Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
increased meal intake - energy-intake - portion size - bite size - cognitive-factors - healthy women - satiety - fat - satiation - appetite
Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effects of sip size in a focused state and a distracted state on ad libitum intake and on the estimated amount consumed. Design In this 3×2 cross-over design, 53 healthy subjects consumed ad libitum soup with small sips (5 g, 60 g/min), large sips (15 g, 60 g/min), and free sips (where sip size was determined by subjects themselves), in both a distracted and focused state. Sips were administered via a pump. There were no visual cues toward consumption. Subjects then estimated how much they had consumed by filling soup in soup bowls. Results Intake in the small-sip condition was ~30% lower than in both the large-sip and free-sip conditions (P
Sensory specific satiety and intake: The difference between nibble- and bar-size snacks
Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Liem, D.G. ; Zandstra, E.H. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2008
Appetite 50 (2008)2-3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 435 - 442.
increased meal intake - food-intake - consumption volume - portion size - feeding-behavior - energy content - women - humans - obese - taste
The present study investigated (1) whether consumption of a nibble-size snack, as compared to a bar-size snack, leads to more sensory specific satiety (SSS) and a lower intake; and (2) whether attention to consumption, as compared to usual consumption, leads to more SSS and a lower intake. Subjects (N=59) tested two snack foods which differed in size, nibbles and bars, in two consumption conditions. In the attention condition, the instruction to chew the food well was given. In the control condition no such instruction was given. For each of the four SSS sessions ad libitum intake was measured and SSS scores were calculated. Mean intake of the nibbles was 12% lower than of the bars in the control condition, but not in the attention condition. Although non-significantly, attention to consumption tended to reduce intake of the bars but not of the nibbles. SSS scores were slightly higher for the bars than for the nibbles. Our results suggest that a smaller food size results in a lower intake. The data do not clearly support the idea that attention to consumption decreases intake. Hypothetically consumption of small foods and attentive consumption prolong the oral sensory stimulation, which results in a lower intake.