Managing the Colorado potato beetle; the need for resistance breeding
Maharijaya, A. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2015
Euphytica 204 (2015)3. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 487 - 501.
leptinotarsa-decemlineata say - solanum-chacoense bitter - coleoptera-chrysomelidae - glandular trichomes - host-plant - behavioral-responses - insect-resistance - tuber moth - glycoalkaloid responses - leptine glycoalkaloids
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB) is one of the pest insects that significantly can decrease the production of potato when no control measures are taken. The fast, flexible and diverse life cycle of the CPB, its highly destructive feeding habits, and high adaptability to a variety of environment stresses, have made the control of CPB a difficult task. This paper briefly reviews the information on all aspects of CPB management to come to an integrated pest management approach: the biology of the CPB, management practices including their limitations and drawbacks, as well as the need to incorporate host plant resistance into potato varieties. Several aspects of potato breeding for resistance to CPB are discussed. We evaluate the availability of natural variation present in potato wild relatives, the considerations in choosing a specific wild relative, and constraints in using them from biological, environmental and genetic point of view, in which newly developed technologies play an important role. We also consider recently developed GM approaches. We conclude that varieties resistant to CPB are desperately needed by farmers and demanded by society, and that the means to develop them are available
Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives
Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Bas, N. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Vosman, B.J. - \ 2015
Euphytica 202 (2015)2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 297 - 306.
aleyrodes-proletella homoptera - glucosinolate polymorphism - insect-resistance - cultivars - populations - fruticulosa - tomato - tabaci
The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we screened a large collection of 432 accessions, including wild material and landraces of Brassica oleracea as well as crop wild relatives, to determine whitefly performance in a no-choice field experiment. Putatively resistant accessions were further tested under greenhouse conditions. Resistant accessions were identified among B. oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) landraces and in the species B. villosa, B. incana and B. montana. Whereas resistance in cabbage is only expressed in plants of at least 12 weeks old, some wild relatives were already starting to express resistance at 6 weeks. This could open up possibilities for breeding cabbages that are resistant at a young(er) plant age. Our research also shows again the importance of crop wild relatives for finding pest resistances.
Resistance to Bemisia tabaci in tomato wild relatives
Firdaus, S. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Hidayati, N. ; Supena, E.D.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2012
Euphytica 187 (2012)1. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 31 - 45.
hirsutum-f-glabratum - whitefly trialeurodes-vaporariorum - lycopersicon-hirsutum - argentifolii homoptera - population-dynamics - glandular trichomes - insect-resistance - spodoptera-exigua - feeding-behavior - pest resistance
Bemisia tabaci is one of the most threatening pests in agriculture, particularly in Solanaceous crops such as tomato and pepper that are cultivated in the open field. Pesticide application is often not effective and hazardous to humans and environment. The exploitation of plant natural defenses that are present in wild relatives of tomato, may offer a solution. To evaluate resistance parameters and to identify plant material with high levels of resistance, we screened a number of accessions of tomato wild relatives using three methods; a free-choice test in a screenhouse in Indonesia, a no-choice test with clip-on cages in a greenhouse and a leaf disc test in a climate-room in the Netherlands. Antibiosis resulting in low adult survival was the major component for resistance in tomato. However, other resistance component(s) may play a role as well. In some accessions there was a change in the resistance level over time. Several resistance parameters used in the different tests were well correlated. The best resistance source was an accession of Solanum galapagense, which had not been identified as being resistant in the past. This is of particular interest as this species is closely related to the cultivated tomato, which may facilitate introgression of the resistance component(s). Whitefly non-preference and resistance were associated with the presence of type IV trichomes. Other mechanisms might be involved since some accessions without type IV trichomes showed low nymphal density. The leaf disc test is a good in vitro alternative for the clip-on cage whitefly resistance screening, as shown by the high correlation between the results obtained with this test and the clip-on cage test. This offers breeders the possibility to carry out tests more efficiently
Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella
Broekgaarden, C. ; Riviere, P. ; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M. ; Cuenca, M. ; Kos, M. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2012
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142 (2012)2. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 153 - 164.
aphid aphis-gossypii - nasonovia-ribisnigri - bemisia-tabaci - potato aphid - macrosiphum-euphorbia - stylet penetration - insect-resistance - xylem ingestion - plant defense - melon aphid
The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurrence of adults, eggs, and nymphs on the closely related B. oleracea cultivars Christmas Drumhead and Riviera grown in the field. In this study, we aimed to identify the nature of these differences and to gain insight into the resistance mechanisms against A. proletella. We used no-choice experiments on field- and greenhouse-grown plants to show that the differences between the two cultivars are mainly based on antibiosis (traits that reduce herbivore performance) and not on antixenosis (traits that deter herbivory). This was further supported by laboratory choice experiments that indicated little or no discrimination between the two cultivars based on plant volatiles. We showed that resistance is dependent on plant age, that is, resistance increased during plant development, and is mainly independent of environmental factors. Analysis of probing behaviour revealed that the resistance trait affects A. proletella at the phloem level and that morphological differences between the two cultivars are most likely not involved. We suggest that compounds present in the phloem reduce sap ingestion by the whitefly and that this explains the observed resistance