Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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FeedOmics, an approach to evaluate the functional properties of protein containing feed ingredients
Kar, Soumya K. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Smits; J.M. Wells, co-promotor(en): A.J.M. Jansman; D. Schokker. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434461 - 254
compound feeds - ingredients - protein sources - proteins - functional properties - metabolism - feed formulation - protein digestion - proteomics - digestive tract - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - livestock feeding - mengvoer - ingrediënten - eiwitbronnen - eiwitten - functionele eigenschappen - metabolisme - voersamenstelling - eiwitvertering - eiwitexpressieanalyse - spijsverteringskanaal - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - veevoeding

This thesis presents FeedOmics approach as a toolkit, to evaluate (novel) protein containing feed ingredients of different origin considering both their nutritional and functional value in terms of their capacity to support or modify nutrient supply, the animal’s physiology, tissue development and functioning. Such knowledge may contribute to introduce novel and/or alternative protein containing feed ingredients in the diet of livestock, thus creating a sustainable food supply for growing human population.

Purifying manure effluents with duckweed
Timmerman, M. ; Hoving, I.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 942) - 27 p.
animal manures - effluents - lemna - aquatic weeds - feeds - nutrients - ingredients - animal feeding - animal nutrition - waste water - biogas - biomass production - cultivation - biobased economy - dierlijke meststoffen - afvoerwater - schadelijke waterplanten - voer - voedingsstoffen - ingrediënten - diervoedering - diervoeding - afvalwater - biomassa productie - teelt
The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients
A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients
Mennella, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Vincenzo Fogliano, co-promotor(en): P. Vitaglione. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575448 - 138
eetlustcontrole - perceptie - voedselvoorkeuren - speeksel - cannabinoïden - biomarkers - ingrediënten - ontwikkeling - gewichtscontrole - appetite control - perception - food preferences - saliva - cannabinoids - biomarkers - ingredients - development - weight control

A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control.

From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients.

Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can

influence these factors throughout extrinsic (marketing suggestions, portion sizes, form) and

intrinsic characteristics (taste, flavour, smell, texture). In turn biochemical response and

psychological traits influenced food taste, flavour, smell and texture perception determining the

hedonic value of a meal. This interplay between the food and the subjective psychophysiological

response determine the control of energy intake, therefore must be considered in developing food

for appetite control.

In the present thesis four human studies are described. Of these two were conducted to investigate

the role of the saliva and the endocannabinoids system in the food preference and liking during the

cephalic phase of digestion. We found out that salivary enzymes activity are influenced by

nutritional status, food preference and food habits. Moreover, food palatability influenced some

plasma endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine concentrations during the cephalic phase

response and indicated that 2-arachidonoylglycerol and pancreatic polypeptide can be used as

biomarkers of food liking in humans. These findings can have interesting implications in designing

foods for appetite control:

­ salivary enzymatic activity must be considered because it influence taste and texture

perception and consequently food choice;

­ the measure of 2-arachidonoylglycerol can offer the possibility to merge the sensory and

biochemical approach to compare the satiating and rewarding capacity of foods.

The other two studies investigated the potential satiating effect on the short term energy intake of

specific food ingredients. As previous in animal studies shown, we demonstrated (chapter 4) that

also in humans the circulating oleoylethanolamide levels can be modulated by the fatty acid

composition of a meal and this can influence the short-term energy intake. Therefore, we

highlighted the anorexigenic effect of the oleoylethanolamide that can be a target of specific food

ingredients. In the study described in the chapter 5, we aimed in assessing the appetite control

capability of bitter compounds. The ingredient was microencapsulated with the double aim to avoid

the (not palatable) taste perception in the mouth and to deliver the compounds directly in the

gastrointestinal tract and target the enteroendocrine bitter taste receptors. We showed that

microencapsulated bitter compounds are effective to reduce daily energy intakes in humans. This

study demonstrated that sense the taste receptors directly in the gastrointestinal tract may be a valid

way to trigger satiety and control appetite.

The general conclusions of the present thesis are that a fine design of ingredients for appetite

control is necessary to develop novel foods for appetite control that has to take in account from one

side the hedonic value from the other side the functionality.

Kas als apotheek
Labrie, C.W. - \ 2015
glastuinbouw - gewasproductie - voedingsstoffen - ingrediënten - innovaties - modellen - kastechniek - teeltsystemen - nieuwe producten - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - toepassing - plantextracten - biobased economy - greenhouse horticulture - crop production - nutrients - ingredients - innovations - models - greenhouse technology - cropping systems - new products - biobased materials - application - plant extracts
Het doel van het initiatief Kas als Apotheek is nieuwe verdienmodellen ontwikkelen voor inhoudstoffen uit bedekte teelten. De combinatie van de stuurmogelijkheden die kassen bieden, in combinatie met het vakmanschap van de telers en een evidence based aanpak rond veredeling, teelt, keten en specifieke inhoudstoffen moeten het mogelijk maken om nieuwe initiatieven op te zetten waarin nieuwe verdienmodellen worden ontwikkeld op de volgende issues, die duidelijke raakvlakken hebben met biobased en gezondheid
Influence of separate feeding of calcium on nutrient digestibility, energy utilisation and performance of young broilers fed pelleted wheat-based diets
Abdollahi, M.R. ; Dalen, A.B.J. van; Hendriks, W.H. ; Ravindran, V. - \ 2015
Animal Feed Science and Technology 205 (2015). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 122 - 130.
phytate phosphorus hydrolysis - nonphytate phosphorus - phytic acid - chickens - ph - efficacy - appetite - availability - consequences - ingredients
Six broiler starter diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to contain 1.1 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g calcium (Ca)/kg. All diets were equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate phosphorus contents (5.4 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). The influence of dietary treatments on the growth performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), Ca retention and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starters was evaluated. A total of 288, one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were allocated to 36 cages (8 birds/cage), and cages were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Birds fed the diet with 1.1 g Ca/kg gained more (P0.05) feed per unit gain. During d 8 to 14, d 15 to 21, and over the entire trial period of 21 d, birds fed Ca-deficient (6.0 g Ca/kg and less) diets consumed more (P0.05) of dietary Ca on the retention of Ca and ash, AME and toe ash. The present data suggest that feeding broilers low Ca diets with access to a separate Ca source, is advantageous in terms of broiler performance, while maintaining bone mineralisation. The data also demonstrate that the provision of separate Ca source may hold promise for reducing the dietary P contents.
Algae cultivation profitable by 2025
Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2014
voer - diervoedering - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - maling - voedertoevoegingen - ingrediënten - markten - statistiek - veevoederindustrie - voedermiddelbewerking - feeds - animal feeding - animal nutrition - feed technology - milling - feed additives - ingredients - markets - statistics - feed industry - feed processing
www.AllAboutFeed.net is tailored towards the information needs of the international feed business community and is complementary to our print publications Feed Tech and Feed Mix. The site offers the worldwide feed industry: news, industry opinions, a newsletter, article archives, market information, and statistics, and much more
Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients
Rodriguez Illera, M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Anja Janssen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571198 - 187
functionele voedingsmiddelen - ingrediënten - adsorberende middelen - isolatie - voedseltechnologie - voedseltechniek - reststromen - actieve kool - functional foods - ingredients - adsorbents - isolation - food technology - food engineering - residual streams - activated carbon

Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous bottlenecks when dealing with untreated or large streams: a trade-off between mass transfer and hydraulic permeability, a high pressure drop and susceptibility to plugging and fouling. The large equipment (column diameters) and volume of resin needed for a moderate pressure drop and a high capacity, poses problems of elevated costs and complex operation. Other technologies such as radial flow chromatography and polymeric resins membranes may represent an improvement in other applications (e.g. pharma or fine chemicals), but at this point their capacity and costs do not seem to be feasible for the separation of small molecules from larger food streams.

The aim of the research discussed in this thesis was to find the principles that determine the suitability of different structured adsorbents, such as monoliths, for the selective adsorption and recovery of high-added value food ingredients of relatively low molecular weight, such as oligosaccharides and bioactive peptides. To ensure a cost-effective process and high capacity for small molecules, we demonstrated the feasibility of using activated carbon, and compared its adsorptive and hydraulic performance in two different structures: porous particles and channeled monoliths (”honeycomb” structures). Furthermore, we assessed the feasibility and window of operation of monoliths in terms of adsorbent and column volume required, compared to packed beds.

To demonstrate the isolation of bioactive peptides from crude mixtures with activated carbon, we used activated carbon to recover a lacto-tripeptide IPP from a commercial hydrolyzate (1.5% w/w) in chapter 2. The purity of the initial crude mixture was doubled in the isolate, to up to 35% with a recovery of IPP of about 80% in the first cycles of adsorption. This was repeated over many consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles until the activated carbon packed bed column was exhausted. This exhaustion was found to be caused not only by the occupation of irreversible sites but also by pore blockage. Finally, guidelines were given for the competitive exhaustion of the adsorbent for process optimization in order to obtain higher purity and yield.

In chapter 3 we showed the benefits of using channeled monoliths for processing untreated streams. We compared the use of channeled monoliths with a packed bed, both made of the same type of activated carbon, for the adsorption of the lactotripeptide IPP from a crude hydrolyzate. The results showed similar productivity and dynamic adsorptive capacities at comparable linear velocities and residence times, but the packed bed showed a strong pressure drop increase during continuous loading of the column and the same consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles as studied in chapter 2. This indicates the occurrence of pore blockage and plugging of the column. These fouling mechanisms were confirmed with two semi-empirical model analogies: one analogous to membrane fouling and another using an analogy with a set of parallel channels. The strong pressure drop increase was even more noticeable at high velocities (and short residence times). These trends were not observed in the channeled monoliths: no significant pressure drop increase was found here, and high velocities were eminently feasible.

In chapter 4 the adsorption of lactose onto a bed of activated carbon particles and activated carbon channeled monoliths was described with a detailed chromatographic model, taking into account the different mass transfer resistances. First, the single component adsorption isotherm parameters were obtained using frontal analysis on both adsorbents. Second, the kinetics of adsorption of lactose on both activated carbon adsorbents were estimated using the shallow bed method, assuming an infinite bath. The uptake curves were fitted to the homogeneous surface diffusion model and the linear driving force approximation. The estimation of the intraparticle diffusion coefficient and the film mass transfer coefficient showed a similar intraparticle mass transfer performance during the uptake adsorptive process. Fitting of the breakthrough data to the general rate model describing the full column operation showed differences in performance during the overall column operation. These differences could be related to higher axial dispersion in the squared channeled monoliths. The difference between the experimentally-derived axial dispersion and he expected assuming tubular coated tubes, suggested that the squared shape was responsible for the inhomogeneity of the flow.

In chapter 5, we presented guidelines for the configuration of industrial scale chromatographic separation of small molecules. A window was identified that defines the feasible configurations to use for the highest productivity for a given set of process requirements. The performance of different axial packed beds, channeled monoliths and a continuous monolith assuming silica as base material were compared by means of HETP (height equivalent of theoretical plates) and pressure drop relations. The relations as a function of velocity were used to calculate the resultant velocity and packing length for different conditions (efficiency, pressure drop, affinity constant and throughput). The specific productivity of channeled monoliths was shown to be up to 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that of a packed bed. Therefore, at large scales (in which the pressure drops need to be limited, and the flow rate is high), channeled

monoliths are preferred since they may reduce the equipment size up to 100 times and the required adsorbent volume up to 1000 times.

Finally, in chapter 6 we discussed the suitability of activated carbon regarding its re-usability and purification potential in the separation of small food ingredients. The suitability of channeled monoliths for certain applications was also highlighted. Finally, other suitable adsorbents were suggested, and some future prospects in the selection of adsorbents were given.

Efficiënter voeren en met voeding sturen op immuniteit
Smits, M.A. ; Duinkerken, G. van; Marchal, J.L.M. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. - \ 2014
V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 25 - 27.
duurzame veehouderij - veevoeding - diergezondheid - ingrediënten - immuniteit - dierlijke productie - veevoeder - duurzame ontwikkeling - sustainable animal husbandry - livestock feeding - animal health - ingredients - immunity - animal production - fodder - sustainable development
Met voeding valt veel te sturen, zoals de gezondheid van het dier, groeisnelheid, melkgift en melksamenstelling en de efficiëntie waarmee nutriënten worden benut of via mest en urine worden uitgescheiden. Binnen Feed4Foodure wordt gebouwd aan kennis en nieuwe voedingsmodellen om beter te begrijpen welke effecten voeding heeft op het dier.
GRAS flavoring substances 26
Marnett, L.J. ; Cohen, S.M. ; Fukushima, S. ; Gooderham, N.J. ; Hecht, S.S. ; Rietjens, I. ; Smith, R.L. ; Adams, T.B. ; Hallagan, J.B. ; Harman, C. ; McGowen, M.M. ; Taylor, S.V. - \ 2013
Food Technology 67 (2013)8. - ISSN 0015-6639 - p. 38 - 56.
fema gras - ingredients - program
Comparison of ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility of dry dog foods
Hendriks, W.H. ; Thomas, G. ; Bosch, G. ; Fahey, G.C. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3807 - 3814.
amino-acid-composition - endogenous nitrogen - reactive lysine - protein - pigs - diets - bioavailability - ingredients - absorption - intestine
The apparent total tract and ileal digestibility assays to measure AA absorption in commercial canine diets were compared in the present study. Five ileal cannulated dogs were fed 5 commercial dry canine foods selected to contain 19 to 30% CP in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Ileal and total tract digestibility (apparent and standardized) of DM, OM, CP, crude fat (CF), carbohydrate, and AA (including reactive Lys) were calculated using Cr2O3 as an indigestible marker. Greater apparent total tract digestibility values were found for DM, OM, and CP (P = 0.034) compared with ileal digestibility values; however, CF (P = 0.058) had a greater ileal apparent digestibility. Apparent and standardized CP digestibility values were, respectively, 5.7 and 7.4 percentage units greater when measured over the total digestive tract compared with measurement at the ileum (P = 0.034 and 0.011, respectively). Ileal apparent digestibility for N of AA (P = 0.009) and most AA (P <0.05), except for Met, Ile, Lys, Phe, and Ala, was decreased if measured at the ileum. However, correction for endogenous losses showed only Met digestibility did not differ between measurement sites. Differences between sites in excess of 15 percentage units were recorded for AA. Apparent and standardized ileal reactive Lys digestibility was 3.1 to 15.3 percentage units greater than corresponding total tract digestibility values. For several indispensable AA, the bioavailability estimates currently used by the 2006 NRC and the 2011 Association of American Feed Control Officials to derive allowance estimates for canine adult maintenance were greater than the digestibility values of these AA in the commercial dog foods evaluated. Although the canine large intestine is relatively short, the total tract digestibility assay in dogs can overestimate the digestibility of dietary AA and CP and may not be an accurate method for the measurement of absorption. In this study, bioavailability estimates of AA appeared to be less than those used to derive allowance estimates for commercial dog foods. Further work is required if current recommendations warrant adjustment.
Processing Technologies and Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes To Improve Nutritional Value of Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles for Animal Feed: an in Vitro Digestion Study
Vries, S. de; Pustjens, A.M. ; Kabel, M.A. ; Salazar-Villanea, S. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013)37. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8821 - 8828.
amino-acid - dietary fiber - growing pigs - nonstarch polysaccharides - corn - fermentation - gas - ingredients - ethanol - digestibility
Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48–78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.
Novel surface-active oligofructose fatty acid mono-esters by enzymatic esterification
Kempen, S.E.H.J. van; Boeriu, C.G. ; Schols, H.A. ; Waard, P. de; Linden, E. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 138 (2013)2-3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1884 - 1891.
lipase-catalyzed synthesis - candida-antarctica lipase - solid-phase synthesis - regioselective acylation - fructose esters - chain-length - disaccharides - inulin - oligosaccharides - ingredients
This article describes the synthesis of a series of oligofructose monoesters with fatty acids of different chain length (C8, C12, C16 and C18) to obtain food-grade surfactants with a range of amphiphilicity. Reactions were performed in a mixture of DMSO/ButOH (10/90 v/v) at 60 °C and catalysed by immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the crude reaction products were mixtures of unmodified oligofructose and mostly mono-esters. The conversion into mono-esters increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reflecting the specificity of the lipase towards more lipophilic substrates. Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to fractionate the products, which lead to sufficient purity (>93%) of the fatty acid esters for functionality testing. It was shown that derivatives of longer (C16 and C18) fatty acids were more efficient in lowering surface tension and gave a much higher dilatational modulus than derivatives of the shorter (C8 and C12) fatty acids.
Personal hair dye use and the risk of bladder cancer: a case–control study from The Netherlands
Ros, M. ; Gago-Dominguez, M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Kampman, E. ; Vermeulen, S.H. ; Kiemeney, L.A. - \ 2012
Cancer Causes and Control 23 (2012). - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 1139 - 1148.
confers susceptibility - sequence variant - aromatic-amines - united-states - metaanalysis - carcinogenicity - phenylenediamine - identification - hairdressers - ingredients
Background - Several studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers, who are occupationally exposed to hair dyes. There has also been concern about a possible increased risk of bladder cancer among users of hair dyes. However, the association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk remains inconclusive. Objective - In this study, we examined associations between personal use of permanent and temporary hair dyes and bladder cancer risk in a population-based case–control study involving 1,385 cases (n = 246 women) and 4,754 controls (n = 2,587 women). Methods - Participants filled out a questionnaire with regard to history of personal hair dye use and risk factors for bladder cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, smoking status, duration of smoking and intensity of smoking. Results - Analyses were restricted to women as less than 5 % of all men in the study ever used hair dyes. About 50 % of the women ever used hair dyes. Use of temporary hair dyes (OR, 0.77; 95 % CI, 0.58–1.02) or use of permanent hair dyes (OR, 0.87; 95 % CI, 0.65–1.18) was not associated with bladder cancer risk. No clear association between hair dyes and bladder cancer risk was found when dye use was defined by type, duration or frequency of use, dye color, or extent of use. Also, results were similar for aggressive- and non-aggressive bladder cancer. Age, educational level, and smoking status did not modify the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk. Conclusions - The present study does not support an association between personal hair dye use and bladder cancer risk. Also, various types of hair dye, intensity of exposure to hair dyes or dye color do not appear to be important factors for bladder cancer development
Protein and energy nutrition of marine gadoids, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.)
Tibbetts, S. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.P. Lall; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Johan Schrama. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731357 - 221
kabeljauw - schelvis - zeevissen - voedingseiwit - energie - visvoeding - diervoeding - verteerbaarheid - ingrediënten - mengvoer - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - visteelt - aquacultuur - cod - haddock - marine fishes - dietary protein - energy - fish feeding - animal nutrition - digestibility - ingredients - compound feeds - nutrient requirements - fish culture - aquaculture

Primary goals of this thesis were to: 1) examine the in vivo digestion of macronutrients from conventional or alternative feed ingredients used in practical diets of juvenile gadoids (Atlantic cod and haddock), 2) document growth potential of fish at the juvenile grower phase given varying levels of dietary protein and energy and 3) assess the potential of in vitro pH-Stat methods for rapid screening protein quality of feed ingredients, specifically for gadoids. All primary research questions were linked to and built upon one another with the goal of gaining a better understanding of protein and energy utilization of juvenile grower phase gadoids. Studies showed that cod and haddock have a high capacity to utilize a wide range of dietary feed ingredients, such as fish meals, zooplankton meal, soybean products (meal, concentrate and isolate) and wheat gluten meal. New dietary formulations for gadoids may also utilize pulse meals, corn gluten meal, canola protein concentrate and crab meal. Digestibility data in this thesis is currently the only research that examined both in vivo and in vitro macronutrient digestibility of a large number and wide range of individual ingredients, specifically for gadoids. This is essential to gain new knowledge on protein and energy utilization as well as for least-cost ration formulations and effective substitution of ingredients into new formulations. Data has demonstrated a dietary digestible protein/digestible energy (DP/DE)ratio of 30 g DP/MJ DE is required for gadoids during the juvenile phase (<100 g) to ensure maximum somatic tissue growth, high digestibility, maximum nitrogen and energy retention efficiency and minimal excessive liver growth. Preliminary nutrient requirement studies together with an applied nutritional approach has identified that feeds for juveniles farmed in the Western North Atlantic should contain 50-55% crude protein, <12% fat and <17% carbohydrate. Data in this thesis is currently the first aimed at development and application of an in vitro closed-system pH-Stat assay for rapid screening protein quality of test ingredients that is ‘species-specific’ to gadoids. It is demonstrated that in vitro results generally reflected results obtained through conventional in vivo protein digestibility methods. Studies resulted in the first generation of a ‘gadoid-specific’ proteolytic enzyme extraction method and in vitro closed-system pH-Stat assay which may be useful to investigate protein digestion, absorption and metabolism of gadoids and further development of their feeds.

Homogeniteit als uitgangspunt voor monsternamestrategie : monsternamestrategie van partijen diervoedergrondstoffen in relatie tot de heterogeniteit voor controle op mycotoxines en dioxinen
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2010
Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2010.014) - 46
voer - ingrediënten - voedselanalyse - monsters - representatieve monstername - mycotoxinen - dioxinen - voedselveiligheid - feeds - ingredients - food analysis - samples - representative sampling - mycotoxins - dioxins - food safety
In dit rapport wordt de monsternameproblematiek toegespitst op de analyse van mycotoxines en dioxinen in diervoedergrondstoffen. Eerst wordt in hoofdstuk 2 de Europese regelgeving betreffende monstername van diervoeders uiteengezet. In hoofdstuk 3 wordt de homogeniteit gedefinieerd en in hoofdstuk 4 wordt ingegaan op de onzekerheid in het eindresultaat. In hoofdstuk 5 worden relevante parameters voor beperking van de monsternameonzekerheid geïdentificeerd en worden methodes ter bepaling van de monsternameonzekerheid bediscussieerd. Op basis hiervan worden in hoofdstuk 6 conclusies getrokken en aanbevelingen gedaan voor vervolgonderzoek en een praktisch toepasbare strategie voor de controle van diervoedergrondstoffen op mycotoxines en dioxinen die moet leiden tot een betere interpretatie van analyseresultaten.
A study into the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in The Netherlands between 2001 and 2005
Kandhai, M.C. ; Heuvelink, A.E. ; Reij, M.W. ; Beumer, R.R. ; Dijk, R. ; Tilburg, J.J.H.C. ; Schothorst, M. van; Gorris, L.G.M. - \ 2010
Food Control 21 (2010)8. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 1127 - 1136.
powdered infant formula - enterobacter-sakazakii infections - food-production environments - milk formula - stomoxys-calcitrans - neonatal meningitis - identification - prevalence - contamination - ingredients
Cronobacter spp. is an opportunistic pathogen possibly occurring in many different foods and environments. This study reports results from a broad survey of foods manufactured or marketed in The Netherlands, including relevant non-food environments, conducted over a 5-years period (2001–2005). Using a specifically designed real-time polymerase chain reaction method for confirmation, Cronobacter spp. was isolated from milk powders (7/175), powdered formulae for consumers 1 year (1/5), other powdered instant products (1/182), dry cereals (6/123), raw minced meats (7/222), vegetables (2/47), spices (1/28), human faeces (1/98), and human skin (1/116) samples
GRAS Flavoring Substances 24
Smith, R.L. ; Waddell, W.J. ; Cohen, S.M. ; Feron, V.J. ; Marnett, L.J. ; Portoghese, P.S. ; Rietjens, I. ; Adams, T.B. ; Lucas Gavin, C. ; McGowen, M.M. ; Taylor, S.V. ; Williams, M.C. - \ 2009
Food Technology 63 (2009)6. - ISSN 0015-6639 - p. 46 - 105.
in-vitro - genotoxicity tests - prooxidant action - mammalian-cells - ethyl maltol - hinokitiol - apoptosis - carcinogenicity - identification - ingredients
The 24th publication by the FEMA Expert Panel presents safety and usage data on 236 new generally recognized as safe flavoring ingredients
Protein fibrillization: preparation, mechanism and application
Akkermans, C. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom; Erik van der Linden, co-promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot; Paul Venema. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048794 - 162
bèta-lactoglobuline - wei-eiwit - structuur - ingrediënten - voedingsmiddelen - vezels - fysische toestand - levensmiddelenfysica - beta-lactoglobulin - whey protein - structure - ingredients - foods - fibres - physical state - food physics
The development of new functional ingredients is important for future food products. This PhD research aimed at the development of protein based structuring agents. Structuring agents are ingredrients that can be used to tailor the texture (and the mouth-feel) of products. Proteins were transferred into protein fibres (fibrils) that are long (1 micrometer) and very thin (few nanometers). Due to their special properties, protein fibrils offer unique possibilities to mimick meat structures and make products like yoghurt more creamy. This research shows that protein fibrils can be made from different protein sources (whey protein of milk, soy protein, potato protein) by heating an acidic protein solution. Furthermore, the mechanism of fibril formation was clarified. As a result, it was possible to optimize the fibril production and control the fibril properties. Finally, an important step was made towards the application of these fibrils in food products by studying the behaviour of fibrils in a model system for food products.
Digesta characteristics in relation to nutrient digestibility and mineral absorption in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed cereal grains of increasing viscosity
Leenhouwers, J.I. ; Ortega, R.C. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2007
Aquaculture 273 (2007)4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 556 - 565.
chain fatty-acids - nonstarch polysaccharide - gastrointestinal-tract - antinutritive activity - diets - fermentation - starch - feed - ingredients - performance
Soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in cereal grains may affect performance of Nile tilapia through changes in digesta characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dietary cereal grains of increasing viscosity induce changes in digesta viscosity, dry matter and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and if these changes explain differences in nutrient digestibility and mineral absorption. Four experimental diets were formulated by adding 40% grains to a basal diet to obtain a range of dietary viscosities, increasing in the order of maize, barley, wheat and rye. The diets were assigned to 16 tanks with 40 fish (mean weight 70 g) each. Digesta viscosity increased with increasing grain viscosity (P <0.001), whereas digesta dry matter decreased with increasing grain viscosity (P <0.05). No significant differences were found among diets in total concentration and type of VFA. Nutrient digestibility was not significantly correlated with digesta viscosity. Of all nutrients, only starch digestibility was significantly negatively correlated with digesta dry matter in the middle intestine (r = ¿ 0.57; P = 0.03). Absorption of sodium was significantly negatively correlated with digesta viscosity in all intestinal segments (r = ¿ 0.76 to ¿ 0.82; P <0.001) and positively correlated with digesta dry matter in all intestinal segments (r = + 0.60 to + 0.67; P <0.05), except for the proximal intestine (P = 0.18). Of the other minerals, potassium and magnesium absorption were positively correlated with digesta dry matter in the distal (r = + 0.56; P = 0.03) and proximal (r = + 0.54; P = 0.04) intestine, respectively. Phosphorus absorption was significantly negatively correlated with dry matter in the stomach (r = ¿ 0.55; P = 0.03), middle (r = ¿ 0.58; P = 0.02) and distal (r = ¿ 0.54; P = 0.04) intestine. In conclusion, viscous cereal grains induce increases in digesta viscosity and decreases in digesta dry matter in Nile tilapia. These changes do not explain differences in nutrient digestibility among diets, but seem more related to differences in mineral absorption. The strong negative correlations between digesta viscosity and sodium absorption suggest negative effects of dietary viscous grains on intestinal water balance.
Fractions of ruminant feeds: kinetics of degradation in vitro
Azarfar, A. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Seerp Tamminga, co-promotor(en): Thomas van der Poel; H. Boer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045571 - 219
herkauwers - voer - concentraten - ingrediënten - fractionering - kinetica - degradatie - fermentatieproducten - pensfermentatie - in vitro - voedingsfysiologie - biochemie - ruminants - feeds - concentrates - ingredients - fractionation - kinetics - degradation - fermentation products - rumen fermentation - in vitro - nutrition physiology - biochemistry
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