Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mechanisatie, technologie en data op Boerderij van de Toekomst
    Kempenaar, C. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
    circular agriculture - technical progress - innovations
    De opgaven voor de toekomst stellen meer en andere eisen aan de technologie: zo vraagt strokenteelt andere machines en is het voor geïntegreerde gewasbescherming belangrijk dat waarnemingen en het daarop gebaseerde advies verder wordt geauto-matiseerd. Automatisering en robotisering zijn sowieso belangrijk voor de toekomst, omdat arbeid schaars en duur is.
    Webinar Strokenteelt, 21 september 2020
    Sukkel, W. ; Apeldoorn, D.F. van - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    circular agriculture - technical progress - innovations - biodiversity
    Wat voor strokenbreedte heb je nodig? Zijn alle gewassen geschikt voor strokenteelt? En hoe zit het met de arbeidsintensiteit? Tijdens dit webinar worden deze en nog veel meer vragen beantwoord. Daarnaast wordt er ook ingegaan op de voor- en nadelen die strokenteelt met zich meebrengt.
    ‘Akkerbouwer kan meer doen met minder middel’
    Zande, Jan van de - \ 2020
    circular agriculture - plant protection - arable farming - innovations - technical progress
    Pieter de Wolf, Boerderij van de Toekomst – ‘Kringlooplandbouw concreet maken’
    Wolf, Pieter de - \ 2020
    technical progress - innovations - circular agriculture
    Verrijken, benutten en sparen : Bewegen richting natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Smits, M.J.W. ; Dawson, A.W. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Michels, R. ; Migchels, G. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Sukkel, W. - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research - 11 p.
    innovations - social evolution - returns - circular agriculture
    Koeien zijn kringloopdieren: Nederlandse landbouw wil inzetten op kringlooplandbouw
    Scholten, Martin - \ 2020
    circular agriculture - feeds - animal health - soil management - technical progress - innovations
    Nationale Agenda Precisielandbouw : knelpuntenanalyse: een studie in het kader van de Nationale Proeftuin Precisie Landbouw (NPPL)
    Wal, T. van der; Kempenaar, C. ; Vullings, L.A.E. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    technical progress - innovations - circular agriculture
    Uitstootvrije kas
    Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2020
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw
    technical progress - innovations - circular agriculture
    De Nederlandse tuinbouwsector wil in 2040 klimaatneutraal werken. Daarom hebben Wageningse onderzoekers een emissiearme demonstratiekas voor groente, fruit en bloemen gebouwd. Ze zoeken manieren om de uitstoot van CO₂, gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en kunstmest tot nul te reduceren. Ziekten en plagen worden vooral biologisch bestreden. En de energiezuinige kas gebruikt water en voedingsstoffen zoveel mogelijk opnieuw. Dit leidt tot een schonere teelt en betere oogst.
    Geen last van plantenziekten in de ruimte
    Wamelink, Wieger - \ 2019
    circular agriculture - technical progress - innovations
    Het bewerkstelligen van een transitie naar kringlooplandbouw
    Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 12 p.
    social evolution - innovations - circular agriculture
    Groensector staat voor diverse grote uitdagingen
    Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2018
    entrepreneurship - climate - greening - plantations - innovations
    ‘Biobased is al lang volwassen’ : Jacco van Haveren
    Haveren, J. van - \ 2018
    biobased economy - industry - biobased materials - innovations - research - biomass - bioplastics - fibres

    De biobased economie klein? Daar klopt niks van, als je het Jacco van Haveren vraagt. Hij is Programmamanager Biobased Chemicaliën en Brandstoffen bij Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research. 'Kijk maar eens om je heen; qua volume zijn er nu al veel meer biobased materialen, dan materialen gebaseerd op aardolie.'

    Camelina Crambe And Insects
    Wubben, E.F.M. ; Blaauw, R. ; Loo, E.N. van; Togtema, K.A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research
    biobased economy - innovations - crops - biomass - residual streams - insects - oils - camelina - crambe - agricultural wastes
    Best practices and recommendations for effective and cost ‐ efficient call management in bioeconomy related ERA ‐ NETs : Deliverable 3.1 Recommendations call management
    Listabarth, C. ; Sonne Bertelsen, U. ; Bunthof, C.J. - \ 2018
    H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 6 p.
    biobased economy - projects - research - innovations
    PLATFORM policy brief No. 4. Alignment in the Bioeconomy
    Kwant, Kees ; Lampel, Stefan ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, Brenda - \ 2018
    H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 4 p.
    PLATFORM - Alignment - Bioeconomy - Policy
    Dossier Nieuwe technieken plantenveredeling
    Lotz, L.A.P. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
    cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - vegetable growing - breeding methods - breeding programmes - fruit growing - arable farming - technical progress - innovations - circular agriculture
    In de plantenveredeling vindt op dit moment zeer snelle innovatie plaats. Een deel van deze innovatie is onderdeel van een maatschappelijk debat. Dit dossier bevat lesmateriaal om nieuwe wetenschappelijke kennis en inzichten door te laten stromen naar verschillende niveaus in het Groene onderwijs. Ultiem doel is jongeren zodanig van kennis te voorzien dat zij zelf een goed onderbouwde mening kunnen formuleren over kansen en risico’s van gebruik van nieuwe technieken in de veredeling, en daarmee ook een bijdrage kunnen leveren aan genoemd maatschappelijk debat.
    Meer grip met fietsband van paardenbloemrubber
    Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2017
    biobased economy - innovations - rubber - taraxacum

    Eind augustus presenteerde bandenfabrikant Vredestein een racefietsband van rubber uit de wortels van Russische paardenbloemen. Wageningen deed veel onderzoek voor deze innovatie.

    Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
    Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): W.J.J. Bijman; M.A. Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
    foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

    Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

    While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

    The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

    Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk
    Cruz, Jaye de la - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P. Macnaghten, co-promotor(en): K. Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437967 - 118
    bananas - musa - Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - governance - innovations - politics - bananen - musa - fusarium - governance - innovaties - politiek

    The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical method to control it satisfactorily (Ploetz 2015) – has generated conversations, dialogue, inquiry and at times controversy, on how this risk is to be managed.

    The onslaught of Tropical Race 1 (TR1) in the 1900s, destroying many banana plantations in Latin America and the Caribbean, provided a lens by which the political economy of Latin America can be examined. Much, however, has changed in global political economy configurations between the 1900s and today. Confronted once more with the disease in contemporary settings, we are provided with an opportunity, and a context within which, to reflect on the ways by which societies, governments and peoples work to address the disease and mitigate its threats in a new time-space constellation. The rise of globalisation and the neoliberal model have ushered in profound changes within the last three decades – changes that have driven social and political processes on multiple scales of governance, and have influenced relationships, behaviours, ways of life and perceptions. This research, therefore, asks the central question: Do features of neoliberal governance influence risk perceptions and decision-making on Panama disease, and if so, in what ways?

    This research draws from political ecology as a framework to analyse how political and economic relationships impact on people’s understandings of risk in the context of a phenomenon that has ecological or bio-physical roots. At the heart of the thesis lies the central matter of risk politics: that risk decisions – focusing in particular on what risks matter, who decides, who should be exposed to what, and to what degree – are both an effect of power and an exercise of power.

    The thesis is based on a multi-site and multi-scale study consisting of two in-depth case studies – one conducted in the Philippines, the other in Australia – alongside expert interviews conducted in Kampala (Uganda), Rome (Italy), Wageningen (the Netherlands) and Florida (USA). The research is multi-scale in that three different scales of interaction are examined: at the global scale, as situated in the discourse and practice of international governing bodies; at the national scale, by studying the rules and laws in countries which have had experience of Panama disease, and by examining how biosecurity responses have been shaped in the context of a national policy of privatised agriculture; and at the local scale, where agrarian dynamics between small-holder farmers and large corporations are studied. The research is designed not to compare contexts with each other, but to provide illustrative snapshots of the many ways that risk can be shaped by its social milieu.

    The first Chapter of this dissertation looks at how the risk of Panama disease is evaluated by international regulatory bodies and actors in global governance networks such as the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) within the Food and Agriculture Organisation, and examines the contestations that underlie the question of whether or not Panama disease control and management constitute a Global Public Good. It has been found with clarity that adherence to free trade principles influence and constrain the ways by which international organizations perceive the risk of, and how they address, this transnational plant disease.

    The second Chapter, based on field work in the southern part of the Philippines where a Panama disease infestation has been confirmed and where social relations in rural livelihoods are characterized by a contentious agrarian history, investigates how asymmetric binary relationships between the social actors in a contract growership arrangement -- specifically large banana corporations and smallholder farmers -- influence the possibilities and limitations of disease control.

    The third Chapter demonstrates, using the example of Australia, important limitations in the neoliberal ‘user-pays’ model in its ability to address emergency plant disease outbreaks, particularly when swift rule-making and rule-enforcing powers of the state are necessary. While the shared responsibility approach can keep the wheels grinding in a business-as-usual context, within a rapidly-evolving epidemiological emergency, the terms of engagement between government and industry need to be recast.

    The fourth Chapter examines the issue of genetic modification – bannered by some scientists as the only or at least the most plausible solution to the urgent problem of Panama disease – and the current state of the global regulatory framework on bio-safety. Developing countries with confirmed Panama disease infestations (Philippines, Indonesia, Jordan, Mozambique and Pakistan) were used as units of analysis. Using tools of legal text analysis, a comparison is made between the National Reports of the countries to the Bio-Safety Clearing House of the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-Safety and international commitments to the IPPC, World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the Cartagena Protocol. This chapter challenges the notion of a ‘uniform science’ and finds that while individual countries ostensibly accept that science, or scientific knowledge, can be used as a unifying framework to consolidate multiple appreciations of risk and divergent approaches in addressing and confronting it, a perusal of their domestic legislation shows contradictions between what was committed in international platforms, and what is implemented domestically. Contrary to the purely scientific standards upheld by the IPPC and the WTO, socio-economic risks and cultural considerations have been found within domestic legislation.

    Drawing from these chapters, this research proposes that neoliberalism influences Panama disease strategies in at least three ways: one, through the organisation and harmonisation of systems of behaviour, practices and legislation; two, through the promotion of its narratives and the marginalisation of counter-narratives; and three, through the endorsement of tools that support its agenda.

    Firstly, neoliberalism organises and harmonises systems of behaviour, practices and legislation so that it conforms with its own logic and processes. An intuitive abhorrence of protectionism results in the perception that plant health measures that may result in trade barriers are inherently suspect, and thus should be avoided, except in the most exigent of circumstances. The international regulatory system has been substantially re-written so that even collective action becomes increasingly hard to be mobilized, and that international support cannot be activated without the imprimatur of the International Plant Protection Convention, given fears that such action might constitute the basis for future trade restriction. Through adherence to neoliberal principles, the global system has been in effect re-engineered in such a way as to limit the latitude and capacity of countries to identify and designate what they believe to be a risk, as a pluralistic interpretation of risk can be defined as constituting protectionism. Science and scientific knowledge are deployed not in furtherance of the wider considerations of plant health, but to ensure that considerations of plant health keep ‘within limits’ and do not cross over to impinge on borderless international trade.

    Secondly, neoliberalism influences plant disease strategies through the propagation of a dominant narrative that protects its interests and the marginalization of counter-narratives that challenge its own dominant narrative. A narrative that blames smallholder farmers for Panama disease reinforces the trope on the unsustainability of smallholder agriculture and the lack of capacity of smallholder farmers. In contrast, a narrative that blames large companies or corporations for the spread of the disease is one that challenges the wisdom of corporate agriculture, and one that may have the consequence of state regulation of corporations, which contradicts the ideological core of neoliberalism: that the market must remain unhampered and unencumbered by strong state intervention.

    Thirdly, neoliberalism influences Panama disease measures through the endorsement of tools against the disease that are consistent with its agenda. The research surfaces the aggressive promotion of biotechnology as the only solution – or the ‘silver bullet’ to the possible extermination of Cavendish bananas because of Panama disease, and the endorsement of a biotechnology-permissive global regulatory regime. Neoliberalism did not create Panama disease, nor are proponents of genetic modification always driven by market compulsions, but neoliberal globalism has been shown, for instance through predatory patenting schemes, to reinforce and exacerbate the tendencies of the ‘biotechnology revolution’ to cause social polarisation.

    In sum, neoliberalism influences Panama disease strategies by framing risk ­– by managing and controlling how the risk of Panama disease is perceived, measured and decided upon by social actors. Its framing of risk is negotiable, malleable and contingent on what the system needs at a given time. This research concludes that neoliberalism has the effect of instrumentalising risk by deploying it as a tool that is used to protect the dominance of its ideology. The framing of risk – the answers to the fundamental questions of what risks matter, who decides, who should be exposed to what, and to what degree – is, indeed, an exercise of power. But at the same time, it is done to protect accumulated power, and in the course of this research, I strove to demonstrate, using the example of Panama disease, the precise ways by which neoliberalism has exercised its power in multiple levels of governance and within social relations of production to frame plant disease risk to its strategic advantage.

    The urgent imperative, therefore, is to continue asserting a global counter-narrative: one that pushes plant disease protection as a global public good, one that speaks to heterogeneous understandings of risk and does not require a uniform notion of science to confer legitimacy to varying standards of protection and, most importantly, one that puts the marginalised and the disproportionate risk burdens that they bear at the centre of the discourse.

    Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
    Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39
    natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
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