Local institutions and rural development : evidence from Liberia
Beekman, G. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Lonneke Nillesen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575080 - 200
plattelandsontwikkeling - gezinnen - netwerken - lokale netwerken - sociale netwerken - instellingen - micro-economische analyse - micro-economie - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - liberia - west-afrika - rural development - families - networks - local area networks - social networks - institutions - microeconomic analysis - microeconomics - economic development - agricultural development - liberia - west africa
Local institutions and rural development: Evidence from Liberia
This thesis focusses on the role of local (informal) institutions for development, based on data from Liberia. I show that dense family networks can be an obstacle for economic decision making, due to strict income sharing obligations that often belong to them. I also demonstrate the importance of local governance quality: corrupt village leaders negatively affect daily investment decisions by villagers. Finally, I evaluate the impact of a rural development project that aims to strengthen food security and social cohesion between villagers. The results indicate that the impact is marginal at most, and local institutions again do play a role.
Institutions are difficult to change, as they are rooted in an historical context. However, policy makers could support the emergence of alternative institutions. Either way, a deeper understanding of the far-going impact of local institutions is important: this research contributes to that.
Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - land - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions
Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia
Mequanint Biset Melesse
Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.
The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid
Adékambi, S.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572461 - 205
marketing - landbouwproducten - export - instellingen - armoede - sheaboter - ontwikkelingseconomie - economische groei - afrika - benin - west-afrika - marketing - agricultural products - exports - institutions - poverty - shea butter - development economics - economic growth - africa - benin - west africa
Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers
Organizing supply chains that are based in producer groups that live in conditions of widespread poverty and weak institutional support (sometimes referred to as the Base of the Pyramid [BoP] producers) is challenging. These challenges have predominantly been studied in the development literature, while the marketing perspective has received less attention. Drawing on both transaction cost and market learning theories, the thesis integrates producers’ opportunity exploitation and exploration processes with the institutional framework adopted in the development literature to understand producers’ integration with export markets. Overall, the findings show that exploitation mediates between drivers investigated by development economists (quality of infrastructure, microcredit, and community culture) and integration with export markets. The results show that BoP producers’ export market integration also depends on the institutional arrangements that exporting companies offer. The results indicate that contrary to more-developed settings like those in Western Europe and Northern America, there is no need to develop both opportunity exploration and exploitation in environments characterized by scarce opportunities with relatively high purchasing powers. The findings imply that developing competencies that enable to produce the demanded quality are crucial in seizing export market integration opportunities.
Innovatie- en Demonstratiecentrum Bomen in de Greenport Regio Boskoop : een verkenning naar de wijze van opzet en invulling
Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 51
boomkwekerijen - regio's - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agrarisch onderwijs - opleiding - participatie - instellingen - doelgroepen - organisaties - innovaties - forest nurseries - regions - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - sustainability - agricultural education - training - participation - institutions - target groups - organizations - innovations
Het doel van het project Kennis & Innovatie Impuls Greenportregio Boskoop is een extra impuls te geven aan het innovatieve vermogen van het greenportcluster boomkwekerij, aan het delen en toepassen van (nieuwe) kennis, aan duurzaam ondernemerschap en het zorgen voor voldoende en gekwalificeerd groen personeel voor de toekomst. Met het project wordt een ‘lerend ondernemersnetwerk’ tot stand gebracht waarin alle relevante regiopartijen participeren. Doelgroepen van het EFRO-project zijn ondernemers, kennisinstellingen (onderzoeks-, onderwijs- en adviespartijen) en overheden actief in de regio Boskoop. Een verkenning naar de wijze van opzet en invulling.
Farmer cooperatives as intermediaries for agricultural and rural development in China
Yang, H. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Y. Song. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736352 - 191
landbouwcoöperaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandscoöperaties - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - tussenpersonen - innovaties - voedselketens - instellingen - china - agricultural cooperatives - small farms - rural cooperatives - farmers - rural development - agricultural development - middlemen - innovations - food chains - institutions - china
The farmer cooperative sector in China has experienced rapid development in the past two decades, in particular after the implementation of the Famer Cooperative Law in 2007. Farmer cooperatives are considered important to mediate between farmers and other actors in the wider social, economic and political environment. Farmer cooperatives also can provide relevant services to improve production and marketing and enhance agricultural and rural development. This thesis investigates how Chinese farmer cooperatives coordinate production and marketing activities of farmers and act as intermediaries in relation to external actors. Central to the research are both the processes and outcomes of intermediation.
Economic analyses of the Dutch greenhouse chain in a changing environment
Verreth, D.M.I. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Grigorios Emvalomatis; Frank Bunte. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737137 - 135
glastuinbouw - ketenmanagement - economische verandering - instellingen - markten - milieu - marktconcurrentie - economische analyse - nederland - greenhouse horticulture - supply chain management - economic change - institutions - markets - environment - market competition - economic analysis - netherlands
Horticultural greenhouse firms operate in a changing environment. This thesis has investigated the socio-economic consequences of market environment changes on supply, demand and prices throughout the Dutch greenhouse horticulture chain. The following market changes were studied: the increasing need for reducing fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, the on-going consolidation among retail companies, and the increasing probability of health scares and border closures due to higher frequency of food safety hazards or reforms in trade regulations. Partial equilibrium models which dealt with these market environment changes, such as trade regulations, increasing market concentration and environmental changes, are reviewed. Subsequently, the economic consequences of the changes are examined.
Movements against the current : scale and social capital in peasants’ struggles for water in the Ecuadorian Highlands
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; M. Baud, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735904 - 193
watervoorraden - waterrechten - water - boerenstand - inheemse volkeren - sociaal kapitaal - gemeenschappen - politieke bewegingen - watergebruik - instellingen - irrigatiesystemen - hooglanden - ecuador - water resources - water rights - water - peasantry - indigenous people - social capital - communities - political movements - water use - institutions - irrigation systems - highlands - ecuador
This thesis is about peasant and indigenous struggles for water rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It is based on the following main research question: How have peasant and indigenous communities developed multi-scalar political agency in water governance to gain and maintain their water access and related rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands since the 1980s? To answer this question, this thesis analyses the histories and relationships between organized water users, water reforms and non-governmental development organisations (NGOs) active in the Ecuadorian irrigation sector. Through state reforms, and processes of coproduction between NGOs and local peasant and indigenous communities, water user associations were created in many supra-community irrigation systems. Once created, these organisations formed the basis for the development of provincial and national federations and policy advocacy networks and platforms that now form the building blocks of the Ecuadorian water users movement.
Water, food and markets : household-level impact of irrigation water policies and institutions in northern China
Zhang, L. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; X. Shi, co-promotor(en): Nico Heerink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735751 - 143
ontwikkelingseconomie - huishoudens - irrigatiewater - waterbeleid - watergebruik - watergebruiksrendement - instellingen - noord-china - china - azië - landbouwhuishoudens - platteland - development economics - households - irrigation water - water policy - water use - water use efficiency - institutions - northern china - china - asia - agricultural households - rural areas
Water is increasingly becoming a limiting factor for sustainable economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries. Besides technical innovations, water institution reforms may contribute to improving water allocation decisions. Appropriately designed water institutions can motivate water users to conserve and use water efficiently for irrigation and other uses.
In northern China, growing demands on agricultural water due to relatively low water availability and increasing grain production are putting more and more pressure on improving water resource management. The Ministry of Water Resources of the P.R. China has initiated a number of pilot projects to gain experience with the development of water-saving irrigation systems. These pilot projects focus on the construction of engineering systems as well as institutional innovations in water resource management. Analysing the household-level effects of the implemented measures is hence of great importance for further policy development.
The project ‘Building a Water-saving Society in Zhangye City’, initiated early 2002 in Zhangye City in northwest China, is the first pilot project of this kind in China. It provides a unique opportunity to examine the economic effects of changes in water policies and institutions. Minle County, the research area for this study, is located within Zhangye City. A large potato processing company was established in Minle County in 2008. After the factory started its activities, the local government intervened in the allocation of irrigation water within the region by assigning more water to a specific variety of potatoes (i.e. Atlantic potatoes) that the factory needs for processing. This further makes Minle County an interesting case for analysing the link between output market development and institutional change in irrigation water management.
The general objective of this study is to empirically investigate the household-level impacts of policies and institutional changes in irrigation water use. From this general objective, the following four specific objectives are defined and analysed in separate chapters. 1) To examine the impact of the institutional setup of Water Users Associations (WUAs) on productivity of irrigation water use by the WUA member households, based on a user-based resource governance framework. 2) To analyse the effects of a policy affecting the availability of water for different crops on farmers’ acreage allocation among crops. 3) To evaluate the internal valuation (i.e. marginal value) of irrigation water, before and after the introduction of the water policy as explained above. 4) To investigate the effects of output market development on irrigation water trading.
The information used for the empirical analyses mainly comes from two surveys that were carried out in Minle County in May 2008 and May 2010. These surveys cover information for the years 2007 and 2009, that is before and after the potato processing factory became operational. A stratified sampling approach was used for selecting the households and WUAs to be interviewed in the surveys. Additional interviews were held by the author in August 2010 with the Water Management Bureaus (WMBs) that are responsible for water allocation within the seven irrigation areas in Minle County.
Chapter 2 investigates the underlying causes of differences in WUA performance by analysing the impact of WUA characteristics on the productivity of irrigation water use. Total crop production value and household income obtained from crop production, both expressed per m3 of water, are used as dependent variables in the empirical analysis. The explanatory variables in the analysis are derived from an established user-based resource governance framework, that specifies the conditions under which user groups are expected to sustainably govern common-pool resources. These conditions are grouped into resource characteristics, group characteristics, relationships between resources and user groups, and the external environment (markets, technology). Applying a random intercept model, the estimation results show that group characteristics, particularly group size and number of water users groups, and the existing pressure on available water resources are important WUA characteristics explaining water productivity.
Chapter 3 analyses the impact of the local government intervention in irrigation water allocation on farmers’ crop planting decisions. A system of unconditional crop acreage demand functions depending on prices of variable inputs, levels of quasi-fixed inputs and prices of outputs is estimated. Two hypotheses are tested: Firstly, the government intervention results in an increase in land allocated to Atlantic potatoes and a decrease in land allocated to other crops; Secondly, among the alternative crops (i.e. other crops than Atlantic potatoes), the water policy is expected to cause a relatively small response for grain crops, because grains are mainly used for domestic consumption. The empirical results do not support the first hypothesis. The increased water allocation to Atlantic potatoes does not significantly affect the land allocated to this crop, because its planting decisions are mainly taken by village leaders instead of households. Instead, the intervention results in a shift from planting potatoes towards grains with relatively low water requirements.The second hypothesis is partly supported by the empirical results. The estimated impact of the government intervention is found to be stronger for local potato varieties than for grains, but the impact on the area planted with cash crops does not differ significantly from zero. Output prices seem to play a more important role in cash crop planting decisions than the water allocation intervention.
Chapter 4 examines the economic valuation (i.e. marginal value) of irrigation water, before and after the local government intervention in water allocation. To accomplish this, a system of translog production functions is estimated. Two hypotheses are tested: Firstly, the valuation of irrigation water is expected to be equal across different crops before the start of the new water policy. And secondly, valuation of irrigation water is expected to be lower for Atlantic potatoes as compared to the alternative crops after the water policy change. The empirical results do not support the first hypothesis. The valuation of irrigation water used on grain crops is very low, and is even below the actual water prices charged to farm households. This is probably due to self-consumption of grain by households, and to government subsidies for grain farmers that are based on the planted area with grains. The second hypothesis is supported by the empirical results, except for grains. The valuation of irrigation water used on Atlantic potatoes is lower than the value of water used on other (non-grain) crops. Moreover, the returns for irrigation water used on other crops are higher in the year after the water allocation intervention than in the year before the intervention.
Chapter 5 aims to provide insights into the impact of output market development on the trading of water use rights by farm households. Theresults of the two farm household surveys indicate that water markets have emerged at a small scale in response to the development of the potato market in Minle County. Observed water trade in the second survey, that was held after the establishment of the potato processing factory, consists mainly of the exchange of water without payment between relatives or neighbours, and seems to be meant to improve the timing of water applications to crops with different seasonal water requirements. Those who have started trading water rights tend to have more land with water use rights than other potato farmers. High transaction costs and information asymmetry between the government and water users, however, severely constrain the trading of water use rights in the region.
Chapter 6 summarizes and integrates the main findings, discusses the policy implications and the limitations of the research, and presents some suggestions for further research.
Leadership and Change in Sustainable Regional Development
Sotarauta, M. ; Horlings, L.G. ; Liddle, J. - \ 2012
London/New York : Routledge (Regions and cities 60) - ISBN 9780415678940 - 289
leiderschap - verandering - duurzame ontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - instellingen - leadership - change - sustainable development - regional development - institutions
This book shows, first of all, that leadership plays a crucial role in reinventing regions and branching out from an old path to something new in order to create more balanced and sustainable regional development. Second, it maintains that leadership is not a solo but a multi-agent and -level activity and that it needs to be discussed and studied as such. Third, as the book argues, leadership is shaped differently in various institutional and cultural contexts and on different scales. This book explores the ways leadership plays our in regional development context contributing to economically, socially and ecologically balanced sustainable future.
Essays on microfinance in Latin America
Servin Juarez, R. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734082 - 196
microfinanciering - ontwikkelingseconomie - instellingen - banken - rurale welzijnszorg - armoede - huishoudens - latijns-amerika - microfinance - development economics - institutions - banks - rural welfare - poverty - households - latin america
In the early 1970s, microfinance came to public attention as a promising tool to reduce poverty. However, some people began to claim that microcredit is unsuitable for sustainable development. Nevertheless, the lack of scientific support for both viewpoints has created a need for empirical studies to disentangle whether microfinance interventions should be implemented, and if so, how. The objective of this thesis is to provide evidence on the role of microfinance in Latin America, with a particular emphasis on Mexico. The main innovation of this study is the focus on four topics that have thus far received relatively little attention. Firstly, the relationship between efficiency and the ownership structure of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Latin America is investigated. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Cooperative/Credit Unions are found to be less technically efficient and have an inferior technology relative to Banks and Non-Banks Financial Intermediaries (NBFIs). Secondly, this study assesses five different microfinance programs on household welfare in Mexico. The findings reveal that savings-oriented microfinance programs outperform programs that primarily offer microcredit, in reducing poverty. Thirdly, the impact of microfinance on vulnerability to poverty is analyzed. The results of this analysis show that membership in a savings and credit society in Mexico improves the well-being of households and reduces their vulnerability. Finally, the impact of the loan officer’s characteristics on determining repayment rates in microfinance is examined. The main outcome suggests that the gender of the loan officer and his/her professional experience are important determinants of repayment rates. Further conclusions are that loan officers who work longer in Pro Mujer have higher default probabilities and that peer monitoring of group members is not a significant determinant of loan default.
Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses
Rodriguez Padron, B. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734181 - 201
instellingen - institutionele economie - mexico - koffie - landbouwsector - verandering - samenwerking - contracten - diversificatie - onzekerheid - markten - markthandelaars - institutions - institutional economics - mexico - coffee - agricultural sector - change - cooperation - contracts - diversification - uncertainty - markets - market traders
Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.
The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households. Specific topics we examine are the contract arrangements and trade performance, the factors influencing the growers´ willingness to join a cooperative, the effects of cooperation on price variability, the influence of cooperation on the growers’ welfare, and coffee producers’ response to the falling coffee price through their engagement in diversification activities. To accomplish the main objectives we have used primary and secondary data. We applied ordinarily least squares, logistic, probit and multivariate probit regressions in the analysis. The main findings indicate that farmers were better off under the quota system than they are under the free market. Results also indicate that being a roaster and selling cherry coffee negatively affects traders’ use of contracts, whereas being vertically integrated has a positive effect on contracting. On the other hand, selling cherry coffee, participating in a competitive environment and having contracts positively influence intermediaries’ performance. Other results show that some individual, family and farm factors, as well as variability of the coffee price at the municipal level favour cooperative affiliation; whereas housing conditions, the proportion of farmers in the municipality and the level of producers selling to intermediaries at the municipal level negatively affect prospects for cooperative membership. We discovered overall positive effects of cooperative participation on household welfare through an increase in the price and total coffee income; results also indicate that households responded to the low coffee price periods with an increase in diversification.
Inducing multi-level institutional change through participatory plant breeding in southwest China
Li, Jingsong - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Edith Lammerts van Bueren, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins; Y. Song. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732705 - 191
plantenveredeling - plantenveredelingsmethoden - boeren - kleine landbouwbedrijven - participatie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - actieonderzoek - instellingen - innovaties - china - plant breeding - plant breeding methods - farmers - small farms - participation - plant genetic resources - action research - institutions - innovations - china
The expansion of modern hybrid varieties in maize (Zea mays L.) in China has caused the rapid loss of local varieties, including farmer maintained varieties and landraces. With growing international recognition of the importance of agro-biodiversity conservation and on-farm crop improvement, participatory plant breeding has been accepted as a complementary strategy in modern agricultural research. Participatory plant breeding has been conducted in Guangxi province in the Southwest China since 2000. It has introduced technical options to the formal breeding programme as well as institutional options at a range of levels, including new, formalised benefit sharing arrangement among stakeholders. This study seeks to understand these challenges and, through action research to induce supportive multi-level institutional change through and for participatory plant breeding within the local socio-technical context. The core research questions of this study are: • What were the changes in the distribution of maize landraces and hybrids from 1998 to 2008 in the three southwest provinces, Guangxi, Yunnan and Guizhou? • What are the potentials of participatory plant breeding for maize hybrid improvement in this context? • How do the institutional changes in the organization of the seed supply system in China influence small holder-oriented seed supply? • What is the contribution of action researching to institutional innovation in the case of developing access and benefit sharing mechanisms in the context of the participatory plant breeding programme in southwest China? • How has public value been created, strengthened and rewarded through participatory plant breeding and related market mechanisms in selected cases?
Risky encounters : institutions and interventions in response to recurrent disasters and conflict
Heijmans, A. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732675 - 308
instellingen - interventie - risicofactoren - risico - plaatselijke bevolking - rampen - politieke conflicten - risicovermindering - sociale participatie - afghanistan - indonesië - filippijnen - ontwikkelingslanden - institutions - intervention - risk factors - risk - local population - disasters - political conflicts - risk reduction - social participation - afghanistan - indonesia - philippines - developing countries
The thesis focuses on local level responses to recurrent small disasters and conflict in Afghanistan, Indonesia and the Philippines. It critically reflects on Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) approaches to understand the gap between CBDRR policy and actual outcomes. It considers the multi-level institutions through with meaning and implementation of CBDRR policy are negotiated and transformed, from the conceptual policy design stage until the arena where decisions on risk solutions and resource allocation are made. Disasters and conflict are both understood as the product of a cumulative set of institutional arrangements and policy decisions over a long period of time. Vice versa, disasters and conflict affect institutional arrangements and re-order power relations. Interventions like CBDRR are not isolated, distinct entities, but are very much embedded in a context of particular institutional arrangements, which constrain or enable local actors to advance their risk-solutions. Through CBDRR interventions actors defend and mobilize around CBDRR practices that are meaningful to them, or resist institutions and practices that carry meanings they find disagreeable. This results in the manifold manifestations of CBDRR practices and outcomes. The research concludes that there is no such thing as the CBDRR approach. Instead, there are different processes through which local NGOs, civil society organizations, funding agencies and government agencies arrive at a specific framing of local realities and their responses in the context they live and work. These are related to their histories, current state - civil society relationships, and their mandate on how they legitimize their interventions. These actors either underscore the politics of their interventions or rather de-politicize them. From the experiences of this research it is plausible to conclude that when one ignores to view CBDRR interventions in a political and institutional manner, the outcomes of the interventions are likely to reproduce the status quo and are not supporting the vulnerable populations. The implication for humanitarian aid agencies is to include an institutional and political analysis in risk and vulnerability assessments to explain people’ vulnerability. This is crucial for strategizing actions and to engage in the political arena of disaster risk reduction with the aim to create safe and resilient communities. Rather than simply aiming for isolated village-level project objectives, CBDRR interventions have to think ahead of results to be achieved at district and even national level.
Struggling with Europe : how initiators of horizontal forms of governance respond to EU formal rules
Zwaan, P.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Gerard Breeman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731500 - 237
governance - europese unie - acteurs - instellingen - eu regelingen - bestuurskunde - governance - european union - actors - institutions - eu regulations - public administration
More and more public actors work together or rely on citizens and private actors to provide for public services. These forms of governance are often referred to as horizontal forms of governance. This study focuses on the difficult relationship between horizontal forms of governance and existing EU formal rules. The study shows that national actors are often strongly committed to the governance initiatives and confident of the possibility to introduce them within the EU formal setting. This mobilises initiators of horizontal forms of governance to not directly conform to EU formal rules. Instead a number of active responses is pursued to introduce the horizontal forms of governance. As a result of increasing enforcement pressures by the European Commission, initiators start to realise that their active responses will not be successful and that continuing these will be futile. They start to realise that they must adopt a more pragmatic (and partly conforming) stance.
Strengthening institutions or institutionalising weaknesses? : interactions between aid and institutions in Huíla Province, Angola
Serrano, M.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731289 - 310
interventie - humanitaire hulp - ontwikkelingsprojecten - instellingen - plaatselijk bestuur - angola - afrika - interacties - intervention - humanitarian aid - development projects - institutions - local government - angola - africa - interactions
This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the case of Angola’s conflict, which lasted from independence in 1975 until 2002. It discusses aid policy and practice during the war and in the post-war context by examining various types of aid interventions and how they unfold on the ground. It shows that during the emergency, humanitarian practice largely ignored or bypassed local institutions. However, strengthening institutional capacity has become an explicit objective of post-conflict aid interventions. This thesis analyses the main types of institution-building interventions that have dominated Angola’s reconstruction period. It shows that these are strongly shaped by the legacy of relief practices on the legitimacy of local institutions, and on the functioning of the aid system. As a result, aid interventions rather than strengthening local institutions, often institutionalise their weaknesses.
Institutions for adaptation: do institutions allow society to adapt to the impacts of climate change?
Gupta, J. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Bergsma, E. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Brink, M.A. van den; Jong, P. ; Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Meijerink, S. ; Nooteboom, S.G. - \ 2011
Amsterdam : Dutch National Research Programme Climate changes spatial planning / Klimaat voor Ruimte (KvR) (KvR 039/11 ) - ISBN 9789490070502 - 36
klimaatverandering - instellingen - landgebruik - landbouw - natuur - waterbeheer - climatic change - institutions - land use - agriculture - nature - water management
Historisch gezien hebben instituties (formele en informele sociale regels en interactiepatronen) zich altijd ontwikkeld als reactie op sociale problemen, waaronder milieuproblemen. De laatste decennia worden gekenmerkt door toenemende economische ontwikkeling en globalisering, waardoor sociale problemen zich sneller ontwikkelen en onze kennis over deze problemen toeneemt. Belangrijke vraag is: in hoeverre maken instituties een tijdige en effectieve reactie vanuit de samenleving op de gevolgen van klimaatverandering mogelijk? Eerst is het Adaptatiewiel ontwikkeld als een methode om instituties te beoordelen op de mate waarin zij aanpassingen vanuit de samenlevingen bevorderen of belemmeren. Darmee is vervolgens de officiële Nederlandse institutionele context geëvalueerd in vier beleidssectoren (natuur, landbouw, water en ruimtelijke ordening). Ook is het Adaptatiewiel toegepast in vier case studies (Individuele Verantwoordelijkheid, Waterveiligheid, Bouwen in Laaggelegen Gebieden en Waddenzee)
Institutions, violent conflict, windfall gains and economic development in Africa
Voors, M.J. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731029 - 166
ontwikkelingseconomie - economische ontwikkeling - instellingen - institutionele economie - conflict - afgewaaid fruit - oorlog - corruptie - development economics - economic development - institutions - institutional economics - conflict - windfalls - war - corruption - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
|EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas, 2nd rev. ed.
Oskam, A.J. ; Meester, G. ; Silvis, H.J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861804 - 453
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - beleid - landbouw - agrarische handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - voedsel - beleid inzake voedsel - marketingbeleid - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - gezondheidsbeleid - plattelandsbeleid - natuurbescherming - milieubeheer - instellingen - besluitvorming - platteland - europese unie - cap - agricultural policy - policy - agriculture - agricultural trade - world trade organization - food - food policy - marketing policy - animal health - animal welfare - health policy - rural policy - nature conservation - environmental management - institutions - decision making - rural areas - european union
The European Union varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in Member States. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets. Traditional EU market and price measures are now largely replaced by 'decoupled' direct income support, and further steps are being prepared. There is increased attention at both EU and Member-State levels to food quality, food safety and animal welfare, as there is also to the environment and the development of rural areas. The Union is thus becoming a leader in food and rural policies.
Farmers, institutions and land conservation : institutional economic analysis of bench terraces in the highlands of Rwanda
Bizoza Runezerwa, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859307 - 123
ontwikkelingseconomie - boeren - institutionele economie - instellingen - landbouwgrond - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - erosie - terrassen - rwanda - oost-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - development economics - farmers - institutional economics - institutions - agricultural land - soil conservation - water conservation - erosion - terraces - rwanda - east africa - least developed countries
|Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives
Wubben, E.F.M. - \ 2011
United Kingdom : Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. - ISBN 9781849808903 - 232
regelingen - instellingen - stimulansen - niet in de prijs doorberekende kosten - economische groei - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - voedselveiligheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - banken - financiële instellingen - economische ontwikkeling - politieke economie - regulations - institutions - incentives - externalities - economic growth - intellectual property rights - food safety - food legislation - banks - financial institutions - economic development - political economy
Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional interactions are investigated in three areas; innovativeness, especially in terms of IP rights; food safety requirements and the impact on EU-competitiveness; and economic stability, particularly within the banking industry. The book provides complementary views and offers clear and relevant conclusions.