Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Making expertise fit: On the use of certified versus experiential knowledge in becoming an informed patient
Versteeg, Wytske ; Molder, Hedwig te - \ 2019
Journal of Health Psychology (2019). - ISSN 1359-1053
chronic illness - communication - coping - epistemology - experience - information - norms - self-presentation - social interaction - social media

This article reports a discursive psychological study of online conversations among patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on what constitutes an “informed patient.” Being informed means different things for different patient groups. Whether patients prioritize experiential or certified expert knowledge is not indicative of patients’ preferences per se but depends on how they give meaning to the responsibilities particular to their disease. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients hold each other accountable for demonstrating the seriousness of their disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients use expert information to orient to a norm of thinking positive. Diabetes patients challenge experts to carve out independence from the diabetes regimen.

Can zoning resolve nature use conflicts? The case of the Numto Nature Park in the Russian Arctic
Pristupa, A.O. ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Leemans, H.B.J. ; Minayeva, Tatiana ; Markina, Anastasia - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)10. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1674 - 1700.
Russia - protected areas - zoning - legitimacy - information
In the Russian Arctic, nature protection is important to preserve valuable ecosystems and indigenous lifestyles against the rapidly expanding oil and gas activities. In this regard, zoning legitimately balances influential stakeholders versus weak ones, and can leverage stakeholders to exercise their rights. This study explores how various stakeholders employ zoning in the Numto Nature Park in the oil-rich Russian Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra to advance their interests and how they use scientific information to achieve this. Through stakeholder interviews, analysis of electronic media and literature review, we conclude that a participatory and science-based zoning exercise stimulates the necessary deliberation. However, legal ambiguity, deficient law implementation and informal practices limit the zoning's potential to balance stakeholders’ interests. All the stakeholders calculatingly used scientific information to legitimize their own ambitions, activities and claims. Hence, zoning and the underlying information claims should be interpreted as both a resource and a battleground in nature-use conflicts.
Agrimatie : alle feiten en cijfers Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw (LEI Wageningen UR )
Fernhout, C.Y. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
agro-industriële sector - landbouw - informatieverspreiding - informatie - informatiediensten - marktinformatie - kennisoverdracht - bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijven - lesmaterialen - agroindustrial sector - agriculture - diffusion of information - information - information services - market intelligence - knowledge transfer - management - farm management - businesses - teaching materials
Heel Nederland heeft te maken met de agrosector: of het nu gaat om werk, voedsel of vrije tijd. Op Agrimatie.nl staan gegevens verzameld van allerlei projecten, databases en 1500 agrarische ondernemers (helemaal anoniem natuurlijk).
Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments
Mwenda, A.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): Arend Ligtenberg; T.N. Kibutu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573314 - 123
milieueffect - milieueffectrapportage - publieke participatie - informatie - informatieverspreiding - kenya - environmental impact - environmental impact reporting - public participation - information - diffusion of information - kenya

Thesis Summary

Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments

Angela N. Mwenda

Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of development on the environment, and proposes timely mitigation of these impacts to the extent possible. Since then, EIA has continued to be established in countries worldwide, with modifications being made to suit regional and local requirements. Essential to EIA is an attempt to balance environmental concerns with social, economic and other human needs, which has led to partnership with society, to the extent that public participation is deeply incorporated into EIA. Also central to the EIA process is information related to the natural and human environment. Sources of this information, particularly those that contain spatial elements, are valuable due to their ability to provide information on location. Sources of spatial information are numerous, and may include photographs, maps, satellite images, orthophotographs, verbal descriptions, animations, and virtual reality, among others.

Despite its innovative presentation of project-relevant information and communication function during public participation, debate exists on the value of spatial information to EIA. For example, high levels of visual realism may hinder the interpretation of spatial information, while high costs, and technical demands may cause certain types of spatial information to be inaccessible to a large number of stakeholders. These challenges are not unique to any one country, and have also been observed in developing countries, where, in addition to a deficiency of information, less developed and poorly enforced legislative, administrative, institutional and procedural frameworks for EIA intensify the challenges. For example, despite an official recommendation for the use of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya, whether this happens, and the extent, was largely undocumented. In view of this observation, an investigation into the use and status of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya was considered.

The main objective of this research was to establish whether spatial information is used in public participation within EIA, and if so, the extent of its use. Three specific sub-objectives were developed, namely: to confirm the presence and extent of public participation within EIA in Kenya; to establish the extent to which spatial information is used in EIA in Kenya; and to evaluate, using case studies, the use of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya. Combined methods of surveys and case studies were used to address the sub-objectives earlier developed.

In response to the first sub-objective, namely, to confirm the presence and extent of public participation within EIA in Kenya, five dimensions for the evaluation of public participation within EIA were identified from legal and best practice requirements. These five dimensions were: notification, participation methods, venue, language used, and type of participants, which were then constituted into a Consultation and Public Participation Index (CPPI), developed within this research to analyze a sample of 223 EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2010. EIA Study Reports record activities during the EIA Study Stage, where public participation activities are most intensive, hence their choice as a source of data for the survey. Following analysis of the five dimensions presented in the CPPI, public participation was found to be relatively low, with the highest score of 1.65 out of a possible score of 5. The dimensions of ‘participation methods’ and ‘type of participants’ scored the highest, followed by ‘venue’, ‘notification’, and ‘language used’, in that order. Variations within the dimensions was also evident during the study period. Despite a 95% mention of public participation in the EIA Study Reports, the low CPPI scores were attributed to gaps in reporting and limited choices per dimension.

In response to the second sub-objective, namely, to establish the extent to which spatial information is used in EIA in Kenya, survey methods similar to those used to address the first sub-objective were employed, where a sample of 434 EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed for the presence/absence of spatial presentations, levels of visual realism exhibited, and content presented in the spatial presentations. Almost all (95%) of the EIA Study Reports sampled displayed a variety of spatial presentation types, with preference for the combined use of spatial presentations with low and high levels of visual realism. On the content, information depicting a combination of project location and project activities/details was most popular.

In response to the third sub-objective, namely, to evaluate, using case studies, the use of spatial information during public participation within EIA in Kenya, two case studies were conducted, the first in Katani, in the Eastern Province of Kenya, and the second in Kericho, in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Both case studies were based on a conceptual framework developed in this research to assess the interplay between EIA, public participation, spatial information and type of participants. In both studies, EIA stages was limited to the EIA Study stage, levels of public participation was limited to ‘inform’, and categories of participants was limited to ‘affected persons’. Seven aspects of spatial information were deemed relevant to public participation, namely: availability, accessibility, content, appropriateness, language, translation, and technical support. In the first case study, all the seven aspects were evaluated, using a cadastral map, where it was established that the requirements for accessibility, language, translation and technical support were met, but those for availability were unsatisfactory, and unconfirmed for content and appropriateness. Out of the 7 aspects of spatial information that were deemed relevant to public participation, the second case study was limited to the aspect of ‘content’, and specifically distance perception. It was argued that distance perception is critical when determining potential benefits or threats from a proposed project. Three types of spatial presentations with different levels of visual realism were used, namely a topographic map, overlay map and aerial map. From this case study, preference was noted for topographic maps, indicating that higher levels of visual realism in spatial presentations were not always preferred. On whether maps improve distance perception, the results indicated that they encourage Euclidian distance perception. The unique point of the case studies was that they were conducted in ‘real-life’ settings, similar to those in which actual EIAs are carried out, as opposed to highly controlled and laboratory-like set ups.

Two main innovations are evident: the consultation and public participation index (CPPI) and the conceptual framework developed in this research. The CPPI brought together, for the first time dimensions that are specifically relevant to public participation within EIA, that is, notification, participation methods, venue, language used, and type of participants. These dimensions offer the opportunity for deeper and more structured analysis of public participation within EIA, and the opportunity to improve practice. The second innovation, the conceptual framework, brought together the elements of EIA, public participation, spatial information and types of participants. The novelty of this conceptual framework was the combination of these elements and their placement within the framework of EIA, which will encourage in-depth investigation on their quality and effectiveness to EIA. Still related to the conceptual framework was the emphasis on ‘affected persons’, who often face direct impacts from development projects, yet are often not included in EIA public participation activities due to their low socio-economic status and challenges in accessing them, e.g. poor infrastructure and insecurity. It is due to their increased stake in any decision made that we specifically sought their opinions in this research.

The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public
Fallaize, R. ; Macready, A.L. ; Butler, L.T. ; Ellis, J.A. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Walsh, M.C. ; Gallagher, C. ; Stewart-Knox, B.J. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Lovegrove, J.A. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1271 - 1279.
nutrigenomics - communication - disease - information - consumer - medicine - intervention - acceptance - knowledge - attitudes
Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the ‘framework approach’ described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.
The effect of rare alleles on estimated genomic relationships from whole genome sequence data
Eynard, S.E. ; Windig, J.J. ; Leroy, G. ; Binsbergen, R. van; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2015
BMC Genetics 16 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2156
information - pedigree - conservation - populations - prediction - accuracy - cattle - coefficients - improvement - challenges
Relationships between individuals and inbreeding coefficients are commonly used for breeding decisions, but may be affected by the type of data used for their estimation. The proportion of variants with low Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) is larger in whole genome sequence (WGS) data compared to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) chips. Therefore, WGS data provide true relationships between individuals and may influence breeding decisions and prioritisation for conservation of genetic diversity in livestock. This study identifies differences between relationships and inbreeding coefficients estimated using pedigree, SNP or WGS data for 118 Holstein bulls from the 1000 Bull genomes project. To determine the impact of rare alleles on the estimates we compared three scenarios of MAF restrictions: variants with a MAF higher than 5%, variants with a MAF higher than 1% and variants with a MAF between 1% and 5%. Results We observed significant differences between estimated relationships and, although less significantly, inbreeding coefficients from pedigree, SNP or WGS data, and between MAF restriction scenarios. Computed correlations between pedigree and genomic relationships, within groups with similar relationships, ranged from negative to moderate for both estimated relationships and inbreeding coefficients, but were high between estimates from SNP and WGS (0.49 to 0.99). Estimated relationships from genomic information exhibited higher variation than from pedigree. Inbreeding coefficients analysis showed that more complete pedigree records lead to higher correlation between inbreeding coefficients from pedigree and genomic data. Finally, estimates and correlations between additive genetic (A) and genomic (G) relationship matrices were lower, and variances of the relationships were larger when accounting for allele frequencies than without accounting for allele frequencies. Conclusions Using pedigree data or genomic information, and including or excluding variants with a MAF below 5% showed significant differences in relationship and inbreeding coefficient estimates. Estimated relationships and inbreeding coefficients are the basis for selection decisions. Therefore, it can be expected that using WGS instead of SNP can affect selection decision. Inclusion of rare variants will give access to the variation they carry, which is of interest for conservation of genetic diversity.
Simulating Welfare Effects of Europe’s Nutrition and Health Claims regulation: the Italian Yogurt Market
Bonanno, A. ; Huang, R. ; Liu, Y. - \ 2015
European Review of Agricultural Economics 42 (2015)3. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 499 - 533.
discrete-choice models - product differentiation - functional foods - empirical-analysis - demand - information - quality - price - probiotics - valuation
With the enactment of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, 20 December 2006, ‘On nutrition and health claims made on foods’ several health claims can no longer be used on food products in European markets. We simulate the overall impact of the regulation on consumers and producers using the Italian yogurt market as a case study, and data prior to the introduction of the policy. We quantify welfare losses incurred if accepted claims were false, and simulate scenarios where rejected truthful health claims are removed, considering also the case where the products carrying them exit the market. We find that consumers can incur large welfare losses if approved claims are untruthful; if truthful claims are instead denied both consumers and producers may incur losses, with consumers being penalised more than producers.
Design of reference populations for genomic selection in crossbreeding programs
Grevenhof, E.M. van; Werf, J.H.J. van der - \ 2015
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 47 (2015). - ISSN 0999-193X - 9 p.
relationship matrix - genetic evaluation - information - accuracy - performance - prediction - livestock
Background In crossbreeding programs, genomic selection offers the opportunity to make efficient use of information on crossbred (CB) individuals in the selection of purebred (PB) candidates. In such programs, reference populations often contain genotyped PB animals, although the breeding objective is usually more focused on CB performance. The question is what would be the benefit of including a larger proportion of CB individuals in the reference population. MethodsIn a deterministic simulation study, we evaluated the benefit of including various proportions of CB animals in a reference population for genomic selection of PB animals in a crossbreeding program. We used a pig breeding scheme with selection for a moderately heritable trait and a size of 6000 for the reference population. ResultsApplying genomic selection to improve the performance of CB individuals, with a genetic correlation between PB and CB performance (rPC) of 0.7, selection accuracy of PB candidates increased from 0.49 to 0.52 if the reference population consisted of PB individuals, it increased to 0.55 if the reference population consisted of the same number of CB individuals, and to 0.60 if the size of the CB reference population was twice that of the reference population for each PB line. The advantage of using CB rather than PB individuals increased linearly with the proportion of CB individuals in the reference population. This advantage disappeared quickly if rPC was higher or if the breeding objective put some emphasis on PB performance. The benefit of adding CB individuals to an existing PB reference population was limited for high rPC. ConclusionsUsing CB rather than PB individuals in a reference population for genomic selection can provide substantial advantages, but only when correlations between PB and CB performances are not high and PB performance is not part of the breeding objective.
Prior genetic architecture impacting genomic regions under selection: an example using genomic selection in two poultry breeds
Zhang, X. ; Misztal, I. ; Heidaritabar, M. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Borg, R. ; Okimoto, R. - \ 2015
Livestock Science 171 (2015). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 1 - 11.
chicken z-chromosome - soluble adenylyl-cyclase - information - hitchhiking - frequency - pedigree
Background The objective of this study is to investigate if selection on similar traits in different populations progress from selection on similar genes. With the aid of high-density genome wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, it is possible to directly assess changes in allelic frequencies and regions under selection and address the question. We compared the allele frequencies before and after two generations of selection on an index containing body weight at 6 wk, ultrasound measurement of breast meat, and leg score in two commercial chicken breeds with different selection histories: M breed was primarily selected for rapid growth and commonly used as a broiler breeder sire line; F breed was primarily used as dual-purposed dam line selected for both egg production and growth. Selection was performed on both lines with the same selection intensity and method (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, GBLUP, using the single-step approach, ssGBLUP). Results After quality control, 52,742 and 52,639 SNPs in M breed and F breed were kept in 4922 and 4904 animals, respectively. The average allele frequency change for both breeds on the autosomes was 0.049. Threshold value for detecting selected regions, where allele frequency changes exceeded expectations under drift were 0.140 and 0.136 for breeds M and F, respectively. According to the criterion used in this study, there were 25 and 17 selection regions detected on breeds M and F, respectively, without any overlap of regions between the breeds. Average heterozygosity change in F breed was greater compared to M breed (0.008 vs. 0.002, P
Communicating climate (change) uncertainties: simulation games as boundary objects
Pelt, S.C. van; Haasnoot, M. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R.J. ; Biesbroek, G.R. - \ 2015
Environmental Science & Policy 45 (2015). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 41 - 52.
science-policy interface - decision-support - projections - adaptation - politics - information - transition - management - working - systems
Climate science is characterized by large uncertainties about the direction, extent and time frame of climate change. Communicating these uncertainties is important for decision making on robust adaptation strategies, but proves to be a challenge for scientists particularly because of the complexity of uncertainties that are part of natural variability and of human induced climate change. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of a simulation game, as intermediate, to the communication of climate change uncertainties to water managers. In three workshops with water managers, the simulation game ‘Sustainable Delta’ was played to test the influence of the game on their understanding of climate change uncertainty using ex ante and ex post surveys. In each workshop an experimental- and control group were given different assignments to measure the influence of the game. The results show that although the differences between groups were not statistically significant, a change in their understanding of uncertainties was observed. The paper concludes that the learning effect of the game is inconclusive, but that the game does fosters a broader understanding of the concept climate change uncertainty. In doing so, simulation games are a promising approach to support the communication of climate change uncertainties meaningfully and support the process of adaptation to an uncertain future.
RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part I). A diagnostic tool for integrated analysis of complex problems and innovation capacity
Schut, M. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Rodenburg, J. ; Kayeke, J. ; Hinnou, L.C. ; Raboanarielina, C.M. ; Adegbola, P.Y. ; Ast, A. van; Bastiaans, L. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 132 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 1 - 11.
sub-saharan africa - fed lowland rice - framework - policy - perspective - benin - participation - information - reflection - management
This paper introduces Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS). RAAIS is a diagnostic tool that can guide the analysis of complex agricultural problems and innovation capacity of the agricultural system in which the complex agricultural problem is embedded. RAAIS focuses on the integrated analysis of different dimensions of problems (e.g. biophysical, technological, socio-cultural, economic, institutional and political), interactions across different levels (e.g. national, regional, local), and the constraints and interests of different stakeholder groups (farmers, government, researchers, etc.). Innovation capacity in the agricultural system is studied by analysing (1) constraints within the institutional, sectoral and technological subsystems of the agricultural system, and (2) the existence and performance of the agricultural innovation support system. RAAIS combines multiple qualitative and quantitative methods, and insider (stakeholders) and outsider (researchers) analyses which allow for critical triangulation and validation of the gathered data. Such an analysis can provide specific entry points for innovations to address the complex agricultural problem under study, and generic entry points for innovation related to strengthening the innovation capacity of agricultural system and the functioning of the agricultural innovation support system. The application of RAAIS to analyse parasitic weed problems in the rice sector, conducted in Tanzania and Benin, demonstrates the potential of the diagnostic tool and provides recommendations for its further development and use.
Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge
Groot, A.M.E. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Buijs, S. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 177 - 188.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - transdisciplinary research - heat-island - boundary - policy - interdisciplinary - sustainability - information - challenges - ecology - science
Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1) Integration within science including integration of disciplines, methods, models and data, and (2) integration between science and the local stakeholders' society, involving a synthesis of scientific and practical knowledge, linking sectors, governance arrangements and organisations. At first sight, the issues around integration within science and beyond the science of climate change adaptation in cities resemble those generally observed in science-policy integration. However, the relative newness of urban adaptation to climate change poses specific challenges for both the scientists and the stakeholders involved in the process. The Rotterdam example discusses the use of multiple means of integration for enhancing integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge.
Managing Perishables with Time and temperature History
Ketzenberg, M. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Gaukler, G. - \ 2015
Production and Operations Management 24 (2015)1. - ISSN 1059-1478 - p. 54 - 70.
shelf-life prediction - supply chain - deteriorating inventory - ordering policies - information - products - replenishment - management - storage - demand
We address the use and value of time and temperature information to manage perishables in the contextof a retailer that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product’s lifetime is largely determined by the temperature history and the flow time through the supply chain. We compare the case in which information on flow time and temperature history is available and used for inventory management to a base case in which such information is not available. We formulate the two cases as Markov Decision Processes and evaluate the value of information through an extensive simulation using representative, real world supply chain parameters.
The growing role of front-of-pack nutrition profile labelling: A consumer perspective on key issues and controversies
Kleef, E. van; Dagevos, H. - \ 2015
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55 (2015)3. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 291 - 303.
nutrient content claims - healthful food choices - public-health - personal responsibility - product evaluation - portion size - salt content - information - impact - obesity
Nutrition related diseases such as some cancers, heart diseases and obesity belong to the most challenging health concerns of our time. Communicating intuitive and simple nutrition information by means of front-of-pack nutrition profile signposting labelling is increasingly seen as an essential tool in efforts to combat unhealthy food choices and improve public health. Consequently, much attention in policy and research is given to nutrient profiling methods and the determination of optimal nutrition criteria. Although consumer research on nutrition signpost labelling is now gradually appearing in the literature, the value and meaning of these labelling systems for consumers have received less attention. In the current debate a concise overview is lacking of the consumer perspective including relevant psychological phenomena in relation to much debated controversies surrounding these labels and their further development, such as the most effective type of signposting labelling system and varying stakeholder interests. Therefore, this paper aims to critically review the literature in the consumer domain of front-of-pack nutrition labelling in order to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this form of nutrition education from a consumer perspective.
Adaptation to extreme weather: identifying different societal perspectives in the Netherlands
Vasileiadou, E. ; Hisschemoller, M. ; Petersen, A.C. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Betgen, C. ; Hoog, I. de; Min, E. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)1. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 91 - 101.
climate-change - stakeholder dialogue - united-states - perceptions - policy - environment - information - options - risk
The intensity and occurrence of extreme weather events are expected to change with climate change. This change necessitates adaptive responses to extreme events, which need to take into account different societal perspectives, in order to be robust. In this paper, we explore the perspectives of different social actors in the Netherlands with respect to extreme weather events and ways to adapt to these events. The paper reports on a set of 41 interviews, using the repertory grid technique. The results were analyzed, to identify (a) the perspectives that stakeholders hold as most important for adaptation to extreme weather events; (b) the determinants of differences in perspectives. We find six different perspectives, all of which prioritize different adaptive actions. Producing robust adaptive responses which include different perspectives is therefore not a straightforward matter and is likely to result in win-lose situations. Further, differences in perspectives were not closely related to different sectors the interviewees belonged to. Thus, the traditional approach of involving different sectors to discuss and produce adaptation measures may be too limiting and needs to be supplemented to involving actors with different perspectives. The level of concern and level of information influenced the ways interviewees perceive adaptation priorities for extreme weather events. Participation in information events does not always result in perceived need to prepare for extreme events, something that adaptation communication needs to take into account.
A comparison of principal component regression and genomic REML for genomic prediction across populations
Dadousis, C. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Heringstad, B. ; Pszczola, M.J. ; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2014
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 46 (2014). - ISSN 0999-193X - 14 p.
breeding values - multi-breed - short communication - variable selection - wide association - genetic value - dairy-cattle - data sets - accuracy - information
Background Genomic prediction faces two main statistical problems: multicollinearity and n¿«¿p (many fewer observations than predictor variables). Principal component (PC) analysis is a multivariate statistical method that is often used to address these problems. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of PC regression (PCR) for genomic prediction with that of a commonly used REML model with a genomic relationship matrix (GREML) and to investigate the full potential of PCR for genomic prediction. Methods The PCR model used either a common or a semi-supervised approach, where PC were selected based either on their eigenvalues (i.e. proportion of variance explained by SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes) or on their association with phenotypic variance in the reference population (i.e. the regression sum of squares contribution). Cross-validation within the reference population was used to select the optimum PCR model that minimizes mean squared error. Pre-corrected average daily milk, fat and protein yields of 1609 first lactation Holstein heifers, from Ireland, UK, the Netherlands and Sweden, which were genotyped with 50 k SNPs, were analysed. Each testing subset included animals from only one country, or from only one selection line for the UK. Results In general, accuracies of GREML and PCR were similar but GREML slightly outperformed PCR. Inclusion of genotyping information of validation animals into model training (semi-supervised PCR), did not result in more accurate genomic predictions. The highest achievable PCR accuracies were obtained across a wide range of numbers of PC fitted in the regression (from one to more than 1000), across test populations and traits. Using cross-validation within the reference population to derive the number of PC, yielded substantially lower accuracies than the highest achievable accuracies obtained across all possible numbers of PC. Conclusions On average, PCR performed only slightly less well than GREML. When the optimal number of PC was determined based on realized accuracy in the testing population, PCR showed a higher potential in terms of achievable accuracy that was not capitalized when PC selection was based on cross-validation. A standard approach for selecting the optimal set of PC in PCR remains a challenge.
Standard error of the genetic correlation: how much data do we need to estimate a purebred-crossbred genetic correlation?
Bijma, P. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. - \ 2014
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 46 (2014)1. - ISSN 0999-193X
correlation coefficient - sampling variance - performance - information - selection - model
Background: The additive genetic correlation (r(g)) is a key parameter in livestock genetic improvement. The standard error (SE) of an estimate of r(g), (r) over cap (g), depends on whether both traits are recorded on the same individual or on distinct individuals. The genetic correlation between traits recorded on distinct individuals is relevant as a measure of, e. g., genotype-by-environment interaction and for traits expressed in purebreds vs. crossbreds. In crossbreeding schemes, r(g) between the purebred and crossbred trait is the key parameter that determines the need for crossbred information. This work presents a simple equation to predict the SE of (r) over cap (g) between traits recorded on distinct individuals for nested full-half sib schemes with common-litter effects, using the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation as an example. The resulting expression allows a priori optimization of designs that aim at estimating rg. An R-script that implements the expression is included. Results: The SE of (r) over cap (g) is determined by the true value of r(g), the number of sire families (N), and the reliabilities of sire estimated breeding values (EBV): [GRAPHICS] where rho(2)(x) and rho(2)(y) are the reliabilities of the sire EBV for both traits. Results from stochastic simulation show that this equation is accurate since the average absolute error of the prediction across 320 alternative breeding schemes was 3.2%. Application to typical crossbreeding schemes shows that a large number of sire families is required, usually more than 100. Since SE ((r) over cap (g)) is a function of reliabilities of EBV, the result probably extends to other cases such as repeated records, but this was not validated by simulation. Conclusions: This work provides an accurate tool to determine a priori the amount of data required to estimate a genetic correlation between traits measured on distinct individuals, such as the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation.
Emotions in Advice Taking: The Roles of Agency and Valence
Hooge, I.E. de; Verlegh, P.W.J. ; Tzioti, S.C. - \ 2014
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 27 (2014)3. - ISSN 0894-3257 - p. 246 - 258.
decision-making - expert advice - cognitive appraisals - improving judgment - moral emotions - anger - information - consumption - behavior - aggression
Recently, advice taking has received attention in decision-making research, and some studies suggest that emotions may play a role in this process. Yet a clear account of how emotions influence advice taking is lacking. The current research introduces a parsimonious explanation by suggesting that such effects can be predicted on the basis of two emotion dimensions: valence (positivity or negativity) and agency (self-focused versus other-focused). In five experiments with different emotion inductions and different measures for advice taking, the effects of positive emotions such as gratitude and pride and of negative emotions such as anger and shame on advice taking were studied. The findings reveal that emotion valence and agency exert an influence on advice taking and that this interaction effect is mediated by the perceived ability of the advisor. Together, these findings provide a unique theoretical and empirical contribution to our understanding of emotions in advice taking.
‘If labels for GM food were present, would consumers trust them?’ Insights from a consumer survey in Uganda
Kikulwe, E.M. ; Falck-Zepeda, J. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2014
Environment and Development Economics 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1355-770X - p. 786 - 805.
information - ethnicity - country - africa - cotton
Food labelling is costly. Food labelling is often demanded with the introduction of new food products such as genetically modified (GM) food. If consumers do not have trust in the label, scarce resources are wasted. This paper investigates factors affecting the trust in food labels among Ugandan consumers. The results suggest that older, less-educated individuals of smaller household sizes and with trust in government institutions have more trust in food labels. Other factors were also found to be important. The government has to consider those differences in consumer trust when designing a GM labelling policy.
Genomic prediction of breeding values using previously estimated SNP variances
Calus, M.P.L. ; Schrooten, C. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2014
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 46 (2014). - ISSN 0999-193X - 13 p.
preconditioned conjugate-gradient - dairy-cattle - genotyping strategies - genetic evaluations - complex traits - selection - accuracy - information - preselection - population
Background Genomic prediction requires estimation of variances of effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which is computationally demanding, and uses these variances for prediction. We have developed models with separate estimation of SNP variances, which can be applied infrequently, and genomic prediction, which can be applied routinely. Methods SNP variances were estimated with Bayes Stochastic Search Variable Selection (BSSVS) and BayesC. Genome-enhanced breeding values (GEBV) were estimated with RR-BLUP (ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction), using either variances obtained from BSSVS (BLUP-SSVS) or BayesC (BLUP-C), or assuming equal variances for each SNP. Datasets used to estimate SNP variances comprised (1) all animals, (2) 50% random animals (RAN50), (3) 50% best animals (TOP50), or (4) 50% worst animals (BOT50). Traits analysed were protein yield, udder depth, somatic cell score, interval between first and last insemination, direct longevity, and longevity including information from predictors. Results BLUP-SSVS and BLUP-C yielded similar GEBV as the equivalent Bayesian models that simultaneously estimated SNP variances. Reliabilities of these GEBV were consistently higher than from RR-BLUP, although only significantly for direct longevity. Across scenarios that used data subsets to estimate GEBV, observed reliabilities were generally higher for TOP50 than for RAN50, and much higher than for BOT50. Reliabilities of TOP50 were higher because the training data contained more ancestors of selection candidates. Using estimated SNP variances based on random or non-random subsets of the data, while using all data to estimate GEBV, did not affect reliabilities of the BLUP models. A convergence criterion of 10-8 instead of 10-10 for BLUP models yielded similar GEBV, while the required number of iterations decreased by 71 to 90%. Including a separate polygenic effect consistently improved reliabilities of the GEBV, but also substantially increased the required number of iterations to reach convergence with RR-BLUP. SNP variances converged faster for BayesC than for BSSVS. Conclusions Combining Bayesian variable selection models to re-estimate SNP variances and BLUP models that use those SNP variances, yields GEBV that are similar to those from full Bayesian models. Moreover, these combined models yield predictions with higher reliability and less bias than the commonly used RR-BLUP model.
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