Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities
Haas, Michiel A. de - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): N.B.J. Koning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436281 - 250
cum laude - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - communities - rural areas - farmers - history - colonies - colonialism - income - gender - social inequalities - food crops - cash crops - uganda - east africa - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - gemeenschappen - platteland - boeren - geschiedenis - kolonies - kolonialisme - inkomen - geslacht (gender) - sociale ongelijkheden - voedselgewassen - marktgewassen - uganda - oost-afrika

The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external influences and local realities shaped the nature, extent and impact of the ‘cash-crop revolution’ in colonial Uganda, a landlocked country in central east Africa, where cotton and coffee production for global markets took off following completion of a railway to the coast. The thesis consists of five targeted ‘interventions’ into contemporary debates of comparative African development. Each of these five interventions is grounded in the understanding that the ability of rural Africans to respond to and benefit from trade integration during the colonial era was mediated by colonial policies, resource endowments and local institutions.

The first chapter reconstructs welfare development of Ugandan cash-crop farmers. Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This chapter presents a new approach to reconstructing rural living standards in a historical context, building upon the well-established real wage literature, but moving beyond it to capture rural realities, employing sub-national rural survey, census, and price data. The approach is applied to colonial and early post-colonial Uganda (1915–70), and yields a number of findings. While an expanding smallholder-based cash-crop sector established itself as the backbone of Uganda’s colonial economy, farm characteristics remained largely stagnant after the initial adoption of cash crops. Smallholders maintained living standards well above subsistence level, and while the profitability of cash crops was low, their cultivation provided a reliable source of cash income. At the same time, there were pronounced limits to rural welfare expansion. Around the time of decolonization, unskilled wages rose rapidly while farm incomes lagged behind. As a result, an urban–rural income reversal took place. The study also reveals considerable differences within Uganda, which were mediated to an important extent by differential resource endowments. Smallholders in Uganda’s banana regions required fewer labour inputs to maintain a farm income than their grain-farming counterparts, creating opportunities for additional income generation and livelihood diversification.

The second chapter zooms in on labour migration which connected Belgian-controlled Ruanda-Urundi to British-controlled Buganda, the central province of Uganda on the shores of Lake Victoria. The emergence of new labour mobility patterns was a key aspect of economic change in colonial Africa. Under conditions of land abundance and labour scarcity, the supply of wage labour required either the ‘pull’ forces of attractive working conditions and high wages, or the ‘push’ forces of taxation and other deliberate colonial interventions. Building upon primary sources, I show that this case diverges from the ‘conventional’ narrative of labour scarcity in colonial Africa. I argue that Ruanda-Urundi should be regarded as labour abundant and that migrants were not primarily ‘pushed’ by colonial labour policies, but rather by poverty and limited access to agricultural resources. This explains why they were willing to work for low wages in Buganda. I show that African rural employers were the primary beneficiaries of migrant labour, while colonial governments on both sides of the border were unable to control the course of the flow. As in the first chapter, this chapter highlights that the effects of trade integration on African rural development were uneven, and mediated by differences in resource endowments, local institutions and colonial policies.

The third chapter zooms out of the rural economy, evaluating the broader opportunity structures faced by African men and women in Uganda, and discussing the interaction of local institutions and colonial policies as drivers of uneven educational and occupational opportunities. The chapter engages with a recent article by Meier zu Selhausen and Weisdorf (2016) to show how selection biases in, and Eurocentric interpretations of, parish registers have provoked an overly optimistic account of European influences on the educational and occupational opportunities of African men and women. We confront their dataset, drawn from the marriage registers of the Anglican Cathedral in Kampala, with Uganda’s 1991 census, and show that trends in literacy and numeracy of men and women born in Kampala lagged half a century behind those who wedded in Namirembe Cathedral. We run a regression analysis showing that access to schooling during the colonial era was unequal along lines of gender and ethnicity. We foreground the role of Africans in the spread of education, argue that European influences were not just diffusive but also divisive, and that gender inequality was reconfigured rather than eliminated under colonial rule. This chapter also makes a methodological contribution. The renaissance of African economic history in the past decade has opened up new research avenues to study the long-term social and economic development of Africa. We show that a sensitive treatment of African realities in the evaluation of European colonial legacies, and a critical stance towards the use of new sources and approaches, is crucial.

The fourth chapter singles out the role of resource endowments in explaining Uganda’s ‘cotton revolution’ in a comparative African perspective. Why did some African smallholders adopt cash crops on a considerable scale, while most others were hesitant to do so? The chapter sets out to explore the importance of factor endowments in shaping the degrees to which cash crops were adopted in colonial tropical Africa. We conduct an in-depth case study of the ‘cotton revolution’ in colonial Uganda to put the factor endowments perspective to the test. Our empirical findings, based on an annual panel data analysis at the district-level from 1925 until 1960, underscore the importance of Uganda’s equatorial bimodal rainfall distribution as an enabling factor for its ‘cotton revolution’. Evidence is provided at a unique spatial micro-level, capitalizing on detailed household surveys from the same period. We demonstrate that previous explanations associating the variegated responses of African farmers to cash crops with, either the role of colonial coercion, or the distinction between ‘forest/banana’ and ‘savannah/grain’ zones, cannot explain the widespread adoption of cotton in Uganda. We argue, instead, that the key to the cotton revolution were Uganda’s two rainy seasons, which enabled farmers to grow cotton while simultaneously pursuing food security. Our study highlights the importance of food security and labour seasonality as important determinants of uneven agricultural commercialization in colonial tropical Africa.

The fifth and final chapter further investigates the experience of African smallholders with cotton cultivation, providing a comparative explanatory analysis of variegated cotton outcomes, focusing in particular on the role of colonial and post-colonial policies. The chapter challenges the widely accepted view that (i) African colonial cotton projects consistently failed, that (ii) this failure should be attributed to conditions particular to Africa, which made export cotton inherently unviable and unprofitable to farmers, and that (iii) the repression and resistance often associated with cotton, all resulted from the stubborn and overbearing insistence of colonial governments on the crop per se. I argue along three lines. Firstly, to show that cotton outcomes were diverse, I compare cases of cotton production in Sub-Saharan Africa across time and space. Secondly, to refute the idea that cotton was a priori unattractive, I argue that the crop had substantial potential to connect farmers to markets and contribute to poverty alleviation, particularly in vulnerable, marginal and landlocked areas. Thirdly, to illustrate how an interaction between local conditions and government policies created conducive conditions for cotton adoption, I zoom in on the few yet significant ‘cotton success stories’ in twentieth century Africa. Smallholders in colonial Uganda adopted cotton because of favourable ecological and marketing conditions, and policies had an auxiliary positive effect. Smallholders in post-colonial Francophone West Africa faced much more challenging local conditions, but benefitted from effective external intervention and coordinated policy. On a more general level, this chapter demonstrates that, from a perspective of rural development, colonial policies should not only be seen as overbearing and interventionist, but also as inadequate, failing to aid rural Africans to benefit from new opportunities created by trade integration.

Women’s participation in tourism in Zanzibar : an enactment perspective
Maliva, Nelly Samson - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Karin Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579231 - 206
tourism - zanzibar - participation - women - emancipation of women - labour - income - entrepreneurship - women workers - family life - society - tourist industry - swahili - standards - social values - gender relations - toerisme - zanzibar - participatie - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - ondernemerschap - vrouwelijke werknemers - gezinsleven - samenleving - toeristenindustrie - swahili - normen - sociale waarden - man-vrouwrelaties

To shed more light on the position of women in tourism, in this thesis I examined the ways women in Zanzibar have incorporated working in tourism in their daily lives by comparing those who work in tourism as entrepreneurs with employees, working in hotels and restaurants. Conceptually my thesis is framed within Weick’s theory of enactment, with special focus on the concept of sensemaking. I used this particular framework to understand how women either reinforce or resist gendered identities by constantly ‘enacting’ their environments. My research showed that the position of women in Zanzibar is highly influenced by religion, marital status and level of education. However, since women make sense of the environment in different ways, perceive different opportunities and constraints, and on the basis of these make different choices, I recommended that programmes customised according to the differences among women should be developed. Second, I argued that these tailor-made programmes should focus on four interventions: education and training, working conditions, self-organisation and microcredit.

How to pursue quality of life
Antonides, G. - \ 2016
Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573734 - 28
well-being - income - consumption - society - western world - quality of life - welzijn - inkomen - consumptie - samenleving - westerse wereld - kwaliteit van het leven
Well-being, happiness or quality of life is a desirable life goal which can be pursued in many different ways.
Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali
Falconnier, G.N. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Katrien Descheemaeker; T.A. van Mourik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577596 - 209
agriculture - agricultural development - farms - classification - self sufficiency - food - income - intensification - farming systems - intensive production - mali - landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwbedrijven - classificatie - zelfvoorziening - voedsel - inkomen - intensivering - bedrijfssystemen - intensieve productie - mali

Key words: longitudinal study, farm typology, food self-sufficiency, income, legumes, ex-ante analysis, participatory research, scenario.

Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints, variable rainfall and unstable institutional support. This study integrates a diversity of approaches (household typology and understanding of farm trajectories, on-farm trials, participatory ex-ante trade-off analysis) to design innovative farming systems to confront these challenges. We explored farm trajectories during two decades (1994 to 2010) in the Koutiala district in southern Mali, an area experiencing the land constraints that exert pressure in many other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We classified farms into four types differing in land and labour productivity and food self-sufficiency status. During the past two decades, 17% of the farms stepped up to a farm type with greater productivity, while 70% of the farms remained in the same type, and only 13% of the farms experienced deteriorating farming conditions. Crop yields did not change significantly over time for any farm type and labour productivity decreased. Together with 132 farmers in the Koutiala district, we tested a range of options for sustainable intensification, including intensification of cereal (maize and sorghum) and legume (groundnut, soyabean and cowpea) sole crops and cereal-legume intercropping over three years and cropping seasons (2012-2014) through on-farm trials. Experiments were located across three soil types that farmers identified – namely black, sandy and gravelly soils. Enhanced agronomic performance was achieved when targeting legumes to a given soil type and/or place in the rotation: the biomass production of the cowpea fodder variety was doubled on black soils compared with gravelly soils and the additive maize/cowpea intercropping option after cotton or maize resulted in no maize grain penalty, and 1.38 t ha−1 more cowpea fodder production compared with sole maize. Farm systems were re-designed together with the farmers involved in the trials. A cyclical learning model combining the on-farm testing and participatory ex-ante analysis was used during four years (2012-2015). In the first cycle of 2012-2014, farmers were disappointed by the results of the ex-ante trade-off analysis, i.e marginal improvement in gross margin when replacing sorghum with soybean and food self-sufficiency trade-offs when intercropping maize with cowpea. In a second cycle in 2014-2015 the farm systems were re-designed using the niche-specific (soil type/previous crop combinations) information on yield and gross margin, which solved the concerns voiced by farmers during the first cycle. Farmers highlighted the saliency of the niches and the re-designed farm systems that increased farm gross margin by 9 to 29% (depending on farm type and options considered) without compromising food self-sufficiency. The involvement of farmers in the co-learning cycles allowed establishment of legitimate, credible and salient farm reconfiguration guidelines that could be scaled-out to other communities within the “old cotton basin”. Five medium-term contrasting socio-economic scenarios were built towards the year 2027, including hypothetical trends in policy interventions and change towards agricultural intensification. A simulation framework was built to account for household demographic dynamics and crop/livestock production variability. In the current situation, 45% of the 99 households of the study village were food self-sufficient and above the 1.25 US$ day-1 poverty line. Without change in farmer practices and additional policy intervention, only 16% of the farms would be both food self-sufficient and above the poverty line in 2027. In the case of diversification with legumes combined with intensification of livestock production and support to the milk sector, 27% of farms would be food self-sufficient and above the poverty line. Additional broader policy interventions to favour out-migration would be needed to lift 69% of the farms out of poverty. Other additional subsidies to favour yield gap narrowing of the main crops would lift 92% of the farm population out of poverty. Whilst sustainable intensification of farming clearly has a key role to play in ensuring food self-sufficiency, and is of great interest to local farmers, in the face of increasing population pressure other approaches are required to address rural poverty. These require strategic and multi-sectoral approaches that address employment within and beyond agriculture, in both rural and urban areas.

Tourism, income, and jobs : improving the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism
Klijs, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789054723509 - 188
tourism - economic impact - income - employment - regional economics - models - tourism impact - visitor impact - toerisme - economische impact - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - regionale economie - modellen - impact van toerisme - impact van bezoekers

Summary

Tourism can have a broad range of impacts, including impact on the economy, on the natural and built environment, on the local population, and on visitors themselves. This PhD thesis discussed the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism, including impacts on output, value added, and employment caused by visitor expenditure. The focus was on the choice between models that can be used to calculate these regional economic impacts and the data requirements, usage, and further development of one specific model; the Input-Output (I-O) model.

The starting point of an I-O model is final demand, which is the value of goods and services bought by final users for the direct fulfilment of their needs and wants. In tourism this refers to the value of the goods and services bought by visitors. Final demand brings about a chain of production. First, goods and services that are part of final demand need to be produced. This requires production factors (i.e., capital and labour) as well as intermediate inputs. These intermediate inputs also need to be produced, again requiring production factors and a subsequent ‘level’ of intermediate inputs. Combining final demand and all ‘levels’ of intermediate inputs, an I-O model enables calculation of the total output required to satisfy final demand. An I-O model can be an appropriate choice for an economic impact analysis (EIA) in the following context:

Relevant data exist on (the change of) final demand, i.e. visitors expenditure per industry;

There is an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale;

Impacts are analysed of (a change in) final demand;

The assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ is acceptable (which implies there are no relative prices changes, input substitution and redistribution of production factors among industries);

The assumption ‘no productivity changes’ is acceptable (final demand changes do not lead to productivity changes, e.g. employees working longer, harder or more efficiently);

There is interest in indirect impacts on output, value added, income and/or employment per industry, while there is little interest in induced impacts, spatial considerations, temporal consideration, social impacts, environmental impacts, and economic externalities. Indirect impacts are impact generated by the production of intermediary inputs.

Not all EIAs in tourism will be carried out within such a context. In some EIAs one or more of these conditions are not met. The overall goal of this research was to improve the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism by

Establishing criteria based on which an appropriate economic impact model can be selected for an EIA in tourism and;

Providing solutions for those situations where

an Input Output table on the appropriate spatial scale is not available;

and/or analysis is required of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes;

and/or the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ cannot be accepted (which implies there can be relative prices changes, input substitution and/or redistribution of production factors among industries);

and/or the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ cannot be accepted

without introducing prohibitive complexity and data demands to an I-O model.

This overall objective was subdivided into the following specific objectives:

Provide an overview and evaluation of the criteria for the selection of economic impact models.

Provide an explanation for the sign of the difference between regional I-O coefficients calculated between two alternative location quotient (LQ) methods, for all combinations of demanding and supplying industries.

To analyze medical tourism’s state-level economic impacts in Malaysia.

Address the limitations of I-O models and ‘upgrade’ the I-O model, without introducing the complexity and data collection costs associated with a full Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model.

To include labour productivity changes, caused by a change in final demand in the tourism industries, into a non-linear I-O (NLIO) model.

Each of these specific objectives was discussed in a separate chapter. Chapter 2 discussed criteria to choose between economic impact models, when carrying out an EIA in tourism. Based on the literature review 52 potential criteria were identified. After consulting experts in tourism and/or EIAs 24 of these 52 criteria were identified as essential. These essential criteria were used to compare the five economic impact models that are most used in EIAs in tourism; Export Base, Keynesian, Ad hoc, I-O, and CGE models. The results show that CGE models are the preferred choice for many of the criteria. Their detail and flexibility potentially lead to more realistic outcomes. However, CGE models do not ‘score’ high on criteria related to transparency, efficiency, and comparability. Multiplier models (Keynesian, Export Base and Ad Hoc) score high on these criteria, but the realism of their results is limited. I-O models are an “in-between” option for many criteria, which explains their extensive usage in EIAs in tourism. Nonetheless, I-O models have some important disadvantages, most notably their strong assumptions (‘no scarcity of production factors’ and ‘no productivity changes’), which limit the realism of their results. Although the choice of a model should always depend on the specific context of each EIA, the general conclusion is that an ‘ideal model’ for many applications could be found somewhere in between I-O and CGE. The challenge, however, is to extend the I-O model, while keeping the complexity and data demands to a minimum. This conclusion provided the motivation for the application and further development of an NLIO model, in chapters 5 and 6.

Both I-O and NLIO models require the existence of an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale. For a regional I-O analysis an I-O table needs to be available for the specific region. When such a table is not available, it can be created using LQ methods. The four most used LQ methods are Simple Location Quotient, Cross Industry Location Quotient, Round’s Location Quotient, and Flegg’s Location Quotient (FLQ). The size of the regional I-O coefficients (RIOCs), which are derived from a regional I-O table, directly influences the results of an EIA. An over- or underestimation of RIOCs can lead to over- or underestimation of economic impacts. It is therefore very important to understand the differences between LQ methods and the consequences for the RIOCs. Chapter 3 showed that the ranking in size of the RIOCs, generated by the four LQ methods, depends on the J-value of demanding industries (output of industry j on regional level divided by output of industry j on national level). The conditions were calculated under which FLQ, the LQ method which was developed to avoid overestimation, leads to the lowest RIOCs47. Although this chapter does not provide a complete answer to question which LQ method to use in an EIA it does show that a choice for the FLQ method could be motivated by the wish to arrive at a careful estimate of regional economic impacts and to avoid or limit overestimation.

In chapter 4 the FLQ method was used to create RIOCs for nine Malaysian states. These RIOCs were used to calculate state-level economic impacts of medical tourism based on regional I-O models. It was shown that impacts related to non-medical expenditure of medical tourists (USD 273.7 million) are larger than impacts related to medical expenditure (USD 104.9 million) and that indirect impacts (USD 95.4 million) make up a substantial part of total impacts (USD 372.3 million). Data limitations implied that strong assumptions were required to estimate final demand by medical tourists, specifically regarding their non-medical expenditure and allocation of this expenditure to industries of the I-O model.

In chapter 5 the I-O model was “upgraded” to a NLIO model, by replacing the Leontief production function, underlying the I-O model with a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function. Thereby the main drawback of the I-O model, the need to accept the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ was thus eliminated. The analysis performed showed that, for large changes of final demand, an NLIO model is more useful than an I-O model because relative prices changes are likely, leading to substitution and redistribution of production factors between industries. The NLIO takes this into account. Impacts can be higher or lower than in the I-O model, depending on assumptions about capacity constraints, production factor mobility and substitution elasticities. Relative price changes, substitution, and redistribution are less likely for a small change of final demand. In that case most realistic results are achieved by accepting assuming ‘no scarcity of production factors’, as in case of the I-O model. To analyze impacts of other types of ‘shock’ than final demand changes, such as a change of subsidies, an I-O model is not an option. A more flexible model is required, such as a NLIO model. A NLIO model requires additional assumptions and/or data. First, researchers need to choose the appropriate assumption regarding the functioning of factor markets and production factor mobility between industries. Second, the NLIO model forces the researcher to specify the substitution elasticities, instead of implicitly assuming an elasticity of zero (as in the I-O model). Compared to a CGE model, the NLIO model offers the advantage that it is not dependent on the existence of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) on the appropriate spatial scale, while the production structure is identical. Furthermore, using a CGE model introduces additional complexity as it requires the specification of the relationships between income and final demand, including issues such as income transfers and income taxation.

In chapter 6 labour productivity changes, that result from final demand changes were included into the NLIO model, thereby integrating productivity changes. A differentiation was made between real and quasi productivity changes and productivity changes for core and peripheral labour. Real productivity changes (changes that enable the production of more output per unit of labour) were integrated by introducing Factor Augmenting Technical Change (FATC) based on an endogenous specification. Quasi productivity changes (substitution of labour by other inputs which automatically leads to higher labour productivity) were already integrated into the NLIO based on the CES production function. The differentiation between core and peripheral labour was integrated by a smaller potential change of FATC for peripheral labour, implying less room for productivity changes. The NLIO model with and without FATC was applied to calculate impacts of a 10% increase of expenditure in tourism in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands. Accounting for FATC leads to less usage of labour in the tourism industries as productivity increases allow output to be produced using fewer inputs. This implies lower marginal costs, which leads to lower output prices. These relative input and output price changes stimulate substitution and quasi productivity changes. To what degree the NLIO with FATC leads to more realistic results than the NLIO without FATC depends vitally on the specification of FATC, the differentiation between core and peripheral labour, and the labour supply function. All these elements require additional assumptions and/or data.

For some EIAs the NLIO is an improvement compared to the I-O model because it does not require the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ to be accepted. In the NLIO with FATC neither the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ nor the assumption of ‘no productivity changes’ is required. In chapter 7 are discussed considerations related to the acceptance or rejection of these two assumptions. Rejection of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ can be appropriate in EIAs in large regions, of large changes of final demand, in regions with limited or no unused labour and capital, in long term analyses, in regions with low factor mobility from and to other regions, and for impact analyses (instead of significance analyses). Acceptance or rejection of the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ depends on the degree to which labour productivity changes can be expected as a result of a final demand change, a consideration which requires expert judgment.

This research makes several contributions to the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism:

24 essential criteria that can be used to select a model for application in an economic impact analysis. Although the decision which criteria to consider, and how to weigh these criteria, should always be made on a case specific basis the essential criteria provide a good starting point

This thesis provides additional insights into the differences between the regional I-O coefficients and total output multipliers generated by the four LQ methods. Furthermore, it was shown that a choice for FLQ could be motivated by the wish to avoid or limit overestimation of regional economic impacts.

The NLIO model with endogenous factor augmenting technical change enables a calculation of economic impacts of tourism in contexts where the I-O model is not the most appropriate choice. The NLIO model namely allows for measurement of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes and can be applied in context where the assumptions ‘no scarcity of production factors’ and/or ‘no productivity change’ are untenable. When applying an NLIO model, the added realism compared to the I-O model needs to be weighed against the need to make additional assumptions, collect additional data, and deal with the more complex nature of this model. In this perspective the NLIO model does compare favourably to the CGE Model, often presented as a more realistic alternative to the I-O model, because it does not depend on data on the relationships between income and final demand (i.e. the need for a SAM).

Blijven boeren in de Veenkoloniën : PPO 't Kompas
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2015
Boerderij 100 (2015)19. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 24 - 27.
akkerbouw - innovaties - veenkolonien - regionaal landbouwbeleid - rendement - inkomen - samenwerking - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - arable farming - innovations - regional agricultural policy - returns - income - cooperation - cap - farm income - farm management
Veenkoloniale boeren moeten het gat vullen dat ontstaat door het wegvallen van inkomenssteun uit Brussel. Innovatieprogramma Landbouw Veenkoloniën draagt eraan bij met elf innovatieprojecten.
Sixty-five data sets of profit, labour input, fertilizer and pesticide use in seventeen vegetable crops of the Arusha region, Tanzania
Everaarts, A.P. ; Putter, H. de - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO/PRI report 652) - 77
groenteteelt - rentabiliteit - input van landbouwbedrijf - kosten - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - tanzania - investering - penen - voederkool - koolsoorten - tomaten - aardappelen - bemesting - gewasbescherming - vegetable growing - profitability - farm inputs - costs - labour - income - investment - carrots - kale - cabbages - tomatoes - potatoes - fertilizer application - plant protection
This report contains the 65 individual crop data sets to the related report A.P. Everaarts, H. de Putter and A.P. Maerere, 2015. Profitability, labour input, fertilizer application and crop protection in vegetable production in the Arusha region, Tanzania.PPO Report 653.
Profitability, labour input, fertilizer application and crop protection in vegetable production in the Arusha region, Tanzania
Everaarts, A.P. ; Putter, H. de; Maerere, A.P. - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO/PRI report 653) - 37
groenteteelt - rentabiliteit - input van landbouwbedrijf - kosten - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - tanzania - investering - penen - voederkool - koolsoorten - tomaten - aardappelen - bemesting - gewasbescherming - vegetable growing - profitability - farm inputs - costs - labour - income - investment - carrots - kale - cabbages - tomatoes - potatoes - fertilizer application - plant protection
An analysis was made of the inputs, costs and profit of vegetable production in three areas in the Arusha region of Tanzania. The major aim of the study was to establish whether vegetable producers would have the means to invest in modern production methods, such as hybrid seeds and drip irrigation, to improve and intensify their production.
Verdienmodellen voor stadslandbouw : vijf strategieën om een bedrijf succesvol op de stad te richten
Vijn, M.P. - \ 2015
Ekoland 35 (2015)5. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
stadslandbouw - inkomen - voedselproductie - klantrelaties - zorgboerderijen - urban agriculture - income - food production - customer relations - social care farms
Stadslandbouw is op de stad gerichte landbouw, soms in de stad, soms in de buurt van de stad. Het biedt stedelingen vers voedsel en activiteiten in combinatie met een aantrekkelijke leefomgeving en ondernemers een afzetmarktmarkt voor vers voedsel en gerelateerde diensten in interactie met de stedeling. Daarbij zijn meerdere strategieën mogelijk.
Cash crops and food security : contributions to income, livelihood risk and agricultural innovation
Achterbosch, T.J. ; Berkum, S. van; Meijerink, G.W. ; Asbreuk, H. ; Oudendag, D.A. - \ 2014
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2014-15) - ISBN 9789086156733 - 56
marktgewassen - voedselzekerheid - landbouwbedrijven - innovaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - inkomen - afrika - cash crops - food security - farms - innovations - sustainability - income - africa
Improving the shallot and hot pepper cultivation system in the coastal plain of Northern Java
Putter, H. de; Witono, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT report 1) - 18
sjalotten - peper - teelt - groenteteelt - indonesië - handel - boerenmarkten - marketing - rentabiliteit - inkomen - jaarrondproductie - aanbod - shallots - pepper - cultivation - vegetable growing - indonesia - trade - farmers' markets - profitability - income - all-year-round production - supply
This report aims to improve cultivation and to enhance farmers' income in the Brebes region of Northern Java. First, a brief description of vegetable cultivation in the Brebes region is given. Also profits of vegetable cultivation are discussed and bottlenecks in the current cultivation system. In shallot and hot pepper cultivation a main constraint is the alternating change in land use. With rice cultivation the land is levelled and flooded and with vegetable cultivation raised beds are made. As a result problems are present with soil fertility, hence high fertilizer rates are applied and poor crop growth is present. Another constraint is the small field size per farm, where only at a few days a year harvest takes place. As a result individual farmers are not able to supply year round large quantities and therefore are unable to make arrangements with traders. In case farmers can organize themselves as a group they can produce year round a good quantity making it interesting for traders to make arrangements with this farmers’ group. Based on the conclusions it is proposed to start up activities to address the following topics: - Permanent vegetable crop cultivation system. - Year round supply of product and direct linking to a market.
Exploring opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina
Chavez Clemente, M.D. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Paul Berentsen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734204 - 161
tabak - gespecialiseerde landbouw - gewasproductie - landbouwbedrijven - diversificatie - specialisatie - inkomen - risico - bodemdegradatie - argentinië - tobacco - specialized farming - crop production - farms - diversification - specialization - income - risk - soil degradation - argentina
In the Northwest of Argentina tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is economically and socially important. Tobacco mono-cropping, excessive tillage and inadequate irrigation management cause soil degradation. This and also tobacco production dependence on government subsidies and concern about health damage from tobacco consumption calls for research on diversification. The aim of this thesis was to explore opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina.
The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731883 - 211
relaties tussen stad en platteland - steden - nutfunctie - invloeden - gezinsinkomen - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - huishoudens - landbouwhuishoudens - gewassen - bemesting - agrarische handel - overheidsdiensten - wegtransport - telefoons - elektriciteit - drinkwater - ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ethiopië - rural urban relations - towns - utility functions - influences - household income - income - employment - households - agricultural households - crops - fertilizer application - agricultural trade - public services - road transport - telephones - electricity - drinking water - development - economic development - rural development - rural areas - ethiopia
Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to different economic activities is still in development. The thesis sought to add to the literature by conceptually discussing the role of town functions and empirically examining the influence on income, employment opportunities, rural household crop marketing and fertilizer application. For these purposes, data from households in four major regional states of Ethiopia are used. Results show that shorter distances to roads, transport services and telephone centers, and connection to electricity and tap water are likely to increase income and non-farm wage employment. We find also that proximity to roads and markets and strong network connections are associated with improved input-output exchange among rural households
Regionale verschillen in werkgelegenheid en inkomen
Heijman, W.J.M. ; Kroes, R.G. - \ 2012
ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 97 (2012)4626. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 13 - 14.
arbeidsmarkt - werkgelegenheid - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - regio's - arbeidseconomie - labour market - employment - labour - income - regions - labour economics
De regionale groei van inkomen en werkgelegenheid wijkt sterk af van het landelijk gemiddelde. Het grootste deel van dit verschil kan worden verklaard door regionaal-specifieke omstandigheden.
Scenarios for a cap beyond 2013; Implications for EU27 agriculture and the cap budget
Helming, J.F.M. ; Terluin, I.J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur en Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 267) - 65
landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - europese unie - landbouwsector - scenario-analyse - sectorale analyse - inkomen - biodiversiteit - emissie - landen van de europese unie - agricultural policy - cap - european union - agricultural sector - scenario analysis - sectoral analysis - income - biodiversity - emission - european union countries
An ex ante analysis of a set of five policy components (proposed post 2013 CAP measures) has been carried out for the 2014-2020 period, based on the EC Communication The CAP towards 2020 of 18 November 2010. The policy components are defined in such a way that they focus on the contribution of farmers to biodiversity as a public good. The consequences for the distribution of the CAP budget for the period 2014-2020 over EU Member States in the three scenarios are modelled by using the LEI budget model, whereas the shifts in production and income in EU agriculture are modelled by using the regionalised agricultural sector model CAPRI. This report gives background information especially related to the socialeconomic aspects of the overall report by the Environmental Assessment Agency. Model calculations with CAPRI show that the five policy components have sizeable market and income redistribution effects.
Poverty dynamics, income inequality and vulnerability to shocks in rural Kenya
Radeny, M.A.O. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Rob Schipper; Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859369 - 213
ontwikkelingseconomie - armoede - inkomen - platteland - middelen van bestaan - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - participatie - landbouwhuishoudens - rurale welzijnszorg - economische verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kenya - oost-afrika - development economics - poverty - income - rural areas - livelihoods - sustainability - participation - agricultural households - rural welfare - economic change - developing countries - kenya - east africa

Persistent poverty remains a huge challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, official statistics indicate that the incidence of rural poverty was 49% in 2005/2006. This study uses different approaches and data sources to explore temporal and spatial dimensions of rural welfare in Kenya. The objective is to identify and understand the linkages between welfare, livelihood assets, livelihood strategies, local-level institutions, and exposure to shocks. First, we compared participatory and income approaches to studying poverty and poverty dynamics. We found a significant positive correlation between the results obtained using the two approaches, with both approaches showing evidence of geographical clusters of poverty. Nevertheless, discrepancies in poverty rates and dynamics were found as well. Second, we used asset-based approaches to explore the nature of rural poverty dynamics over multiple periods. We found that majority of households that were poor in two consecutive survey years were structurally poor. Of the households escaping poverty, a large proportion was characterized by stochastic transitions. Few households successfully escaped poverty through asset accumulation, while a large proportion of households declining into poverty experienced structural movements. A combination of livelihood strategies, shocks, and other factors interact to influence household structural transition. Third, we characterized shocks facing rural households. Health expenses, ill-health, funeral expenses, livestock losses, land sub-division, and death of major income earner were the most frequently reported shocks. We also found limited evidence that welfare level affects exposure to specific shocks, but a significant geographical effect. Finally, we revisited the geography versus institutions debate at the micro-level suing local data to explain within-country income differences. We found that certain geographical variables appear more important drivers of per capita income levels than local institutions. Our community-level measures of institutions did not explain within-Kenya income differences. Altogether, the findings underscore the importance of geographical targeting of poverty reduction interventions. Moreover, the coexistence of high rural poverty rates and limited asset accumulation, and strong macroeconomic growth highlight the fact that causes of poverty are complex. Macroeconomic growth policies need to be complimented with policies that enhance escapes from poverty (“cargo net” policies) and those that prevent descents into poverty (“cargo net” policies).

A study on overcapacity in the Dutch flatfish sector
Bartelings, H. ; Soma, K. - \ 2010
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area Natural resources ) - ISBN 9789086154456 - 75
pleuronectiformes - visserijbeheer - visserij - vissersschepen - inkomen - kosten - toekomst - economische analyse - fishery management - fisheries - fishing vessels - income - costs - future - economic analysis
This report addresses the important issue of overcapacity in the fishery sector. The main objectives of the research were to estimate current incomes and costs in the Dutch flatfish sector. And future fishing capacity under various scenarios.
Kansen voor een uniek gebied : maatwerk voor het GLB in Oost-Nederland
Rougoor, C. ; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Jager, J.H. ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2010
Culemborg : Den Haag : CLM : LEI ((CLM-Rapport) (LEI-Rapport) (CLM- 729 - 2010) (LEI-rapport 10-041)) - 93
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - subsidies - landbouw - inkomen - nationale landschappen - natura 2000 - gelderland - overijssel - cap - agricultural development - subsidies - agriculture - income - national landscapes - natura 2000 - gelderland - overijssel
Gezien de omvang van de huidige inkomenssteun aan de landbouw in Gelderland en Overijssel zullen Europese en nationale beleidswijzigingen op dit vlak belangrijke gevolgen hebben voor de landbouw en het platteland in beide provincies. Om hierin meer inzicht te krijgen hebben de provincies Gelderland en Overijssel aan CLM/LEI gevraagd een verkenning uit te voeren naar de mogelijke gevolgen (kansen en bedreigingen) en alternatieven die voortvloeien uit de aanpassingen van het stelsel van de inkomenssteun. Volgens het Rijk komen de Natura-2000 gebieden en de nationale landschappen het eerste als waardevolle gebieden in beeld. Het inzetten van geld voor speciale gebieden brengt ook risico’s met zich mee voor gebieden die niet aangewezen zijn als waardevol, en waar geen groenblauwe dienstenbeleid wordt gevoerd (de zogenaamde nee-nee gebieden).
Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam
Nguyen Viet Cuong, N. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D. Bigman; Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789085854302 - 198
armoede - overheidsbeleid - migratie - sociale zekerheid - inkomen - dispariteit - economische evaluatie - vietnam - azië - microfinanciering - welzijn - poverty - government policy - migration - social security - income - disparity - economic evaluation - vietnam - asia - microfinance - well-being
Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international remittances, and migration on poverty and inequality for Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2004 and 2006. Impact evaluation methods employed in the study include fixedeffects regression and difference-in-differences with propensity score matching. Poverty is measured by three Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty indexes, while inequality is measured by the Gini coefficient, Theil’s L and Theil’s T indexes. It is found that the impact of the governmental micro-credit, public transfers and international remittances on poverty reduction is very limited. On the contrary, informal credit, domestic (internal) private transfers and migration have positive and statistically significant impacts on poverty reduction. The domestic private transfers have the largest effect on the total poverty of the population due to a high impact on expenditure and a large coverage of the poor. Regarding inequality, both government-subsidized micro-credit and informal credit do not affect inequality significantly. Public transfers and international remittances increase inequality slightly, while domestic private transfers and migration lead to a decrease in inequality.



Financieringslasten op melkveebedrijven
Jager, J.H. - \ 2009
Agri-monitor 2009 (2009)juni. - ISSN 1383-6455 - p. 1 - 2.
melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - financiële planning - inkomen - dairy farming - dairy farms - farm management - financial planning - income
Het merendeel van de agrarische bedrijven kan zich zonder vreemd vermogen niet optimaal ontwikkelen. De investeringen in vooral quotum, stallen en grond zijn zodanig hoog dat deze meestal niet uit eigen middelen gefinancierd kunnen worden. Bedrijven met relatief hoge rentelasten zijn groter, bevinden zich over het algemeen kort na de overname en hebben een hoger inkomen uit het bedrijf
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