Records 1 - 20 / 1245
Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): W.J.J. Bijman; M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika
Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.
While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.
The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.
Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk
Cruz, Jaye de la - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P. Macnaghten, co-promotor(en): K. Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437967 - 118
bananas - musa - Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - governance - innovations - politics - bananen - musa - fusarium - governance - innovaties - politiek
The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical method to control it satisfactorily (Ploetz 2015) – has generated conversations, dialogue, inquiry and at times controversy, on how this risk is to be managed.
The onslaught of Tropical Race 1 (TR1) in the 1900s, destroying many banana plantations in Latin America and the Caribbean, provided a lens by which the political economy of Latin America can be examined. Much, however, has changed in global political economy configurations between the 1900s and today. Confronted once more with the disease in contemporary settings, we are provided with an opportunity, and a context within which, to reflect on the ways by which societies, governments and peoples work to address the disease and mitigate its threats in a new time-space constellation. The rise of globalisation and the neoliberal model have ushered in profound changes within the last three decades – changes that have driven social and political processes on multiple scales of governance, and have influenced relationships, behaviours, ways of life and perceptions. This research, therefore, asks the central question: Do features of neoliberal governance influence risk perceptions and decision-making on Panama disease, and if so, in what ways?
This research draws from political ecology as a framework to analyse how political and economic relationships impact on people’s understandings of risk in the context of a phenomenon that has ecological or bio-physical roots. At the heart of the thesis lies the central matter of risk politics: that risk decisions – focusing in particular on what risks matter, who decides, who should be exposed to what, and to what degree – are both an effect of power and an exercise of power.
The thesis is based on a multi-site and multi-scale study consisting of two in-depth case studies – one conducted in the Philippines, the other in Australia – alongside expert interviews conducted in Kampala (Uganda), Rome (Italy), Wageningen (the Netherlands) and Florida (USA). The research is multi-scale in that three different scales of interaction are examined: at the global scale, as situated in the discourse and practice of international governing bodies; at the national scale, by studying the rules and laws in countries which have had experience of Panama disease, and by examining how biosecurity responses have been shaped in the context of a national policy of privatised agriculture; and at the local scale, where agrarian dynamics between small-holder farmers and large corporations are studied. The research is designed not to compare contexts with each other, but to provide illustrative snapshots of the many ways that risk can be shaped by its social milieu.
The first Chapter of this dissertation looks at how the risk of Panama disease is evaluated by international regulatory bodies and actors in global governance networks such as the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) within the Food and Agriculture Organisation, and examines the contestations that underlie the question of whether or not Panama disease control and management constitute a Global Public Good. It has been found with clarity that adherence to free trade principles influence and constrain the ways by which international organizations perceive the risk of, and how they address, this transnational plant disease.
The second Chapter, based on field work in the southern part of the Philippines where a Panama disease infestation has been confirmed and where social relations in rural livelihoods are characterized by a contentious agrarian history, investigates how asymmetric binary relationships between the social actors in a contract growership arrangement -- specifically large banana corporations and smallholder farmers -- influence the possibilities and limitations of disease control.
The third Chapter demonstrates, using the example of Australia, important limitations in the neoliberal ‘user-pays’ model in its ability to address emergency plant disease outbreaks, particularly when swift rule-making and rule-enforcing powers of the state are necessary. While the shared responsibility approach can keep the wheels grinding in a business-as-usual context, within a rapidly-evolving epidemiological emergency, the terms of engagement between government and industry need to be recast.
The fourth Chapter examines the issue of genetic modification – bannered by some scientists as the only or at least the most plausible solution to the urgent problem of Panama disease – and the current state of the global regulatory framework on bio-safety. Developing countries with confirmed Panama disease infestations (Philippines, Indonesia, Jordan, Mozambique and Pakistan) were used as units of analysis. Using tools of legal text analysis, a comparison is made between the National Reports of the countries to the Bio-Safety Clearing House of the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-Safety and international commitments to the IPPC, World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the Cartagena Protocol. This chapter challenges the notion of a ‘uniform science’ and finds that while individual countries ostensibly accept that science, or scientific knowledge, can be used as a unifying framework to consolidate multiple appreciations of risk and divergent approaches in addressing and confronting it, a perusal of their domestic legislation shows contradictions between what was committed in international platforms, and what is implemented domestically. Contrary to the purely scientific standards upheld by the IPPC and the WTO, socio-economic risks and cultural considerations have been found within domestic legislation.
Drawing from these chapters, this research proposes that neoliberalism influences Panama disease strategies in at least three ways: one, through the organisation and harmonisation of systems of behaviour, practices and legislation; two, through the promotion of its narratives and the marginalisation of counter-narratives; and three, through the endorsement of tools that support its agenda.
Firstly, neoliberalism organises and harmonises systems of behaviour, practices and legislation so that it conforms with its own logic and processes. An intuitive abhorrence of protectionism results in the perception that plant health measures that may result in trade barriers are inherently suspect, and thus should be avoided, except in the most exigent of circumstances. The international regulatory system has been substantially re-written so that even collective action becomes increasingly hard to be mobilized, and that international support cannot be activated without the imprimatur of the International Plant Protection Convention, given fears that such action might constitute the basis for future trade restriction. Through adherence to neoliberal principles, the global system has been in effect re-engineered in such a way as to limit the latitude and capacity of countries to identify and designate what they believe to be a risk, as a pluralistic interpretation of risk can be defined as constituting protectionism. Science and scientific knowledge are deployed not in furtherance of the wider considerations of plant health, but to ensure that considerations of plant health keep ‘within limits’ and do not cross over to impinge on borderless international trade.
Secondly, neoliberalism influences plant disease strategies through the propagation of a dominant narrative that protects its interests and the marginalization of counter-narratives that challenge its own dominant narrative. A narrative that blames smallholder farmers for Panama disease reinforces the trope on the unsustainability of smallholder agriculture and the lack of capacity of smallholder farmers. In contrast, a narrative that blames large companies or corporations for the spread of the disease is one that challenges the wisdom of corporate agriculture, and one that may have the consequence of state regulation of corporations, which contradicts the ideological core of neoliberalism: that the market must remain unhampered and unencumbered by strong state intervention.
Thirdly, neoliberalism influences Panama disease measures through the endorsement of tools against the disease that are consistent with its agenda. The research surfaces the aggressive promotion of biotechnology as the only solution – or the ‘silver bullet’ to the possible extermination of Cavendish bananas because of Panama disease, and the endorsement of a biotechnology-permissive global regulatory regime. Neoliberalism did not create Panama disease, nor are proponents of genetic modification always driven by market compulsions, but neoliberal globalism has been shown, for instance through predatory patenting schemes, to reinforce and exacerbate the tendencies of the ‘biotechnology revolution’ to cause social polarisation.
In sum, neoliberalism influences Panama disease strategies by framing risk – by managing and controlling how the risk of Panama disease is perceived, measured and decided upon by social actors. Its framing of risk is negotiable, malleable and contingent on what the system needs at a given time. This research concludes that neoliberalism has the effect of instrumentalising risk by deploying it as a tool that is used to protect the dominance of its ideology. The framing of risk – the answers to the fundamental questions of what risks matter, who decides, who should be exposed to what, and to what degree – is, indeed, an exercise of power. But at the same time, it is done to protect accumulated power, and in the course of this research, I strove to demonstrate, using the example of Panama disease, the precise ways by which neoliberalism has exercised its power in multiple levels of governance and within social relations of production to frame plant disease risk to its strategic advantage.
The urgent imperative, therefore, is to continue asserting a global counter-narrative: one that pushes plant disease protection as a global public good, one that speaks to heterogeneous understandings of risk and does not require a uniform notion of science to confer legitimacy to varying standards of protection and, most importantly, one that puts the marginalised and the disproportionate risk burdens that they bear at the centre of the discourse.
Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39
natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H. Bulte, co-promotor(en): M. Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie
This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.
Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.
Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.
Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.
Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.
Grotere slagkracht CBBE
Vilsteren, G.E.T. van - \ 2017
Agro & chemie (2017)1. - p. 27 - 27.
onderwijs - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - onderzoeksprojecten - biobased economy - education - public-private cooperation - innovations - professional education - research projects - biobased economy
Het CBBE wil in 2017 een grotere slagkracht krijgen. Een krachtenbundeling rondom de vier innovatieroutes moet leiden tot meer impact op de biobased en circulaire economie in ons land.
It takes three to tango : biobased innovaties: een samenwerking tussen overheid, onderwijs en ondernemers
Monteiro da Fonseca, Wendy ; Otterloo, Laura van; Simons, Ralph ; Ankersmit, Elis ; Vilsteren, Gerlinde van - \ 2017
Netherlands : CoE BBE - 47
samenwerking - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - biobased economy - kennisoverdracht - colleges - onderzoek - nederland - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - cooperation - public-private cooperation - innovations - biobased economy - knowledge transfer - colleges - research - netherlands - professional education
De transitie naar een Biobased Economy (BBE) is al jaren een 'hot item' in Nederland, zowel binnen de Nationaal Wetenschapsagenda als binnen de topsectoren. De MKB-erst, elk in eigen niches, spelen hierbij een bepalende rol. Hiernaast hebben de hogescholen op dit domein de ambitie om een belangrijke rol voor het MKB als kennisleverancier te spelen (onderwijs en onderzoek). In dit rapport probeert helderheid te creëren over hoe dit proces verloopt.
Dis-locating innovation : amphibious geographies of creative reuse and alternative value production
Barba Lata, Iulian I.V. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Claudio Minca, co-promotor(en): Martijn Duineveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430135 - 131
landscape - cultural landscape - innovations - creativity - imagination - urban sites - urban development - waste land - rural areas - topology - landschap - cultuurlandschap - innovaties - creativiteit - verbeelding - stedelijke terreinen - stadsontwikkeling - woeste grond - platteland - topologie
This dissertation dwells on an experimental approach to the emergence of alternative innovations, interrogated through their spatiotemporal and material conditions. Proceeding from the more recent spate of contributions that grant recognition to innovation processes as a common feature of any practice, this research seeks to expand the understanding of innovation beyond canonical interpretations of the subject matter. This opens up a bewildering matrix of potentialities to tackle the emergence of alternatives, often to be recovered from the very dynamics of mainstream innovations that branch out beyond their original purpose. Moreover, the contingent character of mainstream and alternative innovations connotes processes of varying dynamics and rhythmic qualities, which appear to escape the sole grip of linear or cyclical interpretations. Instructed by this preliminary set of assumptions, this investigation belongs to an amphibious domain of enquiry, one that takes shape at the interface between presumably grounded and more fluid readings of innovation processes. Aligned to the amphibious conceptual imaginary, there is also the thematic repertoire and empirical ambit of case studies explored within the dissertation. As such, the evoked conceptual liminality dictated the particular focus on amphibious practices, as the referents of material and affective dispositions, as well as of narratives of belonging scored across land-water interfaces.
The main case studies presented in chapters IV and V were the result of an exploratory phase, with its point of departure in a pilot study conducted on the emergence of floating urbanization solutions in the Netherlands. The surveyed modalities of inhabiting land-water interfaces led me to wonder on the existence of alternative conditions of possibility to what otherwise appeared and were also tagged as very innovative attempts to reimagine urban dwelling. This struck me as a thorny task: where do you start in qualifying something as innovative or not? It took another survey of historical practices and some lengthy reflection sessions to realize that beyond the shifts and turns it has supposedly informed, innovation is much more performative than I initially thought. Thus, I started conducting ethnographic fieldwork by focusing on a pretty unusual case – floating churches, in Volgograd, Russia, more rural than urban, and definitely not the kind of instance you would run across in the mainstream innovation literature. The second case selection followed more or less the same oddly-informed pattern, this time – an on-land harbour, the brainchild of an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Speaking from the field of Cultural Geography such an endeavour appears to be an opportune exercise, particularly for better understanding the underlying conditions of the current innovation ethos and the ways it (potentially) shapes future trajectories. The investigation draws on three main research questions, which address the meanings (1), workings (2) and expectations (3) connected to various innovation imaginaries, as follows:
In what ways do different amphibious practices acknowledge the spatiotemporal and material conditions of innovation?
How do those conditions enable the emergence of alternative innovations?
To what extent are emergent alternatives influencing incumbent political repertoires as part of the current innovation ethos?
To answer these research questions, the dissertation brings into dialogue multiple disciplinary filiations and, as a secondary and more subtle objective, it reflects upon a new set of spatial (and temporal) imaginaries that would add up to the emergent spatial grammars currently animating geographical thought. Within the broader ambit of unpacking the workings of innovation processes, the theoretical and empirical exploration weaves contributions to the burgeoning strands of work on topological thinking, geographies of religion and secularism, archival practices and knowledge mobilities, urban progressive movements, and particularly, to the ongoing debates on new materialism. Consequently, the methodological sway of this study covers a spectrum ranging from grand theory to ethnographic accounts of micro-societal shifts.
The dissertation is structured into seven chapters and its red thread could be envisioned as describing a loop between chapters II and VI, accordingly entitled The Magic Mirror I and The Magic Mirror II. The second chapter provides a critical overview of grand innovation narratives and their diverse filiations across Western thought, to outline the conceptual imaginary that drives this investigation. The thematic focus of The Magic Mirror I concerns the normative distinction between innovation and imitation, which arguably deters an ampler understanding of innovation processes. Chapter III, The surface and the abyss, expands on this preliminary vision by resorting to an extensive genealogical exercise. Through a critical deployment of the surface/depth metaphor, it explores the catalytic potential of topological thinking to establish points of articulation between apparently opposed notions and canons of thought. Starting from a genealogy of mathematical developments and philosophical mediations toward the end point of geography, it addresses the interplay between the formal (axiomatic) and conceptual (problematic) dimensions of topology in suggesting some potentially alternative ways of re-imagining the role of topological thinking for spatial theory and human geography, and connecting these to the empirical exploration presented in chapter IV.
Chapter IV explores the concept of creative reuse as an alternative modality to interrogate the materiality of things and their documentary sway beyond the immediate affordances dictated by circumstances of disposal or dissolution. Drawing on an ethnographic study of the Volga and Don riverscapes, it evokes the case of the floating churches built to support the revival of faith practices in the Volgograd oblast after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In attending to their impact in warping various temporal and geographical proximities, it suggests that their workings rely on topologies of fixed points and shifting spatialities, animated by forms of religious ritual and related creative manifestations. Through recourse to questions of materiality, mobility and affect it argues that creative reuse interventions provide productive ways of exposing and altering the residual surplus on which both things and processes of place-making rest upon.
Chapter V examines the role of creative reuse as an alternative imaginary specifically concerned with the residual surplus that results along dominant processes of accumulation and value production. In moving beyond circumstances of disposal or dissolution, it argues that creative reuse interventions provide inventive ways to exploit the productive latencies scored across incumbent sociotechnical arrangements. Building upon an ethnographic study of De Ceuvel’s on-land harbour, an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, it shows how things that were otherwise redundant/disposed/forgotten can stimulate new material and affective dispositions that call into question established practices around sustainable, creative and inclusive city-making. Based on the findings, it goes on to suggest that creative reuse interventions enable new conditions of possibility for the enactment of alternative urban futures.
Chapter VI, The Magic Mirror II, closes the loop by connecting the findings to the introductory discussion from The Magic Mirror I, and elaborating further upon a more generous imaginary to tackle the workings of innovations, as well as the emergence of related alternatives. Thus, from the genealogical interrogation of topology to the unconventional interventions discussed in the empirical sections, creative reuse emerges as the vehicle of surprising returns. These enable a more generous reading that transcends the immediate affordances of mere imitation or circumstances of disposal – one that pivots on the key role of variation through mimesis or the potent afterlives of things and affects in animating alternative forms of innovation. The reference to alternatives should be understood both in relation to the dominant narrative of creative destruction, as well as to how various imaginaries – whether digested as secular, religious or otherwise – become entangled and mirror each other in intriguing ways. Consequently, even when proceeding from the fairly basic distinction that things envisioned as fixed end up afloat and travelling around, as much as things expected to float and travel around become stranded, the idea of surprising returns opens a broad spectrum of meanings and potentialities. As such, the resulting instances expose realities that are much more turbulent than commonly asserted.
Chapter VII answers the main research questions and also grants recognition to creative reuse imaginaries as the inescapable complement to dominant processes of accumulation and value production. As such, the material and affective dispositions cultivated through the emergence of alternatives, within and between various practices, signal the dislocation work occasioned by processes of variation through mimesis. These emergent imaginaries rely on a logic of aspiration and differentiation, which allows them to interfere with, and shape each other, or even morph into new narratives of belonging and creative action. And this is usually achieved through a rather twisted symbiosis, one of peculiar association. The latter pertains to the loose/labile character of creative reuse imaginaries explored in the empirical chapters, which enables them to contract and expand under various readings. Somewhat paradoxically, their dynamics seems to mirror that of mainstream innovations through the performative re-enactment of conditions for success. However, they excel through the disposition for multiple entanglements that often defy the normative distinctions between formal and informal domains. This gives rise to broad fields of resonance in recasting all sorts of anamorphic reflections across the resulting amphibious domains of contingency. In other words, the more imaginaries they interfere with or even subsume, the higher chances become for innovative spin-offs. For a more synthetic overview of the findings, the last section of the chapter packs a final reflection in the form of some tentative corollaries inspired by this exploratory journey.
Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues : deliverable nº: 6.2.1
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 39
renewable energy - anaerobic digestion - biogas - crop residues - agricultural wastes - sustainable energy - electricity supplies - innovations - biobased economy - fermentation - digestate - hernieuwbare energie - anaërobe afbraak - biogas - oogstresten - agrarische afvalstoffen - duurzame energie - elektriciteitsvoorzieningen - innovaties - biobased economy - fermentatie - digestaat
The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of renewable gas. In task 6.2 of the HYSOL project research into the possibilities of sustainable biogas production from agricultural residues by anaerobic digestion has been performed. In this report results are described of part of this research focussing on potential biogas production and digestate production and utilisation from animal manure and crop residues.
Circular Solutions : Part IV From Waste to Resource
Annevelink, E. ; Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Haas, W. de; Kuikman, P.J. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Sikirica, N. - \ 2016
TO2 Federatie - 65
biobased economy - waste utilization - recycling - refuse - waste management - innovations - biobased economy - afvalhergebruik - recycling - vuilnis - afvalbeheer - innovaties
The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.
Aquaculture Innovation in Vietnam
Rurangwa, E. ; Baumgartner, U. ; Nguyen, H.M. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2016
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C097/16) - 28
aquaculture - innovations - tilapia - fishes - shrimps - crabs - vietnam - aquacultuur - innovaties - tilapia - vissen - garnalen - krabben (schaaldieren) - vietnam
De Groene Agenda, topsectoronderzoek
Spijker, J.H. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2016
Stadswerk 2016 (2016)7. - ISSN 0927-7641 - p. 56 - 57.
klimaat - luchtkwaliteit - bedrijven - waterbergend vermogen - gezondheid - welzijn - openbaar groen - beplantingen - kantoren - stedelijke gebieden - toegepast onderzoek - innovaties - arbeid (werk) - stress - warmtestress - sociaal welzijn - participatie - regenwateropvang - climate - air quality - businesses - water holding capacity - health - well-being - public green areas - plantations - offices - urban areas - applied research - innovations - labour - stress - heat stress - social welfare - participation - water harvesting
Steeds meer mensen wonen in de stad. Dit is niet altijd een gezonde leefomgeving. Veel mensen ervaren stress, het ontbreekt aan sociale samenhang, de lucht is vervuild en het veranderende klimaat leidt tot toenemende hittestress en wateroverlast. Slim gebruik van groen is deel van de oplossing voor al deze uitdagingen.
Economic analysis of technological innovations to improve sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam
Ngoc, Pham Thi Anh - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579880 - 141
fish production - fishes - innovations - economic analysis - sustainability - fish culture - vietnam - visproductie - vissen - innovaties - economische analyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - visteelt - vietnam
In response to increasing concerns about sustainable production, a growing number of European customers expect seafood products to be certified, for example by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. Water purification technologies such as Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) could be a potential solution to reduce waste discharge and to improve water quality in fish ponds as a response to environmental regulations. In order to provide useful insights to consider investments in RAS, the overall objective of this thesis was to perform an economic analysis of technological innovations such as RAS to improve the sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam.
This thesis first uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure input- and output-specific technical and scale inefficiency of pangasius farmers in the traditional system and uses a bootstrap truncated regression to assess the impact of farmers’ demographics and farm characteristics on these technical inefficiencies. Second, the economic feasibility of RAS in pangasius farming is analysed using a capital budgeting approach and stochastic simulation accounting for uncertainty in key parameters. Next, key determinants influencing the adoption of RAS by pangasius farmers are investigated using a choice experiment. Finally, price transmission along the international supply chain of pangasius, from the Vietnamese farm to the Polish retail stage is analysed using a vector autoregressive error correction model framework.
The results show that inadequate management skills in using capital assets and improper methods for producing fish are the main challenges for enhancing the performance of Vietnamese pangasius production. Location of the farm in a saltwater intrusion area is positively associated with inefficiency of producing fish. The results suggest further that when shifting from the traditional system to RAS, the Net Present Value (NPV) of the investment in RAS is expected to substantially increase, for both medium (1-3 ha) and large (equal or greater than 3 ha) farms. Lack of trust in receiving a price premium, inadequate access to finance and uncertainty about the actual performance of RAS systems are constraints for the adoption of RAS. Finally, our study provides evidence that price signals at the Polish-Vietnamese retail stage were transmitted back to wholesale, export and Vietnamese pangasius farms stages.
Kennisagenda biomimicry 2015-2018
Vogelzang, T.A. ; Vader, J. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Den Haag : Wageningen Economic Research - 23
biobased economy - ontwerp - innovaties - biomimicry - duurzame ontwikkeling - productontwikkeling - biotechnologie - kennismanagement - gebiedsontwikkeling - organisatieontwikkeling - biobased economy - design - innovations - biomimicry - sustainable development - product development - biotechnology - knowledge management - area development - organizational development
Biomimicry , de ontwerpfilosofie die de natuur als inspiratiebron ziet voor innovaties, kan grote ecologische en economische voordelen opleveren voor onze samenleving wanneer het bre ed wordt ingezet ten behoeve van maatschappelijke en wetenschappelijke vraagstukken. Het biedt ook veel toepassingsmogelijkheden voor een groot aantal sectoren , zoals bouw, industrie en landbouw . Om aan een kennisinfrastructuur voor biomimicry te kunn en werken, is het van belang om te weten welke kennis diverse partijen in ons land in huis hebben, welke ze willen delen en welke kennislacunes er zijn. Deze kennisagenda is met dat doel opgesteld. De kennisagenda agendeert een aantal vraagstukken voor de komende periode waaraan betrokken stakeholders in onderlinge samenwerking gericht kunnen werken om de toepassing van biomimicry in ons land de komende jaren op een hog er plan te brengen. Deze kennisagenda geeft daarmee richting aan biomimicry -innovaties die de komende jaren (wellicht) met voorrang opgepakt worden.
Kansen voor regionale innovatieprojecten, verkenning voor de vollegrondsgroentesector in Zuidoost Nederland
Haan, J.J. de; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Stichting DLO (PPO/PRI-rapport 3750302800 ) - 26
akkerbouw - groenteteelt - groenten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - limburg - ondernemerschap - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - kennissystemen - kennis van boeren - kennis - subsidies - arable farming - vegetable growing - vegetables - small farms - limburg - entrepreneurship - innovations - knowledge transfer - knowledge systems - farmers' knowledge - knowledge - subsidies
The Dutch province of Limburg has asked Wageningen UR to develop an initial knowledge- and innovation agenda for the outdoor vegetable production sector, including three concrete project ideas for the POP3 framework. Besides this, Wageningen UR was asked to evaluate three innovation projects with farmers and SMEs to make recommendations to optimise the POP3 framework. Recommendations for POP3 Based on experiences in three different subsidy projects, recommendations are formulated for POP3. The main conclusion is that subsidy schemes do not match with the situation of agricultural businesses and small SMEs, although the schemes aim to support such companies with innovation. It is recommended to leave the ownership of the innovation with the companies, but without the full project management responsibility. Moreover, it is important to make the conditions more suitable for small enterprises, e.g. the minimum subsidy sum and the required contribution in cash. Second problem is the inflexibility of subsidy schemes, limiting the dynamics of innovation projects or forcing them to start procedures for acceptance of changes in the plan and budgeting. It is recommended to make schemes more flexible, e.g. asking less detailed plans and creating more room for changes in partners, activities and budgets. Third problem is the limitation for consortium partners to get their full costs paid, affecting research and advisory partners. This is often solved through very complicated constructions (outsourcing, secondary partnership), causing inequalities in the project (some partners are fully paid, others are not). Recommendation: allow projects to involve the right partners for the project, with the possibility to pay real costs and without complicated constructions. Last common problem is the artificial distinction between knowledge development and knowledge use/uptake, causing problems within projects when necessary research activities are not accepted by the subsidy scheme. Recommendation: allow projects to do all activities they believe are necessary for the innovation process.
Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
Een verkenning naar toepassing van drones in landbouw en natuur : drijfveren, kansen en consequenties
Wal, Tamme van der; Meijer, Marcel ; Rip, Frans I. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2742) - 49
drones - landbouw - natuur - innovaties - technologie - wetgeving - drones - agriculture - nature - innovations - technology - legislation
Dit rapport is een nadere uitwerking van het rapport van WODC (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatie Centrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie) uit begin 2015 naar het gebruik van drones. Deze uitwerking, gemaakt in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, is gericht op de domeinen landbouw en natuur. Het rapport begint met een overzicht van de diverse aanduidingen voor drones. Daarnaast wordt de VITAAL-typologie voor drones gepresenteerd. Deze fungeert als raamwerk voor de beschouwing van zes in dit rapport onderscheiden aspecten van drones: Vlucht, Inzetbaarheid, Toepassing, Aansturing, Apparaat en Lading. In het tweede hoofdstuk zijn de VITAAL-aspecten in verband gebracht met al bestaande en mogelijke toekomstige inzet van civiele drones in landbouw en natuur. De maatschappelijke vraagstukken die drijfveren (kunnen) zijn voor de inzet van drones komen aan de orde in het derde hoofdstuk, waarbij ook de innovatieopgaven worden besproken die zijn afgeleid uit de maatschappelijke opgaven op het gebied van landbouw en natuur. Het rapport sluit af met de discussie, gevolgd door conclusies en aanbevelingen voor beleid en nader onderzoek. Deze liggen op het vlak van regeldruk, vergroeningsmaatregelen en verkenning van gevolgen van de inzet van drones in een Living Lab.
Biobased Products Innovation Plant: ‘Innoveren voor bedrijven’
Haveren, J. van; Bolck, C.H. ; Yilmaz, G. - \ 2016
product development - non-food products - innovations - test rigs - biobased materials - biobased economy - public-private cooperation - productontwikkeling - non-food producten - innovaties - testinstallaties - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - publiek-private samenwerking
De Biobased Products Innovation Plant is de kraamkamer van succesvolle biobased producten, zoals zetmeelplastics van aardappelschillen en Biofoam van PLA. We namen een kijkje in deze grote onderzoeksfaciliteit - onderdeel van Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research - waar al drie decennia lang wordt samengewerkt met bedrijven, overheden en andere onderzoeksinstellingen.
The MSP guide : how to design and facilitate multi-stakeholder partnerships
Brouwer, J.H. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Hemmati, M. ; Verhoosel, K.S. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Practical Action Publishing Ltd - ISBN 9781853399657 - 180
multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking - vennootschappen - ontwerp - governance - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociaal leren - innovaties - ontwikkeling - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - partnerships - design - governance - sustainable development - sustainability - social learning - innovations - development
Agrarisch Waterbeheer in de praktijk : Op zoek naar de gemene deler
Breman, B.C. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. - \ 2016
Het Waterschap 2016 (2016)6. - ISSN 1380-4251 - p. 7 - 9.
waterbeheer - waterschappen - duurzame energie - terugwinning - rioolwaterzuivering - zuiveringsinstallaties - landbouw - innovaties - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - water management - polder boards - sustainable energy - recovery - sewage treatment - purification plants - agriculture - innovations - climate adaptation - urban areas
In dit themanummer over Green Deals staan de volgende artikelen: 1) Green Deals: Code oranje, blauwe oplossing. 2) Op zoek naar de gemene deler: agrarisch waterbeheer in de praktijk. 3) Kraamkamer van innovatie. 4) Modern aanbesteden is kennis delen: marktvisie waterschappen. 5) De politicus Liesbeth van Tongeren: Niet langer in discussie met klimaatsceptici. 6) Er valt iets te kiezen: waterschappen integreren duurzame energieproductie succesvol in hun kerntaken. 7) Slimmer investeren: Strategisch asset management. 8) Creativiteit op het snijvlak van orde en chaos: Waterschap De Dommel flirt met paradoxen. 9) Open overheid, ook voor waterschappen. 10) Werken aan morgen is gisteren al begonnen: hoe ziet werken voor een waterschap er in 2026 uit?
The metis of responsible innovation : helping society to get better at the conversation between today and tomorrow
Macnaghten, Philip - \ 2016
Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573758 - 16
technology - innovations - innovation adoption - future - technologie - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - toekomst