Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Lipoxygenase : a game-changing enzyme
    Heshof, R. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos; Vitor Martins dos Santos, co-promotor(en): Leo de Graaff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571761 - 160
    lipoxygenase - aminozuursequenties - lipiden - schimmels - bio-informatica - kaliumjodide - industriële toepassingen - biobased economy - lipoxygenase - amino acid sequences - lipids - fungi - bioinformatics - potassium iodide - industrial applications - biobased economy

    Many challenges lie ahead in using LOXs as tools in industrial oleochemistry. One of these challenges is the supply of PUFAs. Although we are moving towards a biobased economy where second and third generation biomass is taking a leading role, it is still faster and cheaper to use first generation biomass. Industrialization of microbial oils is a good alternative to supply the demand of PUFAs. Another challenge is the production of heterologous LOX in sufficient quantities. Since the last decade this problem is being tackled and more research is being done in heterologous expression of LOXs. The LOX with the highest potential so far is the secreted Pseudomonas aeruginosa LOX produced in Escherichia coli. During this thesis research different lox genes were tried for heterologous production of LOX using different Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans strains as expression hosts. These LOXs were identified as discussed in Chapter 3 and Chapter 6. Unfortunately, heterologous production in sufficient quantities was unsuccessful using these expression hosts as discussed in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6. Since production of Gaeumannomyces graminis LOX was successful in Trichoderma reesei, as discussed in Chapter 4, the production of polymers used for bioplastics could be demonstrated in this ERA-NOEL project anyway. Therefore this thesis shifted its focus on resolving the question of the difficulties in the heterologous expression of LOX in different Aspergillus species. Chapter 5 is the result of a systematic approach to analyze different aspects of G. graminis LOX expression in A. nidulans. Chapter 2 shows that heterologous expression of extracellular fungal LOX can be performed using T. reesei and Pichia pastoris as production hosts, and E. coli can be used for the production of intracellular LOXs of plant, mammal, bacterial, and fungal origin. As shown in Chapter 2, E. coli is not very efficient in the production of heterologous LOX due to the formation of inclusion bodies and low induction temperature necessary for production. The use of Aspergillus oryzae can be exploited further in the heterologous production of LOXs. Due to the choice of using A. niger and A. nidulans as expression hosts, this expression host was not exploited for its potential. The last challenge is to synthetically engineer LOX to broaden its use in industry. In this way more building blocks for chemicals can be synthetically produced and more products based on LOX origin can be made. Therefore, LOX can be a world-wide game-changing enzyme in a biobased economy as its use can decrease the demand for petroleum-based products.

    Interactions between formulation and spray drying conditions related to survival of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1
    Perdana, J.A. ; Fox, M.B. ; Siwei, C. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2014
    Food Research International 56 (2014). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 9 - 17.
    glass-transition temperature - membrane phase-behavior - lactic-acid bacteria - flow-cytometry - industrial applications - dairy ingredients - osmotic-stress - water activity - rhamnosus gg - gel phase
    Protective solid carriers are commonly added to probiotic cultures prior to drying. Their formulation is not trivial and depends on the drying conditions applied. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of formulation parameters on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 after drying. Low molecular weight carbohydrates (less than 2 kDa) with high glass transition temperatures provided the highest level of protection at both low (25 degrees C) and high (50 degrees C or higher) drying temperatures. Low molecular weight carbohydrates may provide stabilization by closely interacting with the lipid bilayer of the cell membranes. Meanwhile, carbohydrates with high glass transition temperatures probably provide stabilization via fixation of the cells in a glassy powder. Furthermore, adequate amounts of solid carrier are required to sufficiently stabilize the cells during drying. During drying, crystallization of solid carriers may occur. Depending on the crystal geometry, crystallization can be either beneficial (e.g. with mannitol or sorbitol) or detrimental (e.g. with lactose) to cell survival. Finally, the effect of formulation on cell viability during storage was studied. A decimal reduction time of approximately 300 days was observed when spray dried L. plantarum WCFS1 was stored at temperatures below 40 degrees C. The outcome of this study was used as a basis to construct a generalized diagram to indicate the combinations of formulation and drying conditions to maximally retain viability and operate dryers at high efficiency. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Characteristics of Wheat Straw Lignins from Ethanol-based Organosolv Treatment
    Huijgen, W.J.J. ; Telysheva, G. ; Arshanitsa, A. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Wild, P.J. de - \ 2014
    Industrial Crops and Products 59 (2014). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 85 - 95.
    industrial applications - enzymatic-hydrolysis - technical lignins - kraft lignin - fractionation - pretreatment - biomass - chemicals - bagasse
    Non-purified lignins resulting from ethanol-based organosolv fractionation of wheat straw were characterized for the presence of impurities (carbohydrates and ash), functional groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl), phenyl-propanoid structural moieties, molar mass distribution and thermal behavior. In accordance with its herbaceous nature, the syringyl/guaiacyl-ratio of the wheat straw lignins was substantially lower than of Alcell lignin. In addition, the content of p-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl groups is substantially higher for the wheat straw lignins. The non-purified organosolv lignins had a high purity with 0.4–5.2% carbohydrate impurities, both originating from lignin to carbohydrate complexes and residual organosolv liquor. The use of H2SO4 in the organosolv process improved the lignin yield, but at low acid doses increased the carbohydrate impurities. For applications where a low amount of carbohydrates is important, lignin from a high-temperature autocatalytic organosolv process was found to be preferred. The highest content of total hydroxyl groups was determined when lignins were produced using 30 mM H2SO4 as catalyst or 50% w/w aqueous ethanol as solvent for the organosolv process. Aliphatic hydroxyl groups, the most predominant type of hydroxyl groups present originating for a substantial part from residual carbohydrates, were found to decrease with reaction time and ethanol proportion of the organosolv solvent. The correlations between organosolv process conditions and lignin characteristics determined can facilitate the use of organosolv lignins in value-added applications such as in polymers and resins and as a feedstock for bio-based aromatics.
    Diversity in Production of Xylan-Degrading Enzymes Among Species Belonging to the Trichoderma Section Longibrachiatum
    Toth, K. ; Gool, M.P. van; Schols, H.A. ; Samuels, G.J. ; Gruppen, H. ; Szakacs, G. - \ 2013
    Bio Energy Research 6 (2013)2. - ISSN 1939-1234 - p. 631 - 643.
    wheat-flour arabinoxylan - industrial applications - h-1-nmr spectroscopy - aspergillus-awamori - beta-glucosidase - biofuels - reesei - fermentation - hypocrea - endo-beta-1,4-xylanases
    Xylan is an important part of plant biomass and represents a renewable raw material for biorefineries. Contrary to cellulose, the structure of hemicellulose is quite complex. Therefore, the biodegradation of xylan needs the cooperation of many enzymes. For industrial production of xylanase multienzyme complexes (cocktails) and selected monocomponent xylanases, different Trichoderma reesei mutants and recombinants are used. T. reesei QM 6a (wild-type parent of best existing mutants) was selected as a starting material in the 1960s when the modern in-depth analytical methods were not yet in use. Therefore, screening of fungi genetically close to T. reesei in biodegradation of xylan may have a scientific value. Fifteen different strains from Trichoderma section Longibrachiatum have been tested for extracellular xylan-degrading enzyme production on three carbon sources (wheat straw, corn fiber, and eucalyptus wood) in shake flask cultivation. The enzyme activities were evaluated by traditional colorimetric enzyme assays and by HPLC and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Degradation of xylan was studied on four different xylan-rich model substrates. T. reesei CPK 155, Trichoderma parareesei TUB F-2535, and Trichoderma gracile TUB F-2543 isolates were equally good or better in degradation of the wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) and corn fiber alcohol insoluble solids as hydolysis substrates than the well-known T. reesei QM 6a and RUT C30 strains. Though Trichoderma saturnisporum ATCC 18903 gave relatively low volumetric enzyme activities by traditional colorimetric assays, it could release quite large amount of hydrolysis products (mono- and oligosaccharides) from WAX. Therefore, these fungi may be potential candidates for further experiments. Enzyme production on wheat straw and corn fiber carbon sources was more effective than on eucalyptus wood
    A novel method for viability enumeration for single-droplet drying of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1
    Perdana, J.A. ; Bereschenko, L.A. ; Roghair, M. ; Fox, M.B. ; Boom, R.M. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2012
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78 (2012)22. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 8082 - 8088.
    acid starter cultures - industrial applications - comparative survival - phase-transitions - probiotics - microorganisms - mechanisms - diversity - bacteria - microencapsulation
    Survival of probiotic bacteria during drying is not trivial. Survival percentages are very specific for each probiotic strain and can be improved by careful selection of drying conditions and proper drying carrier formulation. An experimental approach is presented, comprising a single-droplet drying method and a subsequent novel screening methodology, to assess the microbial viability within single particles. The drying method involves the drying of a single droplet deposited on a flat, hydrophobic surface under well-defined drying conditions and carrier formulations. Semidried or dried particles were subjected to rehydration, fluorescence staining, and live/dead enumeration using fluorescence microscopy. The novel screening methodology provided accurate survival percentages in line with conventional plating enumeration and was evaluated in single-droplet drying experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as a model probiotic strain. Parameters such as bulk air temperatures and the carrier matrices (glucose, trehalose, and maltodextrin DE 6) were varied. Following the experimental approach, the influence on the viability as a function of the drying history could be monitored. Finally, the applicability of the novel viability assessment was demonstrated for samples obtained from drying experiments at a larger scale.
    Protein isolation using affinity chromatography
    Besselink, T. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Anja Janssen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734266 - 146
    eiwitextractie - isolatie - affiniteitschromatografie - harsen - liganden - runderserumalbumine - afvalverwerking - afvalhergebruik - industriële toepassingen - protein extraction - isolation - affinity chromatography - resins - ligands - bovine serum albumin - waste treatment - waste utilization - industrial applications

    Many product or even waste streams in the food industry contain components that may have potential for e.g. functional foods. These streams are typically large in volume and the components of interest are only present at low concentrations. A robust and highly selective separation process should be developed for efficient isolation of the components. Affinity chromatography is such a selective method. Ligands immobilized to a stationary phase (e.g., a resin or membrane) are used to bind the component of interest. Affinity chromatography is, however, a costly process, due to the batch-wise operation, the large amount of solvents required and the high costs of the ligands and stationary phases. Therefore, its current use is mainly limited to lab-scale purifications and pharmaceutical applications.

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of affinity chromatography for the isolation of minor protein in the food industry. The discovery of the VHH ligand, based on the binding domain of a llama antibody, has led to a new class of highly selective ligands, which can be produced on a large scale. We studied the chromatography process to measure productivity, but also to develop a rational protocol for decisions on suitable stationary phases and process configurations. The research presented in this thesis provides insights in the opportunities and challenges for large-scale affinity chromatography.

    The isolation of protein using affinity chromatography requires several stages: adsorption, washing, and desorption. In Chapter 2, we studied these stages for the isolation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from pure BSA solutions with high and low concentration and from actual feedstock, in this case cheese whey. A small-scale packed bed column was used to investigate the yield and productivity. BSA was retrieved in highly pure and concentrated form in the desorption stage. Furthermore, we found that the productivity of the system strongly depended on the point at which the adsorption stage is terminated.

    Acids or salts are commonly used to disrupt the bond between ligand and target protein during desorption. This results in the use of large quantities of chemicals, whilst the potential of other methods for desorption, such as an increase in temperature, is not fully explored. In Chapter 3 we measured the thermodynamics of the adsorption reaction between BSA and the VHH ligand with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Temperature and pH were varied to find other conditions for desorption. A buffer with high pH could be used for desorption, and an increase of temperature seemed to weaken the bond between protein and ligand. However, the acidic buffer would in this case still be most effective.

    Apart from the bond between ligand and target protein, the stationary phase to which the ligand is immobilised plays a key role in the chromatography process. Many supports are available, of which we investigated a selection of resins for packed bed chromatography in Chapter 4. We found that some resins were unsuitable for our process due to their low adsorption capacity. A ranking and weighing method was presented to determine the optimal resin depending on the requirements of the process.

    An important issue we found for all the resins investigated, was the low adsorption capacity compared to other types of adsorptive chromatography processes, such as ion exchange chromatography. Therefore, we studied the immobilization of the ligand to three resins in more detail in Chapter 5. The efficiency of ligand immobilization depended on the ligand concentration used in the immobilization procedure. However, only approximately one out of five immobilized ligands was able to bind to the target. Improvement of ligand immobilization is therefore a potential route to increase the feasibility of affinity chromatography for large-scale processes.

    Eventually the lab-scale process has to be scaled-up to industrial scale. The commonly used axial flow column, essentially a cylinder filled with resin through which the feed flows in the axial direction, can have problems at scale-up, because of increased pressure drop as the column is lengthened. Therefore, scale-up usually takes place by widening the column. Another option is to use a radial flow column, in which the resin is confined between two concentric cylinders and liquid flows from the outside inwards or from the inside outwards. The radial flow column can be scaled up in height instead of width. In Chapter 6 we compared axial and radial flow affinity chromatography both experimentally and theoretically. We found that the differences in performance were minimal, because the process was limited by diffusion inside the resin particle. At a small process scale, radial flow columns are impractical in terms of size, but at a larger process scale they may compete with axial flow columns because of their smaller foot print and possibly lower construction costs.

    The research in this thesis was focused on a defined ligand-protein system and commercially available resins in packed-bed configuration. The potential of other stationary phases, such as non-porous (magnetic) particles, membranes and monoliths was therefore discussed in Chapter 7. We found that currently the packed bed of porous resin beads still seems to be the most suitable configuration. A radial flow column with porous affinity resin is in theory capable of isolating a low-concentrated protein from a large feed of 10 m3/h. However, the relatively low capacity of the resin, the limited liquid velocity, as well as large buffer usage and the current costs remain important issues to resolve to further expand the opportunities of affinity chromatography for minor protein isolation.

    Mechanical Characterization and pH Response of Fibril-Reinforced Microcapsules Prepared by Layer-by-Layer Adsorption
    Rossier Miranda, F.J. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2010
    Langmuir 26 (2010)24. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 19106 - 19113.
    polyelectrolyte multilayers - industrial applications - colloidal particles - capsules - microencapsulation - stability - films - salt - nanocapsules - alginate
    Despite the fair number of microencapsulation principles that have been developed, the actual protection and targeted delivery of sensitive ingredients remains a challenge in the food industry. A suitable technique should use food-grade and inexpensive materials, and ensure tight control over the capsule size and release trigger mechanism. For example, encapsulates may need to survive the low pH of the stomach to release their contents in the neutral environment of the small intestine. In this work we present layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules assembled from whey protein isolate (WPI), high-methoxyl pectin (HMP) and WPI-fibrils. The narrow size distribution of these capsules is determined by the oil-in-water droplets used as templates, and their mechanical properties and pH response can be tuned by the number of layers adsorbed. Capsules with more than eight layers have a mechanical strength comparable to chemically cross-linked polymer capsules, because of the reinforcement by the WPI-fibrils in combination with the shell completion. Typically, capsules with five layers survive pH 2 for more than 2 h, but dissolve within 30 min at pH 7. At higher number of layers, the capsules are even more stable. Contrary to other encapsulates, these capsules can be dried and are suitable for application in dry products.
    Nieuwe bioplastics op de markt
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2009
    industriële toepassingen - kunststoffen - bioplastics - biobased economy - industrial applications - plastics - bioplastics - biobased economy
    Bioplastics zijn plastics die (gedeeltelijk) van hernieuwbare grondstoffen zijn gemaakt. Deze info sheet geeft info over de opkomende markten voor nieuwe bioplastics.
    Polymelkzuur : markt en milieuaspecten
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Patel, M. - \ 2009
    kunststoffen - melkzuur - industriële toepassingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bioplastics - biobased economy - plastics - lactic acid - industrial applications - sustainability - bioplastics - biobased economy
    Polymelkzuur (PLA) is momenteel het meest gebruikte bioplastic. Deze info sheet geeft info over de industriële productie, vervangingspotentieel en duurzaamheid van PLA.
    Biobased polyethyleen : markt- en milieuaspecten
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Patel, M. - \ 2009
    kunststoffen - polyethyleen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - industriële toepassingen - bioplastics - biobased economy - plastics - polyethylene - sustainability - industrial applications - bioplastics - biobased economy
    Polyethyleen of polyetheen (PE) is een veelgebruikt plastic dat wordt geproduceerd uit aardolie. Het is echter ook mogelijk PE te maken te maken uit hernieuwbare grondstoffen. Deze info sheet geeft info over biobased PE.
    Zetmeelplastics : markt en milieu-aspecten
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Patel, M. - \ 2009
    zetmeel - kunststoffen - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - industriële toepassingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bioplastics - biobased economy - starch - plastics - starch industry - industrial applications - sustainability - bioplastics - biobased economy
    Zetmeelplastics behoren tot de grootste groep van bioplastics in termen van productie volumes binnen Europa. Deze info sheet geeft info over industriële productie, vervangingspotentieel en duurzaamheid van zetmeelplastics.
    Carboxylic ester hydrolases from hyperthermophiles
    Levisson, M. ; Oost, J. van der; Kengen, S.W.M. - \ 2009
    Extremophiles 13 (2009)4. - ISSN 1431-0651 - p. 567 - 581.
    archaeon sulfolobus-solfataricus - aeropyrum-pernix k1 - hormone-sensitive lipase - thermus-thermophilus hb27 - thermostable esterase - crystal-structure - thermoacidophilic archaeon - pyrococcus-furiosus - thermotoga-maritima - industrial applications
    Carboxylic ester hydrolyzing enzymes constitute a large group of enzymes that are able to catalyze the hydrolysis, synthesis or transesterification of an ester bond. They can be found in all three domains of life, including the group of hyperthermophilic bacteria and archaea. Esterases from the latter group often exhibit a high intrinsic stability, which makes them of interest them for various biotechnological applications. In this review, we aim to give an overview of all characterized carboxylic ester hydrolases from hyperthermophilic microorganisms and provide details on their substrate specificity, kinetics, optimal catalytic conditions, and stability. Approaches for the discovery of new carboxylic ester hydrolases are described. Special attention is given to the currently characterized hyperthermophilic enzymes with respect to their biochemical properties, 3D structure, and classification
    Bioplastics: zetmeel
    Bolck, C.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2009
    zetmeel - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - industriële toepassingen - herkomst - bioplastics - biobased economy - starch - starch industry - industrial applications - provenance - bioplastics - biobased economy
    Deze info sheet geeft een overzicht van de herkomst en toepassingsmogelijkheden van bioplastics gebaseerd op zetmeel. De tekst is gebaseerd op het boekje Bioplastics, één van de uitgaven uit de reeks Groene Grondstoffen
    Groen bouwen met hernieuwbare grondstoffen
    Kasper, G.J. - \ 2009
    bouwmaterialen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - toepassingen - industriële toepassingen - milieu - milieutechniek - biobased economy - building materials - renewable resources - applications - industrial applications - environment - environmental engineering - biobased economy
    Deze info sheet geeft informatie over hernieuwbare grondstoffen toegepast in bouwmaterialen. Besproken wordt welke hernieuwbare grondstoffen geschikt zijn, waar ze toegepast kunnen worden en welke milieuvoordelen ze hebben.
    Katalyse in de biobased economy
    Es, D.S. van; Harmsen, P.F.H. - \ 2008
    katalysatoren - biomassa - industriële toepassingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - katalyse - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - catalysts - biomass - industrial applications - sustainability - catalysis - biobased economy - biobased chemistry
    Een katalysator is een stof die een chemische reactie versnelt zonder bij het proces verbruikt te worden. Door te werken met katalysatoren kunnen processen met minder energie en grondstoffenverbruik uitgevoerd worden. Omdat hernieuwbare grondstoffen in toenemende mate worden ingezet voor de productie van (bulk) chemicaliën is er ook steeds meer behoefte aan katalysatoren die gebruikt kunnen worden voor de omzetting van biomassa.
    Verwaarding reststroom uienbewerking
    Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. ; Schroot, J.H. ; Mulder, W.J. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (ASFG nr. 886) - ISBN 9789085048503 - 155
    uien - oogstresten - verwerking - extractie - industriële toepassingen - compostering - verbranding - fermentatie - kleurstoffen in voedsel - antioxidanten - scheidingstechnologie - bioethanol - biobased economy - onions - crop residues - processing - extraction - industrial applications - composting - combustion - fermentation - food colourants - antioxidants - separation technology - bioethanol - biobased economy
    In opdracht van ZUVER heeft Wageningen Universiteit en Research Centre de mogelijkheden bekeken voor verwaarding van de reststroom die bij de uienbewerking vrijkomt. Tijdens het uienbewerkingsproces komt een continue reststroom vrij. Deze reststroom bedraagt voor alle uienbewerkingsbedrijven tezamen jaarlijks 16.800 tot 18.900 ton. De reststroom komt vrij tijdens drie verschillende deelprocessen: lossen, afstaarten en sorteren/verpakken. De samenstelling van de reststroom is bij ieder proces anders. De drie deelprocessen geven qua omvang de volgende reststromen: ¿ Lossen: 4.800 ton tot 5.400 ton ¿ Afstaarten: 9.600 ton tot 10.800 ton ¿ Sorteren: 2.400 ton tot 2.700 ton Op dit moment 2008 wordt de reststroom gecomposteerd en over het land uitgereden. Tegelijkertijd willen de uienbewerkingsbedrijven ook kijken naar afzetmogelijkheden met meer toegevoegde waarde. De reststroom bevat interessante componenten die mogelijk interessant zijn voor hoogwaardiger toepassingen. De droge bruine pellen zijn rijk aan onoplosbare vezels en ze bevatten relatief veel quercitine. De wortels en bolstoel bevatten relatief veel zwavelcomponenten die als geur- of smaakstof herkenbaar zijn. Mogelijk kan een mengsel van quercitine en de zwavelcomponenten toegepast worden als insecticide of herbicide. Dit zal afhangen van werkzaamheid, dosering en benodigde zuiverheid. Wanneer de reststroom wordt gescheiden in een grondfractie en een overige fractie zijn er meer mogelijkheden voor de reststroom in beeld. Er zijn dus voordelen van scheiding van de grond- en niet-grondfractie. Het scheiden net na het lossen gebeurt al op dit moment: dat is de losstroom. Voor een aanvullende scheidingsstap is vooral de droge scheidingstechnologie in beeld. Het gaat dan bijvoorbeeld om windziften. Immers op elk bedrijf staan al afzuiginstallaties . ZUVER wil via mechanische stappen de scheiding verder optimaliseren . Om deze scheidingstechnieken te implementeren is nog wel een kort onderzoekstraject noodzakelijk waarin de technische en economische haalbaarheid van een scheiding van grond en uienpellen (inclusief staarten) uitgezocht wordt. Op basis van de samenstelling van de reststroom uit de uienbewerking is een groot aantal toepassingen bedacht. Deze toepassingen zijn gegroepeerd Verwaarding reststroom uienbewerking naar toegevoegde waarde, waarbij het onderscheid in fertilizer (compost, bodemverbeteraar), fuel (energie), fibre (vezel), feed (veevoer), food (humane voeding), farma en other (overig) is gehanteerd. De potentiële toepassingen omvatten een groot scala aan producten, die sterk uiteenlopen waar het gaat om de toegevoegde waarde. Daarvan lijkt een aantal toepassingen aantrekkelijk voor de uienbewerkingsbedrijven. Deze opties zijn nader uitgewerkt. Het gaat daarbij om opties die al binnen handbereik liggen, zoals compostering. Daarnaast zijn er toepassingen waar enig aanvullend onderzoek noodzakelijk is zoals verbranding. De meer hoogwaardiger toepassingen als kleurstof, antioxidant fungicide en insecticide vergen ook verdere ontwikkeling (met partners). Voor deze meer hoogwaardiger toepassingen geldt dat bedrijven die actief zijn in deze markt interesse hebben in de producten die de uienbewerkingsbedrijven kunnen aanleveren. In een samenwerkingsverband kunnen de mogelijkheden voor de verdere productontwikkeling worden verkend.
    Strategic Alignment of Innovation to Business: Balancing the Exploration and Exploitation Function
    Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Innovation and sustainability vol. 2) - ISBN 9789086860562 - 174
    levenscyclus - innovaties - onderzoek - industriële toepassingen - exploratie - hulpbronnengebruik - strategisch management - life cycle - innovations - research - industrial applications - exploration - resource utilization - strategic management
    This book addresses the crucial question for innovative prospector companies of how to bridge the gap between exploration and exploitation. Whereas exploration deals with the search for new ideas and opportunities, exploitation is about incrementally moving the performance bar a little bit higher. Finding the right balance between exploration and exploitation is essential for the long term survival in today's highly dynamic business environments. In a cross-industry study of ten large, multinational prospector companies, which are world leaders in their respective industries, it was discovered that the 'industry clockspeed', the length between the subsequent product generations, plays an essential role in bridging this gap. The product generation life cycle (PGLC) typically ranged from just several months in short life cycle industries (SLCIs), such as electronics and the mobile phone industry, to (more than) 10 years in long life cycle industries (LLCIs), such as aerospace and pharmaceutics. Our data indicate that companies operating in SLCIs face major problems in maintaining the long term knowledge base of their firms, whereas companies in LLCIs tend to have problems in aligning their innovation strategy to the short term business needs. To investigate the dynamics of strategic alignment, in one of the LLCI companies, a multinational supplier of industrial components, a six-year longitudinal study was conducted. Here our data indicate that finding a funding structure that effectively balances exploration and exploitation, combined with regular structured feedback between the exploration and exploitation function is needed to maintain long term strategic alignment. CTOs and innovation managers can use this book by first establishing the industry clockspeed(s) in their respective industries or product range(s) and then benchmark their innovation processes to those of the first class (SLCI or LLCI) prospector companies included in this book.
    Industriële Biotechnologie: een duurzaam proces
    Eggink, G. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 34
    biotechnologie - fermentatie - industriële toepassingen - industriële gewassen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - biotechnology - fermentation - industrial applications - industrial crops - natural resources
    Quick scan kansen op het gebied van biobrandstoffen : met nadruk op de agro-sector
    Annevelink, E. ; Bakker, R.R. ; Meeusen-van Onna, M.J.G. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group 619) - ISBN 9789085850106 - 81
    bio-energie - brandstoffen - biomassa - agrarische afvalstoffen - afvalbeheer - industriële toepassingen - tendensen - innovaties - toekomst - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - bioenergy - fuels - biomass - agricultural wastes - waste management - industrial applications - trends - innovations - future - biofuels - biobased economy
    Detection of Fusarium in single wheat kernels using spectral Imaging
    Polder, G. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Young, I.T. - \ 2005
    Seed Science and Technology 33 (2005). - ISSN 0251-0952 - p. 655 - 668.
    fusarium - korrels (granen) - detectie - spectraalanalyse - beeldvormende spectroscopie - fusarium - kernels - detection - spectral analysis - imaging spectroscopy - near-infrared reflectance - least-squares regression - machine vision - industrial applications - neural-network - head blight - spectroscopy - scab - corn - identification
    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a harmful fungal disease that occurs in small grains. Non-destructive detection of this disease is traditionally done using spectroscopy or image processing. In this paper the combination of these two in the form of spectral imaging is evaluated. Transmission spectral images are recorded, both in the visible and near-infrared range from FHB infected wheat kernels. These images are analyzed, using light absorption, the relation between two wavelength bands, unsupervised fuzzy c-means clustering and supervised partial least squares regression. The reference method for training and validation is TaqMan real-time PCR. Results show that nearinfrared spectral images perform much better than spectral images in the visible range. Kernels with more than 6000 pg Fusarium DNA could clearly be identified. Above 100 pg it was possible to predict the amount of Fusarium with a Q2 of 0.8. This was both for Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) and a simple wavelength ratio. Also fuzzy c-means clustering shows a relation between amount of Fusarium and spectra.
    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a harmful fungal disease that occurs in small grains. Non-destructive detection of this disease is traditionally done using spectroscopy or image processing. In this paper the combination of these two in the form of spectral imaging is evaluated. Transmission spectral images are recorded, both in the visible and near-infrared range from FHB infected wheat kernels. These images are analyzed, using light absorption, the relation between two wavelength bands, unsupervised fuzzy c-means clustering and supervised partial least squares regression. The reference method for training and validation is TaqMan real-time PCR. Results show that near-infrared spectral images perform much better than spectral images in the visible range. Kernels with more than 6000 pg Fusarium DNA could clearly be identified. Above 100 pg it was possible to predict the amount of Fusarium with a Q(2) of 0.8. This was both for Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) and a simple wavelength ratio. Also fuzzy c-means clustering shows a relation between amount of Fusarium and spectra.
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