    Species, cultivar and allelic diversity
    In chapter 2 the species, morphological and molecular diversity of Andean potatoes in Huancavelica is
    treated at different scales of conservation: farmer family, community, geographically distanced, regional,
    in-situ and ex-situ subpopulations. The infraspecific diversity of in-situ collections was characterized using
    morphological descriptor lists and 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR). Botanical species were
    determined through ploidy counts in combination with morphological keys. Datasets were used for
    descriptive statistics, (dis)similarity analysis, dendrogram construction, cophenetic analysis, matrix
    correlations calculations (Mantel tests), and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA).
    Results show that farmers in Huancavelica maintain high levels of species, morphological and molecular
    diversity. All cultivated potato species with the exception of Solanum phureja and Solanum ajanhuiri proved
    to be present. Tetraploid species were most abundant followed by diploids, triploids and pentaploids. A
    total of 557 morphologically unique cultivars were identified based on the morphological characterization
    of 2,481 accessions belonging to 38 in-situ collections. Genetic fingerprinting of 989 accessions belonging
    to 8 in-situ collections resulted in the identification of 406 genetically unique cultivars. AMOVA shows that
    the principal source of molecular variation is found within rather than between geographically distanced
    and farmer family subpopulations. No evidence of genetic erosion was found as the contemporary regional
    in-situ population and a geographically restricted subset of CIP´s ex-situ core collection share 98.8% of
    allelic diversity. Yet, in-situ collections contain numerous unique genotypes.
    Indigenous biosystematics
    The indigenous biosystematics of potatoes (folk taxonomy, folk descriptors and nomenclature) is
    investigated in chapter 3. The chapter includes an extensive literature review on the subject. Folk taxonomy
    was investigated with the use of grouping exercises with farmers, participant observation, and comparison
    of farmer-recognized groups with formal classification based on morphological descriptors and 18
    polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR). Analysis of the latter was based on (dis)similarity analysis,
    dendrogram construction and consequent levels of coherent clustering by folk taxonomic entity (folk
    specific and varietal taxon). Ethnobotanical free and indicated listing exercises with farmers were used for
    research concerning folk descriptors. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis and interpretation.
    Nomenclature was investigated by applying nomenclature surveys, participant observation and basic
    ethnolinguistic analysis of regional names.
    Folk taxonomy of the potato consists of no less than five ranks. The folk generic rank is composed of
    three taxa: Araq Papa (semi-wild / consumed), Papa Tarpuy (cultivated / consumed), and Atoq Papa (wild /
    not consumed). Folk specific taxa (= cultivar groups) and varietal taxa (= cultivars) within the generic taxon
    of Papa Tarpuy are abundant. Use categories and agroecological criteria are of little importance in the folk
    taxonomical system of the potato. Folk varietal taxa cluster well when using formal morphological
    descriptors; folk specific taxa less so. A moderate concordance, albeit with considerable exceptions, exists
    between folk specific or varietal taxa and their genetic make-up as characterized with molecular markers
    (18 SSR microsatellites). The coherence of clustering in a dissimilarity tree varies for each folk specific or
    varietal taxon considered. Farmers use 22 plant and 15 tuber folk descriptors with recognized character
    states in the Quechua language. Farmers are well able to recognize specific cultivars based on aboveground
    plant parts only (without exposing tubers). Nomenclature is regionally consistent for common cultivars,
    while inconsistent for scarce cultivars. Primary cultivar names (nouns) generally refer to a folk specific taxon
    through predominant metaphorical reference to tuber shape. Secondary cultivar names (adjectives)
    predominantly provide direct reference to tuber color.
    Annual spatial patterns
    Annual spatial management of the potato consists of cropping and labor calendars, field scattering practices,
    and genotype by environmental management. These three dimensions of agrobiodiversity management
    are explored in chapter 4. A structured survey was conducted to investigate the potato cropping and labor
    calendars. Participatory cartography resulted in the detailed mapping of 601 scattered potato fields,
    including their cultivar content, belonging to a total of 122 households. A genotype by environment (GxE)
    experiment employing 4 environments and 31 cultivars was conducted following an altitudinal transect.
    Data obtained was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, Geographical
    Information Systems (GIS), Additive main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis, and analysis
    of variance (ANOVA).
    The annual distribution of tasks and labor is primarily an adaptation to the single-season rain-fed
    character and climate extremes of high-altitude agriculture. Three different footplough-based tillage
    systems allow farmers to efficiently manage scarce labor availability for soil preparation. Native-floury, nativebitter
    and improved potato cultivars show considerable overlap concerning their altitudinal distribution
    patterns. The notion that these cultivar categories occupy separate production spaces (so-called “altitudinal
    belts”) is rejected as results show that differences between the altitudinal medians for areal distribution by
    altitude of the different cultivar categories are modest (chapter 4). Field scattering is based on a combined
    logic which results in a patchy distribution of potato genetic diversity across the agricultural landscape.
    Depending on the community, farmers annually crop an average of 3.2 to 9.1 potato fields measuring
    between 660 to 1,576 m² and containing up to a hundred cultivars per field. However, neither field scattering
    nor the management of high levels of diversity by farmers is a direct consequence of niche adaptation as
    most cultivars are versatile (chapter 4). Rather, it is suggested that farmers conduct annual spatial
    management by deploying combined tolerance and resistance traits imbedded in particular cultivar
    combinations in order to confront the predominant biotic and abiotic stresses present in different
    agroecologies. Andean farmers manage GxE adaptation for overall yield stability rather than fine-grained
    environmental adaptation of native cultivars.
    Dimensions of land use
    Three specific dimensions of potato land use were researched in order to gain insights into possible
    contemporary changes affecting the in-situ conservation of potato genetic resources: land use tendencies,
    rotation designs and their intensity, and sectoral fallowing systems (chapter 5). The main research method
    involved participatory cartography using printed poster-size high-resolution Quickbird satellite images
    combined with in-depth consultation through interviews and focus group meetings with members of the
    communities. A total of 4,343 fields and their 1995-2005 crop contents were mapped. The evolution over a
    30-year time-span (1975-2005) of traditional sectoral fallow systems (“diversity hotspots”) was documented
    for each community. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information Systems
    (GIS). Processes of change and adaptive innovation were documented by building case studies.
    Land use tendencies between 1995 and 2005 shows that the total cropping area dedicated to improved
    cultivars has grown fast while the area dedicated to native-floury and native-bitter cultivars has remained
    more or less stable. Reduced fallow periods for existing fields and the gradual incorporating of high-altitude
    virgin pasture lands sustain areal growth. Areal growth is particularly fast at extreme altitudes between
    3,900 and 4,350 m. However, fallow periods at these altitudes are still relatively long compared to fields at
    lower altitudes. Results show that fallowing rates increase by altitude for all cultivar categories, but tend to
    be lowest for improved cultivars followed by native-floury and native-bitter cultivars. There is no evidence
    of a straightforward replacement of one cultivar category by another resulting in the replacement and loss
    of infraspecific diversity. Inquiry into the dynamics of sectoral fallow systems over a 30 year period evidences
    the gradual disintegration and abandonment of these systems rich in cultivar diversity. They are replaced
    by more individualist management regimes based on household decision making. Nowadays, the spatial
    patterning of potato genetic diversity within the agricultural landscape is increasingly characterized by
    patchy distribution patterns rather than its concentration within a single communal sector. Where sectoral
    rotation designs survive local innovations have been adopted.
    Farmer seed systems
    Farmer seed systems can be conceived as an overlay of crop genetic diversity determining its temporal
    and spatial patterning. Chapter 6 investigates the relation between selected farmer seed system components
    (storage, health and procurement) and infraspecific diversity of potato in Huancavelica. A sampling exercise
    was carried out in farmer seed stores in order to gain insight into the internal organization of seed stores
    and how this relates to the management of infraspecific diversity. Virus infection rates were determined by
    taking seed tuber samples of diverse cultivars from farmer’s storage facilities. ELISA tests were conduced
    for APMoV, PLRV, PMTV, PVY and PVX. Seed procurement was investigated through a series of structured
    surveys focusing on household seed exchange, the role of regular markets and biodiversity seed fairs, and
    seed provision after severe regional frost. Data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics.
    Potato seed stores contain different seed lots, reflecting the rationales underlying management of
    cultivar diversity at the field level and the overall structure of infraspecific diversity. Seed health of farmer
    conserved cultivar stocks in Huancavelica is affected by Diabrotica leaf beetle and contact transmitted
    viruses (APMoV, PVX) while aphid and powdery scab transmitted viruses (PMTV, PLRV, PVY) are of limited
    importance. During normal years without extreme events seed exchange of native-floury cultivars is
    practiced by few households and characterized by a limited number of transactions involving small
    quantities of seed of few cultivars covering relatively short distances. Native-bitter and uncommon nativefloury
    cultivars are rarely exchanged and generally reproduced year after year by the same households
    that maintain them. High-altitude diversity-rich communities tend to be net seed exporters. However, the
    capacity of the farmer seed system to annually widely supply and distribute infraspecific diversity is limited.
    Regular markets have a decentralized capacity to supply and widely distribute seed of a limited number of
    well-known cultivars. Frequencies of seed exchange at biodiversity seed fairs are low and involve small
    quantities of a few uncommon cultivars. The resilience of the farmer seed system to cope with severe regional
    seed stress is insufficient for households to be able to restore volumes and cultivar portfolios within a
    short period of time.
    The potato-based food system
    The role of biodiverse potatoes within the human diet in Huancavelica is investigated in chapter 7. Analysis
    to determine the dry matter, gross energy, crude protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of 12 native-floury
    cultivars (fresh / boiled tuber samples) and 9 native-bitter cultivars (boiled unprocessed / boiled processed
    tuber samples) was conduced. Additionally, the nutritional composition of the native-floury cultivars was
    determined after 3 and 5 months of storage under farmer conditions. A food intake study was conducted
    during two contrasting periods of food availability (abundance versus scarcity) in order to quantify and
    characterize the contribution of the potato, different cultivar categories and other food sources to the diet
    of children between 6 and 36 months of age and their mothers. The specific method consisted of direct
    measurement of food intake by weight during a 24 hour period for each household (77 households). Further,
    the overall nutritional status of 340 children aged between 4 and 16 years was determined. Selected cultural
    connotations of the highland diet were investigated through participant and ethnographic observation,
    surveys, and workshops.
    Results show that several native-floury cultivars contain higher contents of specific nutrients (protein,
    iron) than those commonly reported as representative for native potato cultivars. This suggests that
    infraspecific diversity can make a valuable contribution to enhanced nutrition. Storage does not affect the
    nutritional quality of native-floury cultivars very significantly while traditional freeze-drying of native-bitter
    cultivars considerably reduces protein and zinc content. The research shows that malnutrition in
    Huancavelica is primarily a consequence of micronutrient deficiency and secondarily of insufficient total
    energy coverage. The highland diet is heavily dependent on staple foods, particularly potato and barley,
    and generally short in vegetable, fruit, meat and milk intake. The potato contributes significantly to the
    nutritional balance and the recommended requirements for energy, protein, iron and zinc of women and
    children during periods of both food abundance and scarcity. Improved and native-floury cultivars
    complement each other as each category provides the bulk of potatoes consumed at different moments in
    time. The consumption of diverse potato cultivars is entangled with cultural constructions of meals and
    local perceptions of preference traits and quality. The potato itself, as a food item, is no socioeconomic class
    marker. However, certain dishes or products and the overall cultivar diversity grown and used by a household
    shape perceptions of relative wealth.
    Conclusions and implications
    Chapter 8 highlights the main conclusions of the study and provides answers to the original research
    questions while taking the different system levels explored throughout the thesis into account. Selected
    priority areas of future research are identified and, where appropriate, links to other parts of the Andes are
    drawn. Furthermore, the implications for externally driven R&D oriented in-situ conservation efforts seeking
    to support dynamic and ongoing farmer-driven conservation are discussed. It is argued that the science
    and practice of R&D oriented in-situ conservation lag behind the policy commitments to its implementation
    and that institutional learning from diverse projects already implemented throughout the Andes and the
    diffusion of key lessons is essential for the success of future interventions.
    Second National Report on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, The Netherlands
    Visser, L. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit - 56
    genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genenbanken - genetische diversiteit - gewassen - biodiversiteit - plantenverzamelingen - germplasm - in-situ conservering - ex-situ conservering - agrobiodiversiteit - plant genetic resources - gene banks - genetic diversity - crops - biodiversity - plant collections - germplasm - in situ conservation - ex situ conservation - agro-biodiversity
    The National Report is considered a strategic policy document. After a general introduction on Dutch agriculture, it describes the state of diversity in the production system and the crop and variety levels due to ongoing developments in agricultural production. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the in situ Management and ex situ Management of Plant Genetic Resources respectively, explaining why the ex situ approach is relatively important for the country given the current status of its agriculture. Chapter 4 describes the changes in the State of Use over the last decade. Additional information is contained in the chapters on National Programmes, Training and Legislation; Regional and International Collaboration; Access to PGRFA, Benefit-Sharing and Farmers’ Rights, with a final chapter on the Contribution of PGRFA Management to Food Security and Sustainable Development. National stakeholder consultations have contributed to this report.
    Crop wild relatives in the Netherlands: actors and protection measures
    Hoekstra, R. ; Veller, M.G.P. van; Odé, B. - \ 2008
    In: Crop wild relative conservation and use / Maxted, N., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Kell, S.P., Iriondo, J.M., Dulloo, E., Turok, J., Wallingford : CABI - ISBN 9781845930998 - p. 165 - 177.
    gewassen - wilde verwanten - bedreigde soorten - plantenverzamelingen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - in-situ conservering - genetische erosie - genetische variatie - botanische tuinen - genenbanken - germplasm - medicinale planten - hulpbronnenbehoud - economische botanie - crops - wild relatives - endangered species - plant collections - plant genetic resources - in situ conservation - genetic erosion - genetic variation - botanical gardens - gene banks - germplasm - medicinal plants - resource conservation - economic botany
    This book text presents methodologies and case studies that provide recommendations for the conservation and use of crop wild relatives. In a national, regional or global context, the status of crop wild relatives, that are closely related to crop plants, is examined. Conservation of crop wild relatives is important to enable these species to be included in plant breeding activities for beneficial traits such as pest or disease resistance and yield improvement.
    Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia
    Thijssen, M.H. ; Bishaw, Z. ; Beshir, A. ; Boef, W.S. de - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen International - ISBN 9789085852155 - 347
    zaadproductie - zaden - bedrijfssystemenonderzoek - rassen (planten) - gewassen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - in-situ conservering - informele sector - landrassen - genetische diversiteit - conservering - ethiopië - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - seed production - seeds - farming systems research - varieties - crops - plant genetic resources - in situ conservation - informal sector - landraces - genetic diversity - conservation - ethiopia - peasant farming
    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the conservation and use of the huge genetic resource base of crops and local varieties. The book looks at informal seed supply from a number of different angles, introduces key concepts and strategies, and presents case studies from Ethiopia and other countries. It deals with the technical aspects of, quality and availability of, and access to seed, and of supporting informal supply. It also deals with the role of farmers in the conservation and management of local crops and varieties, and the participation of farmers and communities in plant breeding and research. It takes a particular interest in the role of farmer organizations in seed supply, and how this role can be strengthened by developing community and small-scale seed enterprises. The aim of all the strategies, case studies and reflections on experiences presented in this book is to improve the availability of and access to quality seeds and varieties, thereby improving the livelihoods of small-scale farmers in Ethiopia and beyond.
    Oude graslanden, bron van genetische diversiteit
    Treuren, R. van; Soest, L.J.M. van - \ 2002
    Ekoland 22 (2002)5. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 26 - 27.
    graslanden - grassen - lolium perenne - trifolium repens - weideplanten - genetische diversiteit - genetische variatie - diversiteit - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - in-situ conservering - conservering op het bedrijf - plantenveredeling - extensieve weiden - weiden - grasslands - grasses - lolium perenne - trifolium repens - pasture plants - genetic diversity - genetic variation - diversity - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - in situ conservation - on-farm conservation - plant breeding - rangelands - pastures
    Het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen onderzoekt, aan de hand van Engels raaigras en witte klaver, de genetische diversiteit in oude, extensief beheerde graslanden in Nederland. De aanwezige diversiteit kan dienen als basis voor de ontwikkeling van nieuwe rassen voor duurzame landbouw. De eerste resultaten voor Engels raaigras duiden op het bestaan van verschillen tussen de bestaande commerciële rassen enerzijd en de oude graslandpopulaties anderzijds; ook zou er verscheidenheid kunnen zijn tussen de oude graslanden onderling
    EUFORGEN Technical Bulletin: In situ Conservation of Populus nigra
    Lefèvre, F. ; Barsoum, N. ; Heinze, B. ; Kajba, D. - \ 2001
    Rome : IPGRI - ISBN 9789290435006 - 64 p.
    populus nigra - conservering - in-situ conservering - genetische bronnen - genetische diversiteit - monitoring - indicatoren - europa - populus nigra - conservation - in situ conservation - genetic resources - genetic diversity - monitoring - indicators - europe
    Collaboration of farmers en breeders: Participatory crop improvement in perspective.
    Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Elings, A. - \ 2001
    Euphytica 122 (2001)Special Is. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 425 - 438.
    plantenveredeling - participatie - boeren - houding van boeren - in-situ conservering - selectieprogramma - genotype-milieu interactie - low input landbouw - plant breeding - participation - farmers - farmers' attitudes - in situ conservation - selection programme - genotype environment interaction - low input agriculture
    Participatory Crop Improvement (PCI) has developed over the past decade as an alternative and complementary breeding approach to Formal Crop Improvement (FCI). In that context, PCI principally aims at more effectively addressing the needs of farmers in marginal areas in developing countries. This paper describes the rationale behind the emerging of the PCI-concept, the first experiences, and its place in a development-context. The relation with in situ conservation of plant genetic resources is briefly described. The paper uses the distinction in PCI between PVS (Participatory Varietal Selection, i.e. participatory selection among varieties and advanced materials) and PPB (Participatory Plant Breeding, i.e. selection within segregating materials). While successful experiences of PVS are reported, the potentials of PPB are still to be explored. Among other issues, this article pays attention to Genotype x Environment interaction: while G x E interaction is recognised as an important issue in plant breeding and a justification for PCI, the implications for the design of selection systems with farmer participation, and, eventually the potential of PPB has only been analysed to a limited extend. Questions in relation to materials, breeding strategies and selection procedures to achieve sufficient progress in the different crops and environments are identified; these will however remain unanswered until more experiences from the field are available.
    The role of genetic resources in rural livelihood systems.
    Almekinders, C. ; Hardon, J. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : UPWARD - ISBN 9789067546447 - 29
    landbouwhuishoudens - genetische bronnen - hulpbronnenbehoud - in-situ conservering - platteland - biodiversiteit - landbouw - soortendiversiteit - dierveredeling - ontwikkelingslanden - agricultural households - genetic resources - resource conservation - in situ conservation - biodiversity - agriculture - animal breeding - species diversity - rural areas - developing countries
    Tales of the unpredictable : learning about institutional frameworks that support farmer management of agro-biodiversity
    Boef, W.S. de - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; J.M.M. Engels; J.J. Hardon. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082381 - 233
    landbouw - biodiversiteit - boeren - bedrijfsvoering - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - in-situ conservering - agriculture - biodiversity - farmers - management - plant genetic resources - in situ conservation

    In 1992, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was signed by a large number of countries in Rio de Janeiro. This Convention constitutes a framework linking biodiversity conservation and development. CBD also emphasises the in situ strategy for biodiversity conservation. In the years following CBD, the strategy and agro-biodiversity management received much attention. This book reports on some of the initial efforts to develop and implement in situ conservation through the support of farmer management of agro-biodiversity. Because of the dynamic nature of the human and natural components of agro-biodiversity the strategy aims to maintain, it is referred to as "on-farm management" of agro-biodiversity. While studying efforts to develop the strategy, social and institutional aspects of the strategy's development are addressed; these are referred to as the strategy's social construction and social organisation.

    The book reflects on experiences of a team that worked at the Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands between 1990 and 1998. The team was involved in the development of agro-biodiversity projects in many developing countries. The experiences of the author, the team and their colleagues from the South form the foundation to the book.

    The strategy has been studied within a framework of experiential learning. Two socio-ecological perspectives have been used to provide the theoretical framework for reflection. These perspectives are used for the development of "windows of reflection" that guide and structure five case studies on agro-biodiversity projects and organisations.

    Adaptive management is the first socio-ecological perspective used. It has been developed by ecologists involved in the management of large ecosystems. Policy and management organisations form a triangle with citizens in an adaptive framework for ecosystem management. Research provides feedback between the management system and the ecosystem and facilitates linkages between components. Social learning is considered an important attribute to adaptive management, as it strengthens management and policy organisations and citizens in their capacity to adapt management practices and policies to the managed ecosystem's ecological and social dynamics.

    The second socio-ecological perspective is based on the ecological knowledge system. It addresses the social and institutional aspects for the development of sustainable agriculture. Its dimensions are farmers' practices, learning, facilitation, supportive institutions and networks and conducive policies. The book uses these perspectives in an area application foreign to the field in which they have been developed. The perspective's dimensions have been used in the development of four "windows of reflection" that have guided the organisation of information gathered. The four "windows" guide and focus the case studies on (i) actors involved; (ii) flows of germplasm, knowledge and information; (iii) the social organisation of projects, organisations and the strategy's development; and (iv) the social construction of the strategy and efforts to link conservation and development.

    The first case study is located in the Netherlands, the author's home country. Institutional aspects of CGN as the National Plant Genetic Resources Programme (NPGRP) or "genebank" have been described. Zeeuwse Vlegel is introduced; it is a farmer organisation involved in the production of more ecologically sound and regional bread. In the case study, an attempt to establish linkages between the "genebank" and a farmer organisation is analysed. The study reveals that both actors are operating at the far ends of a crop development chain. CGN is not in a position to directly support a farmer organisation in its search for appropriate wheat varieties. It illustrates how dominant institutional frameworks and actor networks limit actors to collaborate and promote utilisation of agro-biodiversity. This situation is worsened by the gradual shift of agricultural research from the public to the private domain and by the unclear CGN's institutional framework.

    The second case study describes a project to establish an Agro-Biodiversity Centre in Bhutan. It emphasises an integrated conservation approach to the development of an NPGRP. Important elements include the use of agro-biodiversity surveys as tools for prioritisation of conservation strategies ( in situ , ex situ and on-farm), and targeting conservation actions at crops and locations. Another element is a decentralised organisation. It was proposed to develop local and regional agro-biodiversity platforms. The third case study stresses the formation of platforms in the development of biodiversity products. It describes a project to establish a Centre for Biodiversity Utilisation and Development in Ghana. This Centre plays a facilitation role in the initiation of activities and establishes linkages between social actors necessary for development of and marketing biodiversity products. Both the Bhutan and Ghana case studies are primarily based on formulation missions and only cover to a limited extent the projects' initial activities.

    The fourth case study describes and analyses institutional aspects of the in situ project of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). It undertakes activities in nine countries across the world and has been set up as a global effort to strengthen the scientific basis of in situ conservation on-farm. The project is implemented within the framework of NPGRPs, which through participation of NGOs and farmer groups are gradually opened up to new partners. The case study reveals that during the project's initial years IPGRI and its partners have added a strong development orientation to the project. The chapter also illustrates in what way the focus has shifted from science and conservation to utilisation of agro-biodiversity within a context of sustainable agriculture.

    The fifth case study describes and analyses efforts of the Community Biodiversity Conservation and Development (CBDC) Programme to develop and construct the in situ and on-farm conservation strategies. This programme is implemented by a group of NGOs complemented by some governmental genebanks, research organisations and university groups. It is operational in 16 countries on five continents. CBDC's focus is on strengthening community agro-biodiversity management. The case study illustrates CBDC's effort to develop a protocol for collaboration linking a diversity of organisations in one programme. It also illustrates attempts to link global and local objectives to support farmer management of agro-biodiversity. It is concluded that the programme in its initial years emphasised local capacity building and community empowerment. In its local orientation, CBDC is complementary to the IPGRI in situ project that operates within national frameworks and focuses on globally co-ordinated research. CBDC is above all considered an institutional experiment bringing together a diversity of locally operating organisations in an interactive and "bottom-up organised" programme.

    Conclusions have been drawn on the socio-ecological perspectives and institutional frameworks that support farmer management of agro-biodiversity. A key output is that "on-farm management" of agro-biodiversity should be considered by actors in the institutional crop development system an emergent property of an agro-biodiversity system formed by farmers and other actors involved. In the initial technical efforts, conservationists had considered it difficult to develop the strategy. When considering "on-farm management" a human activity system, it is evident that these conservationists were constrained by their "hard" and technical approach. The ecological perspective on agro-biodiversity as an agro-ecological service has been recognised, when placing agro-biodiversity in a context of increasing agro-ecosystem resilience. An important lesson is that "on-farm management" should not only be perceived as a conservation strategy but rather as a strategy that supports and strengthens farmer management and utilisation of crop genetic diversity.

    In an application of grounded theory, some lessons can be learnt about adaptive management and the ecological knowledge system as socio-ecological perspectives. An important lesson learnt is that rather than ecological objectives emphasised in both perspectives, political, institutional, scientific and conservation objective should motivate actors in agro-biodiversity projects. A second lesson refers to the boundaries drawn for the application of both perspectives on agro-biodiversity management. When using soft system thinking, actors socially construct system boundaries. Because of the mobile and reproductive nature of agro-biodiversity, system boundaries may be defined at various local levels. In an application of adaptive management, each agro-biodiversity system may construct institutional frameworks in which management, policy and citizen organisations are linked. Various case studies illustrate that the establishment of agro-biodiversity platforms and facilitation in processes of social learning and joint experimentation are prominent components in an adaptive organisation of agro-biodiversity management.

    NPGRPs' opportunities to support farmer management have been explored. Interactions with other actors involved in crop development have been elaborated. Barriers into institutional frameworks and professionalism are described. Some of the case studies explore the ways in which these barriers can be bridged. It is further emphasised that the flow of germplasm, knowledge and information within the institutional crop development system should be modified from a linear to an integrated organisation in which conservationists, breeders and seed specialists link with farmers' local systems. When building an agro-biodiversity management system, the boundaries between institutional and local (farmer) crop development fade away. Farmers become crop development organisations' partners in conservation, breeding and seed supply.

    Efforts to construct "on-farm management" and its social organisation are placed within context of current policy trends and changes in institutional agro-biodiversity frameworks. It is evident that the Convention cannot be isolated from other policy fora such as the FAO-IU/PGR and WTO/TRIPS. In this context, attention to the strategy may be viewed as a reaction to processes of "appropriation" of and limiting farmers' access to agro-biodiversity. The strategy emerges as a civil reaction to a decreasing public and increasing private presence in agro-biodiversity management. With respect to the institutional frameworks, the social contract between NPGRPs as public entities within society is emphasised. Conservation, but also other public and private organisations can only operate through a social contract with civil society; they are socially and politically accountable to civil society. This issue links this book with the current GMO debate in which the modern biotechnology's social contract is a major issue.

    Based on the adaptive management perspective, the activities described and analysed in this book are placed within a historical perspective on institutional renewal in the agro-biodiversity arena. A preliminary conclusion can be drawn that the activities and projects described should be considered to open up a path to a more adaptive approach to agro-biodiversity management and more ecologically sound agriculture. However, it is too early to draw conclusions whether or not they form alternative projects or comprise initial attempts that contribute to a new configuration and organisation of agro-biodiversity management and crop development. The book describes and analyses projects initiated shortly after the Convention was signed. It is considered too early, to analyse their impact on and potential contributions to the processes of institutional renewal required for institutional frameworks more actively to support farmer management and utilisation of agro-biodiversity.

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