Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia
Woldegiorgiss, W.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth van der Waaij; T. Dessie. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573161 - 130
kippen - pluimvee - inheems vee - genetische verbetering - houding van boeren - perceptie - kippenrassen - prestatieniveau - dierveredeling - ethiopië - fowls - poultry - native livestock - genetic improvement - farmers' attitudes - perception - fowl breeds - performance - animal breeding - ethiopia
Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. First factors that determine the probability and intensity of adoption of exotic chickens were assessed. The probability of adopting exotic chickens was found to be positively affected by access to an off-farm income and negatively by livestock income. The intensity of adoption was negatively affected by being male household head, having a larger farm size, and having livestock income. Then, perceptions of farmers towards village poultry and impacts of interventions on flock and economic performance were assessed. Farmers’ perceptions affected their decisions about implementation of interventions, and interventions increased productivity but only in a few cases the increased revenues outweighed the additional costs. Subsequently, the evaluation of the breeds was conducted by comparing the natural antibody and productivity of improved indigenous chicken with crossbred, commercial and unimproved indigenous chickens. The results revealed that not only the NAb levels but also the effect of NAbs on survival differ between indigenous and improved breeds. NAb levels are associated with survival in commercial layer breed, but reduced survival in indigenous chickens placed in confinement. Improved indigenous chickens showed higher performance than unimproved one for all traits measured on-station, but remains lighter and developed more into a laying type than meat through the short-term selective breeding program. Overall, the present studies indicate that interventions need to be tailored towards the local situation to ensure that they lead not only to improved productivity but also to improved income.
Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya
Ngeno, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth van der Waaij; A.K. Kahi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572775 - 154
kippen - pluimvee - inheems vee - dierveredeling - veredelingsprogramma's - genetische diversiteit - ecotypen - genomen - genetische verbetering - kenya - fowls - poultry - native livestock - animal breeding - breeding programmes - genetic diversity - ecotypes - genomes - genetic improvement - kenya
Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the development of an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding program for enhanced productivity and improved human livelihood in Kenya. The initial step was to review five questions; what, why and how should we conserve IC in an effective and sustainable way, who are the stakeholders and what are their roles in the IC breeding program. The next step of the research focused on detecting distinctive IC ecotypes through morphological and genomic characterization. Indigenous chicken ecotypes were found to be populations with huge variability in the morphological features. Molecular characterization was carried out using microsatellite markers and whole genome re-sequenced data. The studied IC ecotypes are genetically distinct groups. The MHC-linked microsatellite markers divided the eight IC ecotypes studied into three mixed clusters, composing of individuals from the different ecotypes whereas non-MHC markers grouped ICs into two groups. Analysis revealed high genetic variation within the ecotype with highly diverse MHC-linked alleles which are known to be involved in disease resistance. Whole genome re-sequencing revealed genomic variability, regions affected by selection, candidate genes and mutations that can explain partially the phenotypic divergence between IC and commercial layers. Unlike commercial chickens, IC preserved a high genomic variability that may be important in addressing present and future challenges associated with environmental adaptation and farmers’ breeding goals. Lastly, this study showed that there is an opportunity to improve IC through selection within the population. Genetic improvement utilizing within IC selection requires setting up a breeding program. The study described the systematic and logical steps in designing a breeding program by focusing on farmers’ need, how to improve IC to fit the farming conditions, and management regimes.
Is het flevolanderschaap een zeldzaam ras?
Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2012
Zeldzaam huisdier 37 (2012)4. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 6 - 7.
schapen - schapenrassen - inheems vee - stamboeken - zeldzame rassen - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - sheep - sheep breeds - native livestock - herdbooks - rare breeds - animal genetic resources
In 2011 heeft een internationale werkgroep bepaald dat een ras inheems is als het 40 jaar en 6 generaties in een land aanwezig is. De vraag is dan hoe je om moet gaan met recent gevormde rassen die bedreigd worden in hun voortbestaan. Die vraag wordt in dit artikel, met als voorbeeld het Flevolanderschaap, beantwoord.
Eureca onderzoek naar consument
Hoving, A.H. ; Haas, Y. de; Groot, L. de - \ 2011
De Blaarkopper 2011 (2011)1. - p. 23 - 23.
groninger blaarkop - melkveerassen - conservering - maatschappelijk draagvlak - vragenlijsten - inheems vee - groningen white headed - dairy breeds - conservation - public support - questionnaires - native livestock
In het kader van het vervolg van het Eurecaproject werd door CGN/WUR een onderzoek gedaan naar 'Wat is een lokaal runderras de burger waard?'. In dit artikel staat het verslag.
Towards self-sustainable European regional cattle breeds : breed demonstration cases
Haas, Y. de; Diaz, C. ; Collado, D.M. ; Duclos, D. ; Colinet, F. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 410) - 21
belgisch witblauw - rassen (dieren) - inheems vee - rundveerassen - in-situ conservering - multi-stakeholder processen - avilena-iberisch zwartvee - groninger blaarkop - dierveredeling - belgian blue - breeds - native livestock - cattle breeds - in situ conservation - multi-stakeholder processes - avilena-black iberian - groningen white headed - animal breeding
This report describes the process to re-develop the breed conservation and development strategy in Belgium, France, Spain and the Netherlands with involvement of multistakeholders.
Inclusion Of The Spatial Dimension Of Population Data In Developing Policies For The Management Of AnGR –The Case Of The Heritage Sheep Breeds
Ligda, C. ; Mizeli, C. ; Carson, A. ; Duclos, D. ; Haas, Y. de; Kompan, D. ; Bowles, D. ; Georgoudis, A. - \ 2010
schapenrassen - inheems vee - in-situ conservering - bedreigde rassen - dierlijke producten - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - europa - geoinformatie - sheep breeds - native livestock - in situ conservation - endangered breeds - animal products - animal genetic resources - europe - geoinformation
The sustainable use of farm animal genetic resources is connected with the recognition of their contribution to the society and the environment and the assessment of the threats they are facing. The category of the heritage breeds, which are genetically distinct, geographically concentrated, adapted to their environment, commercially farmed to contribute to the local economy were considered in the frame of the HERITAGESHEEP project. The aim of this project was to deliver the potential of the heritage sheep breeds for a sustainable future for medium to low input production systems, which support local rural communities throughout Europe. This was achieved by addressing the conservation of these breeds, defining the current and future threats and developing new uses and markets for products.
Development of Policies and Strategies to Strengthen (Self) Sustainability of European Local Cattle Breeds
Hiemstra, S.J. ; Diaz, C. ; Duclos, D. ; Haas, Y. de; Mäki-Tanila, A. ; Martin, D. ; Pizzi, F. ; Soini, K. ; Gandini, G. - \ 2010
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rundveerassen - beleid - europa - inheems vee - cultureel erfgoed - in-situ conservering - ex-situ conservering - sustainability - cattle breeds - policy - europe - native livestock - cultural heritage - in situ conservation - ex situ conservation
In Europe, about 45% of local cattle breeds are categorized “at risk”. In Europe, member states may provide incentive payments to support ‘local breeds in danger of being lost to farming’. However, there is a general aim that incentive payments should not be permanent and making local breeds (self) sustainable should be promoted. The aim of the EC co-funded project EURECA was to get a better understanding of the breed (self) sustainability and the factors affecting it in Europe, which may help in defining policies and strategies.
Genetic diversity and population structure of locally adapted South African chicken lines: Implications for conservation.
Marle-Koster, E. van; Hefer, C.A. ; Nel, L.H. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2008
South African Journal of Animal Science = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Veekun 38 (2008)4. - ISSN 0375-1589 - p. 271 - 281.
kippen - inheems vee - rassen (dieren) - differentiatie - genetische variatie - genetische diversiteit - microsatellieten - merkers - bevolkingsstructuur - conservering - zuid-afrika - fowls - native livestock - breeds - differentiation - genetic variation - genetic diversity - microsatellites - markers - population structure - conservation - south africa - domestic-animal diversity - microsatellite markers - linkage map - naked neck - polymorphisms - biodiversity - genome
In this study microsatellite markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the six local chicken lines kept in the “Fowls for Africa” program, for better clarification of parameters for breed differentiation and genetic conservation of this valuable resource. The lines included the Black Australorp, Potchefstroom Koekoek, New Hampshire, Ovambo, Lebova- Venda and a Naked Neck line. Unbiased estimates for heterozygosity ranged from 50% in the Potchefstroom Koekoek to as high as 65% in the Naked Neck chickens. FIS values varied from as low as 0.16 for the Black Australorp line to as high as 0.35 for the Ovambo chickens. The FST values indicated moderate to high genetic differentiation between the Naked Neck and New Hampshire (0.11); Ovambo and Naked Neck lines (0.12), and Naked Neck and Lebowa- Venda (0.14). A total of 13% of the total genetic variation observed was between the chicken lines and 87% within the lines, supporting moderate genetic differentiation. Population structure was assessed using STRUCTURE where the Black Australorp was genetically best defined. Although six clusters for the different populations could be distinguished, the other lines were not as clearly defined, with individual birds tending to share more than one cluster. Results support a broad classification of these lines and further investigation of unique alleles is recommended for conservation of the lines within the program.
Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity
Gizaw, S. ; Komen, J. ; Windig, J.J. ; Hanotte, O. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2008
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 40 (2008)4. - ISSN 0999-193X - p. 433 - 447.
dierveredeling - schapen - schapenrassen - inheems vee - bedreigde rassen - fokwaarde - genetische diversiteit - conservering - rangordening - ethiopië - middelen van bestaan - animal breeding - sheep - sheep breeds - native livestock - endangered breeds - breeding value - genetic diversity - conservation - ranking - ethiopia - livelihoods - european cattle breeds - livestock breeds - kinships - management - allocation - purposes - schemes - funds - set
Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers) and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits). Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04) as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83). We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan
|Impact van besmettelijke dierziekten.
Meijer, L. - \ 2006
Zeldzaam huisdier 31 (2006)2. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 19 - 21.
zeldzame rassen - pluimveehouderij - aviaire influenzavirussen - mond- en klauwzeer - inheems vee - schapenrassen - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - pluimvee - schapen - rare breeds - poultry farming - avian influenza viruses - foot and mouth disease - native livestock - sheep breeds - animal genetic resources - poultry - sheep
In het voorjaar van 2003 raasde de vogelpest over Nederland. Tijdens de crisis van dat jaar is veel pluimvee geruimd. Ook een aantal hobbydierhouders moest toestaan dat hun geliefde pluimvee gedood werd. De impact van besmettelijke dierziekten is groot, zowel voor de hobbydierhouders als voor de (vaak kleine) populaties van niet-commerciële rassen. De leerstoelgroep Dierlijke Productie Systemen (DPS) van Wageningen Universiteit heeft onderzoek gedaan naar hoe populaties van dieren zich ontwikkelen na een ramp en welke factoren hierbij van invloed kunnen zijn
Genetic improvement of livestock in tsetse infested areas in West Africa
Bosso, N.A. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth van der Waaij. - - 147
vee - genetische verbetering - glossina - trypanosomiase - ziekteresistentie - inheems vee - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - prestatieniveau - genetische analyse - selectief fokken - west-afrika - livestock - genetic improvement - glossina - trypanosomiasis - disease resistance - native livestock - animal genetic resources - performance - genetic analysis - selective breeding - west africa
Genetic improvement of indigenous breeds can make a significant contribution to the conservation and utilisation of local genetic resources. At present, there is insufficient documentation on phenotypic and genetic performance for important production and reproduction traits under low input production circumstances for indigenous populations. This limited knowledge is putting local animal genetic resources at risk. This thesis has focussed on ways to better utilize local animal genetic resources by developing strategies for the implementation of improvement programmes for trypanotolerant breeds in The Gambia and in
|Want niet iedereen is Anky...
Breukink, D.B. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. - \ 2005
Zeldzaam huisdier (2005)1. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 11 - 14.
paardenrassen - inheems vee - gelderlander (paardenras) - paardenfokkerij - paarden - horse breeds - native livestock - gelderland (horse breed) - horse breeding - horses
Hebben Groninger en Gelderse paarden toekomst? Volgens de houders van deze paarden hebben beide toekomst in de recreatieve houderij; houders van Gelderse paarden zien ook goede perspectieven voor hun paarden in de sport. Onderzoek onder de houders, uitgevoerd in opdracht van de SZH, legde evenwel ook knelpunten en frustraties bij de houders bloot
|A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands
Wit, J.J. de; Eck, J.H. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Pijpers, A. - \ 2004
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 129 (2004)10. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 324 - 327.
kippen - pluimveeziekten - serologische overzichten - pluimveehouderij - rassen (dieren) - inheems vee - tentoonstellingen - nederland - fowls - poultry diseases - serological surveys - poultry farming - breeds - native livestock - exhibitions - netherlands - salmonella-enteritidis - virus - antibodies - antigen - flocks
To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regions with a high poultry density. The owners of the tested flocks showed their chicken at national and international poultry exhibitions. Antibodies against Avian Influenza, Egg Drop Syndrome '76 virus, Pox virus, Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum, Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium were not detected. However, antibodies against other Salmonella species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, chicken anaemia virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, and avian leukosis virus, subgroups A and B, and subgroup J were detected in a varying proportion of the flocks. This study shows that antibodies against many chicken pathogens are present among the flocks of old fancy chicken breeds that are exhibited at international poultry exhibitions.