Metabolomics of Milk Reflects a Negative Energy Balance in Cows
Xu, Wei ; Knegsel, Ariette Van; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Hoeij, Renny Van; Kemp, Bas ; Vervoort, Jacques - \ 2020
Journal of Proteome Research 19 (2020)8. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 2942 - 2949.
energy balance - integrated analysis - LC-MS - metabolic status - metabolomics - milk - NMR
Dairy cows can experience a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation when feed intake is too low to meet the energy requirements for body maintenance and milk production. Metabolic changes occur in mammary gland cells of animals experiencing a negative energy balance. We studied these metabolic changes in milk samples from dairy cows in relation to energy balance status using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (QQQ-LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). NMR and LC-MS techniques are complementary techniques that enabled a comprehensive overview of milk metabolites in our study. Energy balance and milk samples were obtained from 87 dairy cows. A total of 55 milk metabolites were reliably detected, of which 15 metabolites were positively correlated to energy balance and 20 were negatively correlated to energy balance. Cows in NEB produced more milk with increased milk fat yield and higher concentrations of citrate, cis-aconitate, creatinine, glycine, phosphocreatine, galactose-1-phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, UDP-N-acetyl-galactosamine, UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine, and phosphocholine but lower concentrations of choline, ethanolamine, fucose, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and N-acetyl-galactosamine. During NEB, we observed an increased leakage of cellular content, increased synthesis of nucleic acids and cell membrane phospholipids, an increase in one-carbon metabolic processes, and an increase in lipid-triglyceride anabolism. Overall, both apoptosis combined with cellular renewal is paramount in the mammary gland in cows in NEB.
Participatory appraisal of institutional and political constraints and opportunities for innovation to address parasitic weeds in rice
Schut, M. ; Rodenburg, J. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Hinnou, L.C. ; Kayeke, J. ; Bastiaans, L. - \ 2015
Crop Protection 74 (2015). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 158 - 170.
fed lowland rice - striga-hermonthica control - raais rapid appraisal - sub-saharan africa - socioeconomic constraints - integrated analysis - pest-management - systems - benin - tanzania
Parasitic weeds in smallholder rice production systems, of which Striga asiatica, Striga hermonthica and hamphicarpa fistulosa are the main representatives, form an increasing problem for food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The objective of this paper is to identify institutional and political constraints and opportunities for innovation to address parasitic weed problems in rice. Constraints and opportunities for innovation were studied across three nested systems: the parasitic weed control system, the crop protection system, and the agricultural system. Multi-stakeholder workshops, interviews and surveys were held to gather data on key constraints faced by different stakeholder groups across three parasitic weed infested study sites in both Tanzania and Benin. The results demonstrate that in both countries, the majority of institutional and political constraints relate to the functioning of the broader crop protection and agricultural systems and not specifically to parasitic weeds. Although differences were observed between the two countries and the different stakeholder groups, the majority of constraints perceived by the stakeholders were caused by a lack of capabilities and resources and a limited access to credit. Awareness raising of parasitic weed problems among farmers, extension and crop protection officers at the local level, combined with improved input and service supply and enhanced agricultural education and training curricula at the national level, were identified as important elements for improvement. More structural collaboration between key stakeholder groups is expected to contribute to a better recognition of agricultural problems, like that of parasitic weeds in rice, and a more timely identification of feasible solutions.
Metabolomics reveals organ-specific metabolic rearrangements during early tomato seedling development
Gomez-Roldan, M.V. ; Engel, B. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Vereijken, P.F.G. ; Astola, L. ; Groenenboom, M.A.C. ; Geest, H.C. van de; Bovy, A.G. ; Molenaar, J. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Hall, R.D. - \ 2014
Metabolomics 10 (2014)5. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 958 - 974.
transcriptome coexpression analysis - mass-spectrometry - fruit-development - integrated analysis - network analysis - systems biology - arabidopsis - pathway - expression - tool
Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum cv.MoneyMaker), grown under strictly controlled conditions, have been used to study alterations occurring in secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways following developmental and environmental perturbations. Robustness and reproducibility of the system were confirmed using detailed statistical analyses of the metabolome. LCMS profiling was applied using whole germinated seeds as well as cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots from 3 to 9 days old seedlings to generate relative levels of 433 metabolites, of which 62 were annotated. Initial focus was given to the polyphenol pathway and several additional mass signals have been putatively annotated using high mass resolution fragmentation. Clear organ and developmental stage—specific differences were observed. Seeds accumulated saponin-like compounds; roots accumulated mainly alkaloids; cotyledons contained mainly glycosylated flavonols and; hypocotyls contained mainly anthocyanins. For each organ, the developmental changes in metabolite profiles were described by using linear mixed models. Across three independent experiments, 85 % of the metabolites showed similar developmental trends. This tomato seedling system has given us valuable additional insights into the complexity of seedling secondary metabolism. How metabolic profiles reflect an interplay between depletion of stored molecules and de novo synthesis and how the overall picture for this important crop plant contrasts to e.g. Arabidopsis are emphasised.