Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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‘Biobased is al lang volwassen’ : Jacco van Haveren
Haveren, J. van - \ 2018
biobased economy - industry - biobased materials - innovations - research - biomass - bioplastics - fibres

De biobased economie klein? Daar klopt niks van, als je het Jacco van Haveren vraagt. Hij is Programmamanager Biobased Chemicaliën en Brandstoffen bij Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research. 'Kijk maar eens om je heen; qua volume zijn er nu al veel meer biobased materialen, dan materialen gebaseerd op aardolie.'

PLATFORM policy brief No. 4. Alignment in the Bioeconomy
Kwant, Kees ; Lampel, Stefan ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, Brenda - \ 2018
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 4 p.
PLATFORM - Alignment - Bioeconomy - Policy
Evaluatie energiebelastingtarief glastuinbouw : vergelijking met energie-intensieve industriële sectoren
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Silvis, H.J. ; Smit, Martine ; Blom, Martijn - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-027) - ISBN 9789462577909 - 63
glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - industrie - economische evaluatie - vergelijkend onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - industry - economic evaluation - comparative research
Scoping study Turkish Rainbow trout aquaculture
Schram, E. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES C005/16) - 19
rainbow trout - recirculating aquaculture systems - fish culture - industry - stakeholders - companies - feasibility studies - turkey - regenboogforel - recirculatie aquacultuur systemen - visteelt - industrie - stakeholders - kapitaalvennootschappen - haalbaarheidsstudies - turkije
Characterisation of biofilms formed by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and food spoilage isolates
Fernández Ramírez, M.D. ; Smid, E.J. ; Abee, T. ; Nierop Groot, M.N. - \ 2015
International Journal of Food Microbiology 207 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 23 - 29.
lactic-acid bacteria - enterococcal surface protein - listeria-monocytogenes - pseudomonas-putida - bacillus-subtilis - starter cultures - genetic-analysis - rhamnosus gg - resistance - industry
Lactobacillus plantarum has been associated with food spoilage in a wide range of products and the biofilm growth mode has been implicated as a possible source of contamination. In this study we analysed the biofilm forming capacity of L. plantarum WCFS1 and six food spoilage isolates. Biofilm formation as quantified by crystal violet staining and colony forming units was largely affected by the medium composition, growth temperature and maturation time and by strain specific features. All strains showed highest biofilm formation in Brain Heart Infusion medium supplemented with manganese and glucose. For L. plantarum biofilms the crystal violet (CV) assay, that is routinely used to quantify total biofilm formation, correlates poorly with the number of culturable cells in the biofilm. This can in part be explained by cell death and lysis resulting in CV stainable material, conceivably extracellular DNA (eDNA), contributing to the extracellular matrix. The strain to strain variation may in part be explained by differences in levels of eDNA, likely as result of differences in lysis behaviour. In line with this, biofilms of all strains tested, except for one spoilage isolate, were sensitive to DNase treatment. In addition, biofilms were highly sensitive to treatment with Proteinase K suggesting a role for proteins and/or proteinaceous material in surface colonisation. This study shows the impact of a range of environmental factors and enzyme treatments on biofilm formation capacity for selected L. plantarum isolates associated with food spoilage, and may provide clues for disinfection strategies in food industry.
Assessing the Status of Food Safety Management Systems for Fresh Produce Production in East Africa: Evidence from Certified Green Bean Farms in Kenya and Noncertified Hot Pepper Farms in Uganda
Nanyunja, J. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Kirezieva, K.K. ; Kaaya, S. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2015
Journal of Food Protection 78 (2015)6. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1081 - 1089.
processing companies - private standards - value chains - performance - quality - vegetables - countries - industry - fruits
The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a “basic level of control and assurance” activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an “average level of control and assurance,” providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.
Current performance of food safety management systems of dairy processing companies in Tanzania
Kussaga, J.B. ; Luning, P.A. ; Tisekwa, B.P.M. ; Jacxsens, L. - \ 2015
International Journal of Dairy Technology 68 (2015)2. - ISSN 1364-727X - p. 227 - 252.
microbiological quality - raw-milk - pasteurized milk - developing-country - burkina-faso - bamako mali - haccp - industry - plants - implementation
food safety management system (FSMS)-diagnostic instrument was applied in 22 dairy processing companies to analyse the set-up and operation of core control and assurance activities in view of the risk characteristics of the systems' context. Three clusters of companies were identified differing in levels of set-up and operation of this FSMS and system outputs, but all operated in a similar moderate-risk context. Microbiological assessment of products, environmental and hand samples indicated a poor to moderate food safety level. A two stage intervention approach has been proposed to enable commitment and sustainable improvement for the longer term.
Factors affecting the status of food safety management systems in the global fresh produce chain
Kirezieva, K.K. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Allende, A. ; Johannessen, G.S. ; Tondo, E.C. ; Rajkovicb, A. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Boekel, T. van - \ 2015
Food Control 52 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 85 - 97.
developing-countries - private standards - o104h4 outbreak - performance - quality - challenges - vegetables - industry - implementation - exports
Increase in global trade raised questions regarding status of food safety management systems in fresh produce companies, especially from developing and emerging countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of food safety management systems (FSMSs) implemented at primary production companies of fresh produce, to examine the potential differences between companies operating in European Union (EU) and non-EU (developing and emerging) countries, and to explore the underlying factors. Primary production companies (n = 118), located in the EU and in international cooperation partner countries exporting to the EU, were assessed by using a diagnostic tool. The results from the study indicated that several factors have a dominating effect on the status of FSMSs in the global fresh produce chain. International export supply chains promote capacity building within companies in the chain, to answer the stringent requirements of private brand standards. This was shown to be an important factor in emerging and developing countries, where local institutional environments often fail to support companies in setting and implementing their FSMSs. Moreover, the legislative framework in these countries still requires improvements in the establishment and enforcement. All this has negative consequences for the FSMSs in companies supplying the local markets. In companies located in the EU, sector and other produce organisations facilitate the sampling for pesticide residues and collaboration in the sector. Overall, farmers showed less knowledge and overall awareness regarding microbiological hazards, which is related to the less attention paid to these in the current legislation and standards. Furthermore, standards are an important tool to trigger the maturation of the systems as companies that were lacking any pressure to comply to standards operated at a very basic level - with only few activities implemented. The insights from this study indicate the need of stratified measures and policies to support companies in the fresh produce chain in designing and operating their FSMSs according to the institutional environment in which they operate.
Vertically Differentiating Environmental Standards: The Case of the Marine Stewardship Council
Bush, S.R. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015)2. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 1861 - 1883.
global value chains - sustainability standards - developing-countries - private governance - msc certification - agrifood system - palm oil - fisheries - industry - trade
This paper explores the externally-led vertical differentiation of third-party certification standards using the case of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). We analyze this process in two dimensions. First, fisheries employ strategies to capture further market value from fishing practices that go beyond their initial conditions for certification and seek additional recognition for these activities through co-labelling with, amongst others, international NGOs. Second, fisheries not yet able to meet the requirements of MSC standards are being enrolled in NGO and private sector sponsored Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs), providing an alternative route to global markets. In both cases the credibility and authority of the MSC is challenged by new coalitions of market actors opening up new strategies for capturing market value and/or improving the conditions of international market access. Through the lens of global value chains, the results offer new insights on how such standards not only influence trade and markets, but are also starting to change their internal governance in response to threats to their credibility by actors and modes of coordination in global value chains.
Dynamic and Static Behaviour with Respect to Energy Use and Investment of Dutch Greenhouse Firms
Verreth, D.M.I. ; Emvalomatis, G. ; Bunte, F.H.J. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
Environmental and Resource Economics 61 (2015)4. - ISSN 0924-6460 - p. 595 - 614.
adjustment costs - agriculture - industry - scale - model
Dutch greenhouse horticulture firms are energy-intensive and major emitters of greenhouse gases. This paper develops a theoretically consistent model that is able to describe the greenhouse firms’ behaviour regarding energy use and investments in energy technology. The behaviour of the firm is modelled using a combination of a dynamic cost function and a static profit function framework. The optimal quantity of energy is derived from the link between these two functions. The model is applied to a panel of 97 Dutch greenhouse firms over the period 2001–2008. The results show that most Dutch greenhouse firms shift from being net electricity users to net electricity producers in the long term. Investing in energy capital contributes to reducing net energy use, however it increases the quantity of carbon dioxide emissions due to an increase in electricity production. A 1 % increase of the price of gas reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 1.6 %.
The emergence of institutional innovations in tourism: the evolution of the African Wildlife Foundation's tourism conservation enterprises
Wijk, J.J. van; Duim, V.R. van der; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Sumba, D. - \ 2015
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 23 (2015)1. - ISSN 0966-9582 - p. 104 - 125.
entrepreneurship - creation - industry - fields - agency
This paper examines the evolving and innovatory role of the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), an NGO with charitable status, in dealing with the challenge of protecting wildlife outside state-protected areas. Drawing on the theoretical framework of institutional entrepreneurship, we historically trace AWF's engagement in conservation tourism, describing the complexities of how its actions evolved into the new organizational form of tourism conservation enterprises. We identify four key mechanisms – its “glocal” scope of action, awareness of policy and market voids, experimentation and hiring business professionals – that explain why AWF became aware, motivated and open to developing this organizational form. Lessons emerging from this process include that conservation NGOs should act as “opportunity seekers”, focus on incremental rather than radical innovations, note voids and ambiguities in governmental policies that provide opportunities for non-state actors to assume the role of institutional entrepreneur, and hire staff skilled in business, tourism and strategic management besides staff with the more conventional conservation skills in order to effectively engage in conservation tourism. Overall, the paper notes the importance of commercial conservation tourism approaches for the work of protected areas worldwide, and in using tourism as a poverty alleviation tool in less developed countries.
Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes
Gizaw, S. ; Rischkowsky, B. ; Valle-Zárate, A. ; Haile, A. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Mwai, O. ; Dessie, T. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 131 (2014)5. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 341 - 349.
menz crossbred sheep - genetic-parameters - ethiopia - traits - improvement - population - selection - industry - growth - cattle
Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.
Bedrijf en bestaan. Twee eeuwen economische geschiedenis van Gelderland
Cruyningen, P.J. van - \ 2014
Zwolle : WBooks - ISBN 9789462580145 - 376
economische ontwikkeling - geschiedenis - industrie - gelderland - economic development - history - industry
In de voorbije twee eeuwen is Gelderland onherkenbaar veranderd. Omstreeks 1800 was het een agrarisch gewest, waar de stadjes kleine eilanden waren in een zee van landbouwgrond en heidevelden. Na 1850 groeiden de steden en kwam de industrie op. Die industrie veranderde het landschap. Stad en platteland werden omstreeks 1950 gedomineerd door hoge fabrieksschoorstenen. Onder druk van concurrentie uit lagelonenlanden zou die industrie weer voor een groot deel verdwijnen. Tegenwoordig heeft Gelderland een diensteneconomie, waarin de kenniscentra rond de universiteiten van Nijmegen en Wageningen een grote rol spelen. Bedrijf en bestaan beschrijft die veranderingen, maar laat ook de continuïteit zien. Zo blijkt Gelderland al eeuwenlang een centrum van baksteen- en papierindustrie en reiken de wortels van de metaalindustrie van de Oude IJsselstreek tot in de 17e eeuw. Niet alleen grote bedrijven als ENKA, De Betuwe en DRU komen aan bod, maar ook kleine bedrijven en markante ondernemers.
Innovation capabilities in food and beverages and technology-based innovation projects
Tepic, M. ; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Kemp, R.G.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
British Food Journal 116 (2014)2. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 228 - 250.
product development - success factors - dynamic environments - chinese firms - performance - industry - uncertainty - system - perspectives - acceptance
Purpose - The aim of this paper is to establish the differences between the food and beverages (F&B) and technology-based industries with regards to the relation between previously identified success factors and innovation project performance. Design/methodology/approach - These differences are established on the basis of logistic regression analysis, using 38 innovation projects (18 F&B and 20 technology-based). Findings - Newness of the innovation project to the company, communication capabilities and market potential have a more negative impact on innovation project performance in the F&B than the tech-based industry. Especially functional upstream capabilities increase the likelihood of success in F&B, when compared to tech-based innovation projects. Practical implications - While functional upstream capabilities are important for success of F&B innovation projects, there is still room for improvement in order to deal effectively with newness of the innovation project to the company. Internalization of resources from the network and a balanced radical/incremental innovation project portfolio contribute to additional enhancement of functional capabilities of the F&B companies, improving their capacity to deal with newness. Through a larger focus on co-innovation with retail, F&B companies can improve their intra- and inter-firm communication capabilities to attain more consumer-oriented integration of R&D and marketing activities, improving the market potential of their innovations. Originality/value - This paper demonstrates that the previously identified critical success factors for innovation projects differ in impact and importance for F&B innovation project performance when compared to innovation projects in the technology-based industry.
Clustering as an Organizational Response to Capital Market Inefficiency: Evidence from Microenterprises in Ethiopia
Ali, M.A. ; Peerlings, J.H.M. ; Zhang, X. - \ 2014
Small Business Economics 43 (2014)3. - ISSN 0921-898X - p. 697 - 709.
division-of-labor - credit constraints - industry - growth - finance - agglomeration - efficiency - returns - china - industrialization
Absence of a well-developed capital market has been listed as a key obstacle to industrialization in developing countries in the development literature. In this paper, we show that industrial clusters, through specialization and division of labor, can ease the financial constraints of microenterprises even in the absence of a well-functioning capital market. By using data from more than 17,000 microenterprises in four sectors and four regions of Ethiopia, we find that clustering lowers capital entry barrier by reducing the initial investment required to start a business. This effect is found to be significantly larger for microenterprises investing in districts with high capital market inefficiency, indicating the importance of clustering as an organizational response to a credit constrained environment. The findings highlight the importance of cluster-based industrial activities as an alternative method of propagating industrialization when local conditions do not allow easy access to credit.
Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain
Dabade, D.S. ; Besten, H.M.W. den; Azokpota, P. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2014
Journal of Food Protection 77 (2014)9. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1642 - 1648.
food safety - temperature abuse - supply chains - transparency - challenges - assurance - handlers - industry - seafood
In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.
Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development
Jacobsen, L.F. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Søndergaard, H.A. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Dekker, M. ; Lähteenmäki, L. - \ 2014
Trends in Food Science and Technology 37 (2014)2. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 106 - 114.
r-and-d - knowledge management - innovation - performance - integration - perspective - industry - projects - flows - teams
In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market and technology experts within the NPD process from a food industry point of view. The review provides practical implications for improving internal communication in food companies and identifies knowledge gaps. By focussing on optimising organisational structure, team composition, management support, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process.
Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium
Gelder, A.H. van; Sousa, D.Z. ; Rijpstra, W.I. ; Damsté, J.S. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Sanchez Andrea, I. - \ 2014
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 64 (2014)7. - ISSN 1466-5026 - p. 2449 - 2454.
ribosomal-rna genes - acid - heterogeneity - fermentation - sequences - biofuels - glycerol - industry - operons - genomes
A novel anaerobic succinate-producing bacterium, strain ZWBT, was isolated from sludge collected from a biogas desulfurization bioreactor (Eerbeek, the Netherlands). Cells were non-spore-forming, motile, slightly curved rods (0.4–0.5 µm in diameter and 2–3 µm in length), and stained Gram-negative. The temperature range for growth was 25–40 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was 7.0–9.0, with an optimum at pH 7.5. Strain ZWBT was able to ferment glycerol and several carbohydrates mainly to H2, succinate and acetate. Sulfur and fumarate could be used as electron acceptors by strain ZWBT. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.6 mol%. The most abundant fatty acids were iso-C14¿:¿0 and iso-C16¿:¿0 DMA. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain ZWBT belongs to the family Ruminococcaceae and it is distantly related to Saccharofermentans acetigenes JCM 14006T (92.1¿%). Based on the physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, strain ZWBT represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Ercella succinigenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ercella succinigenes is ZWBT (¿=¿DSM 27333T¿=¿JCM 19283T).
Same Disease—different research strategies: Bananas and Black Sigatoka in Brazil
Cordoba, D.M. ; Jansen, K. - \ 2014
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 35 (2014)3. - ISSN 0129-7619 - p. 345 - 361.
panama-disease - management - industry
Fungal disease epidemics have the potential to bring about drastic innovations. However, in the case of the Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) fungus in bananas, producers and international traders are still awaiting a breakthrough in crop protection research. Using the cases of Brazil and Colombia, this paper examines different agricultural research responses to the disease. Brazil opted to replace susceptible varieties with resistant ones, whereas in Colombia chemical control by private actors dominated. We argue that these different responses result from at least three interrelated factors. First, producer type—smallholder farmers or larger export-oriented plantations—influences the setting of crop protection research priorities. Second, a central, stateled role versus a private sector response influences the size and time perspective of research activities. Third, domestic markets with multiple crop varieties versus Cavendish-only export markets leads to differences in control practices and research responses. From this case study, we argue that the currently proposed innovation systems approaches in international agricultural research should adopt a broader perspective that assesses how research is interwoven with agrarian dynamics, commodity chains and particular state roles to elucidate how state–producer–researcher networks perform disease control and where and how to find new solutions.
Assessing dynamic efficiency of the Spanish construction sector pre- and post-financial crisis
Kapelko, M. ; Stefanou, S.E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2014
European Journal of Operational Research 237 (2014)1. - ISSN 0377-2217 - p. 349 - 357.
data envelopment analysis - technical efficiency - electric utilities - industry - dea - model
This paper undertakes the full decomposition of dynamic cost inefficiency into technical, scale and allocative inefficiency based on the dynamic directional distance function. The empirical application estimates dynamic inefficiency in the Spanish construction industry before and during the current financial crisis over the period 2001–2009. Static inefficiency measures are biased in a context of a significant economic crisis with large investments and disinvestments as they do not account for costs in the adjustment of quasi-fixed factors. Allocative inefficiency is smaller, while technical inefficiency is larger when using the dynamic compared to the static framework. Results further indicate that overall dynamic cost inefficiency is very high with technical inefficiency being the largest component, followed by allocative and scale inefficiency. Moreover, overall dynamic cost inefficiency is significantly larger before the beginning of the financial crisis than during the financial crisis. Larger firms are less technically and scale inefficient than smaller firms on average, but have more problems in choosing the mix of inputs that minimizes their long-term costs. Firms that went bankrupt, on average, have a higher overall dynamic cost inefficiency and scale inefficiency than continuing firms.
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