Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Making interventions work on the farm : Unravelling the gap between technology-oriented potato interventions and livelihood building in Southern Ethiopia
Tadesse, Yenenesh - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.C.. Struik, co-promotor(en): C.J.M. Almekinders; R.P.O. Schulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436847 - 120
potatoes - crop production - crop physiology - technology - intervention - livelihood strategies - livelihoods - ethiopia - east africa - aardappelen - gewasproductie - gewasfysiologie - technologie - interventie - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - middelen van bestaan - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Poor adoption of modern technologies in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the major factors that limit food production and thereby threaten food security of smallholder farmers. This is despite the potential and emerging success stories of new technologies in increasing productivity of smallholder agriculture. Explanations for low uptake of technologies are diverse. Some studies associated it with characteristics of the farmers and their farm; others attributed it to poor access to information about a particular technology, while some others recognize the importance of technology attributes. Farmers’ adoption decision is shaped socially and the farming practices are changing, not only because of the technical changes introduced, but also because of changes in social circumstances among smallholders. All these possible reasons did, however, miss largely important insights on how local complexities influence adoption. The research presented in this thesis analyses the social dynamics of technology-oriented interventions. More specifically, the study assessed the influence of technology introduction strategies, social networks and social differentiation on the adoption, dissemination and effects of potato technologies. As a case, it used interventions introducing improved potato technologies in Chencha, Southern Ethiopia. The field work combined individual and group in-depth interviews, household surveys and field observation for data collection.

Results show that the efforts to introduce technologies for improved potato production to progressive farmers with the assumption that farmers will eventually adopt, once they become familiar with the technology is a distant prospect. Some of the production practices - agronomic field and storage practices - failed to spread to poor farmers as expected, while the majority of agronomic practices fitted well with wealthy farmers. This resulted in diverse outcomes and strategies for livelihood improvement at household level. Access to the technologies and the necessary resources and diverse needs for technology were important factors in explaining variation in adoption and effects of technology across wealth categories. Tracing the seed diffusion through farmers’ networks showed that not all households had equal access to improved seed potatoes, mainly because of social barriers formed by differences in wealth, gender and religion, and because the type of personal relationship (relatives, neighbours, friends and acquaintance) between seed providers and seed recipients affected farmer to farmer seed sharing. In addition, the set-up of farmer-group based seed production demands resources and faces contextual challenges, which could be addressed through a long-term approach that engages continually in diagnosis and responding to the emerging social as well as material challenges. Development practitioners, however, took organizing group initiatives as a one-time process of design and start-up activity. Thus, clean seed potato production and dissemination through farmers’ organizations could not be sustainable. In conclusion, the present study has indicated that through providing special attention to the social dynamics researchers can arrive at better understanding of constraints affecting technology adoption. This implies effective interventions for a range of farm contexts involve not only finding technical solutions but also integrated understanding of farmers’ production conditions and existing social dynamics.

Targeting persons with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins with lifestyle interventions : opportunities and effectiveness
Bukman, A.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577022 - 169
socioeconomic status - lifestyle - ethnic groups - intervention - cardiovascular diseases - type 2 diabetes - diabetes - obesity - dutch - turkish - glucose tolerance - morocco - physical activity - prevention - sociaal-economische positie - levensstijl - etnische groepen - interventie - hart- en vaatziekten - diabetes type 2 - suikerziekte - obesitas - nederlands - turks - glucosetolerantie - marokko - lichamelijke activiteit - preventie

Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that the development of cardiometabolic diseases can be partly prevented or postponed by the combination of a healthy diet and physical activity. Cardiometabolic diseases and their risk factors are particularly prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status and some ethnic minorities, and therefore these groups especially may benefit from participating in lifestyle interventions. Although individuals with low socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities could potentially benefit from lifestyle interventions, it seems that these groups are often not successfully reached for such interventions. Moreover, when they do participate in these interventions, they seem more likely to quit. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to study opportunities for, and the effectiveness of, lifestyle interventions to reduce the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, targeting individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins. To this end, this thesis reports two studies that identified opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to the target group’s needs, one study describing the process of adapting an effective lifestyle intervention (SLIM) into a new lifestyle intervention targeting individuals with low SES of different ethnic origins (MetSLIM) and two studies that determined the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions among the target group.

The aim of the study described in chapter 2 was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way as to be more appealing for individuals with low socioeconomic status. The study provided insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and preferred ways to support lifestyle change. Data were gathered in semi-structured focus group interviews with adults with low socioeconomic status (four groups) and with adults with high socioeconomic status (five groups). In general, three key topics were identified, namely: current lifestyle is logical for participants given their personal situation; lifestyle change is prompted by feedback from their body; and support for lifestyle change should include individually tailored advice and could profit from involving others. The perceptions of the participants with low socioeconomic status were generally comparable to the perceptions shared by the participants with high socioeconomic status. Some perceptions were, however, especially mentioned in the low socioeconomic status groups. Participants with low socioeconomic status indicated that their current eating behaviour was sometimes affected by cost concerns. They seemed to be especially motivated to change their lifestyle when they experienced health complaints but were rather hesitant to change their lifestyle for preventive purposes. Regarding support for lifestyle change, participants with low socioeconomic status preferred to receive advice in a group rather than on their own. For physical activities, groups should preferably consist of persons of the same age, gender or physical condition.

The aim of the study described in chapter 3 was to identify how Turkish and Moroccan adults living in the Netherlands, aged 45 years and older, could be reached to participate in health checks for cardiometabolic diseases and follow-up (lifestyle) advice. In this study, questionnaire data were combined with interview data. This was done in order to use the narratives from the interviews to get a better understanding of the numbers that resulted from the questionnaire data. It turned out that both ethnic groups preferred an invitation from their general practitioner (GP) for a health check and preferred to fill out the health check questionnaire at the GP’s office or at home, on paper. They preferred to receive advice at individual level in relation to personal matters via either a physician or a specialised healthcare professional. Sixty-one percent of the Turkish respondents preferred to receive information in their native language, compared to 37% of the Moroccan respondents. Several participants mentioned a low proficiency in the local language as an explanation for their preference to fill out the health check questionnaire at home, to receive advice from an ethnicity-matched professional and to receive information in their native language. The results of this study suggested that the GP would be a promising contact to reach adults of Turkish and Moroccan origin for health checks or (lifestyle) advice. Furthermore, the findings suggested that it would be necessary to provide information in individuals’ native language to overcome language barriers and that (lifestyle) advice should be tailored towards the needs of the targeted individuals.

The insights gained into the needs and preferences of the target group – as described in chapter 2 and chapter 3 – were taken into account in the design of the MetSLIM intervention study. The MetSLIM study targeted individuals with low socioeconomic status of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan origin. The MetSLIM study protocol was based on the SLIM study protocol. The SLIM study showed the beneficial effects of nutrition advice and physical activity promotion on the prevention type 2 diabetes, but drop-out was relatively high among low SES participants. Chapter 4 provides a detailed description of the development from the SLIM study protocol to the MetSLIM study protocol. Furthermore, this chapter gives insight into the obstacles encountered in developing the MetSLIM study to target individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins. The new elements regarding the lifestyle intervention programme were: 1) additional group meetings about price concerns and social occasions with regard to a healthy diet; 2) ethnicity-matched dieticians; 3) gender-matched sports instructors; 4) all activities in the participants’ own neighbourhood; and 5) activities for women and men separately. The new elements regarding the study design, in order to study the effectiveness of the MetSLIM intervention programme, included: 1) from an university stetting to a community setting; 2) from a randomised controlled trial to a quasi-experimental study; 3) waist circumference – as a visible cardiometabolic risk factor – as main study outcome; 4) recruitment via GPs and in community centres; 5) translated study materials and ethnicity-matched research assistants involved in measuring; and 6) fewer measurements and measurements that could take place at different locations. Adaptations to the original SLIM study protocol were considered necessary in order to overcome practical barriers that hinder the target group’s participation; to suit the target group’s (cultural) needs; and to make it feasible to perform the study in a local (community) setting.

MetSLIM was not the only study set up based on the SLIM study. The SLIMMER study translated SLIM from a university setting to a real-world setting. The intervention was implemented in the public health and primary healthcare setting involving local GPs, practice nurses, dieticians, physiotherapists and sports clubs. The SLIMMER study did not target individuals with low socioeconomic status in particular; however, 52% of the study participants did have a low socioeconomic status, as determined by highest completed educational level. Chapter 5 describes how we explored the role of socioeconomic status in willingness to participate, programme attendance, programme acceptability, adherence to lifestyle guidelines, drop-out and effectiveness in the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention. The SLIMMER study was a randomised controlled trial, targeting 40- to 70-year-old adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, carried out in Apeldoorn and Doetinchem. The intervention group participated in a 10-month lifestyle programme: weekly training sessions were guided by a physiotherapist, and dietary advice was given by a dietician during 5–8 individual consultations and one group session. Measurements were carried out at baseline, after 12 months and six months after the active intervention period ended. The study showed that participation, attendance, acceptability, adherence, drop-out and effect of the SLIMMER study were mostly not affected by socioeconomic status. The SLIMMER study was able to reach the low socioeconomic status group as effectively as the higher socioeconomic status group, resulting in at least similar health benefits. The SLIMMER sample size was too small to study differences within the low socioeconomic status group, e.g. comparing the low vs. the least educated or comparing ethnic groups. Only 10% of the 316 SLIMMER participants had the lowest educational levels (no education or primary education) and only 11% had a foreign background.

The aim of the study described in chapter 6 was to measure the effectiveness of the MetSLIM intervention on waist circumference and other cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle and quality of life among 30- to 70-year-old adults with an elevated waist-to-height ratio. In the MetSLIM study, 220 individuals participated, of whom 40% had no education or only primary education and of whom 64% had a foreign background. MetSLIM had a quasi-experimental design with measurements at baseline and after 12 months. Participants were recruited in deprived neighbourhoods of Arnhem and Eindhoven via either their GP or in community centres. The intervention group participated in a 12-month lifestyle programme: an introductory group meeting was guided by the researcher, weekly physical activity lessons were guided by a sports instructor and dietary advice was given by an ethnicity-matched dietician (in total four hours of individual consultations and three group sessions). The study showed that the MetSLIM lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing waist circumference, other measures of obesity, total and LDL cholesterol, and quality of life. MetSLIM had a drop-out of 31%, which was higher than at 12 months in the SLIM study (10%) and SLIMMER study (13%), but comparable to drop-out in similar studies among ethnic minorities or low socioeconomic status populations.

Finally, in chapter 7, the main results of this thesis are described, followed by a discussion of methodological considerations, public health implications, suggestions for future research and the general conclusion. The adaptation process from SLIM to MetSLIM is discussed, including a reflection on the decision to use SLIM as a starting point and the decision to target three different ethnic groups at the same time. Moreover, difficulties in defining and selecting persons with low socioeconomic status and specific ethnic groups within research are addressed. As SLIMMER and MetSLIM proved that low socioeconomic status populations can be reached, and that their health can be improved when they participate in lifestyle interventions, it is suggested that further implementation should be considered. Insight should be gained into the ‘black box’ of lifestyle interventions; i.e. we should get to know what works for whom. Planned future research includes a process and economic evaluation of MetSLIM.

This thesis has shown that intensive combined lifestyle interventions can be effective in low socioeconomic status populations and identified possible adaptations to make lifestyle interventions more suitable for individuals with low socioeconomic status of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan origin. The question is not whether a lifestyle intervention can be effective, but how diverse groups can be reached and benefit from it. For this purpose, further insight into the success of different adaptations for different target groups should be obtained to reveal the effective elements to reach, inspire and retain different low socioeconomic status populations and ethnic minorities with lifestyle interventions.

Contesting control : land and forest in the struggle for Loita Maasai self-government in Kenya
Kronenburg García, A.J.N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): S.W.J. Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572720 - 311
landgebruik - autonomie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - grondrechten - bosbezit - bosbeheer - governance - leiderschap - pachtstelsel - regering - staat - interventie - kenya - land use - autonomy - rural communities - land rights - forest ownership - forest administration - governance - leadership - tenure systems - government - state - intervention - kenya

Abstract

Contesting Control: Land and Forest in the Struggle for Loita Maasai Self-government in Kenya

Angela Kronenburg García

Contesting Control is about the Loita Maasai in Kenya who, faced with increasing outside interventions and pressure from neighbouring communities, the state and other agencies, have been struggling to maintain access and control over the land they inhabit and the forest they use. They have been on the losing side in territorial struggles with neighbouring Purko Maasai and (non-Maasai) Sonjo. However, with regard to the state, NGOs and environmental organizations, the Loita have successfully navigated policies and projects and retained access and control of their land and forest. Interventions have, nevertheless, changed the way people engage with the land and forest and with each other on these issues. This study investigates the (in)direct effects of interventions and how they have articulated with existing relations, practices, processes and struggles in Loita. It considers the state-led land adjudication programme of the 1960s that sought to convert Kenya’s pastoral lands into privately owned group ranches, the attempt by Narok County Council to turn the Naimina Enkiyio Forest into a nature reserve for tourism in the 1990s, and a forest co-management project carried out by IUCN in the early 2000s. This volume captures the process of property-in-the-making and socio-political change among the Loita Maasai as they struggle for autonomy and self-government.

Healthy Ageing: prevention of loneliness among elderly people : evaluation of a complex intervention in public health practice
Honigh - de Vlaming, R. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lisette de Groot; Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735041 - 214
ouderen - verouderen - levensomstandigheden - sociale integratie - sociologie - interventie - volksgezondheid - nederland - elderly - aging - living conditions - social integration - sociology - intervention - public health - netherlands

Introduction
Concerns about the ageing population and formal responsibilities of local governments to promote social cohesion and to enhance participation of vulnerable groups in society placed loneliness prevention high on the local policy agenda of Dutch municipalities in the past decade. The study described in this thesis was part of the Healthy Ageing programme of the Academic Collaborative Centre AGORA and aimed to contribute to more effective, evidence-based and problem-oriented approaches to healthy ageing at the local level.

Aim
The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness of a local intervention project – called Healthy Ageing – targeting loneliness among non-institutionalised elderly people. Healthy Ageing consisted of five intervention components, namely, a mass media campaign, information meetings, psychosocial group courses, social activities organised by neighbours, Neighbours Connected, and training of intermediaries.

Methods
First, the influence of socio-demographic and health characteristics on changes in loneliness over time and municipal differences in the prevalence of loneliness were investigated. Data were gathered from 9,641 persons who participated in the Elderly Health Survey of the community health service, GGD Noord- en Oost- Gelderland (former GGD Gelre-IJssel), in 2005 or 2010. Second, the overall-effect of Healthy Ageing on the initial outcome loneliness literacy, intermediate outcome social support, and ultimate outcome loneliness was evaluated using a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design, including an intervention and control community. Baseline and follow-up measurements, in 2008 and 2010 respectively, were available for 858 non-institutionalized elderly people. The Loneliness Literacy Scale was developed within the context of this thesis and was pre-tested in a separate study among 303 elderly persons who also participated in the quasi-experimental study. Finally, delivery, reach, and acceptance of the individual intervention components was studied in several satellite studies. Data were collected by different means, e.g. project records and surveys among participants. Furthermore, the acceptability of the mass media communication materials, information meetings, and psychosocial courses of Healthy Ageing was studied by in-depth interviews with 14 clients of the meal delivery service in the intervention community.



Results
Overall and across municipalities, average loneliness scores did not significantly differ between 2005 and 2010. However, among the subgroup with mobility disabilities, loneliness was significantly higher in 2010. Furthermore, mobility disabilities and marital status were the most important factors explaining differences between municipalities. With regard to the evaluation of Healthy Ageing, the satellite studies showed that the reach and intensity of the intervention components were modest. Furthermore, from the interviews it appeared that the mass media communication materials were not successful in attracting attention because interviewees did not expect health information from these communication channels, the perceived personal relevance of the message was low, and the presentation was not attractive. Moreover, the content of the intervention components was not well received because the objectives and intervention components did not connect well with the priority group’s daily life. In addition, it appeared from the quasi-experimental study that 39% of the study participants from the intervention community was familiar with Healthy Ageing at follow-up. Overall, the intervention group scored more favourably on the loneliness literacy subscales, motivation (4.4%), perceived social support (8.2%), and subjective norm (11.5%) than the control group. However, no overall effects were observed for the intermediate and ultimate outcomes, total social support and loneliness after two years.

Conclusion
Given the modest overall intervention exposure, the effect of Healthy Ageing on the loneliness literacy subscale, motivation, is plausible, whereas on the subscales, perceived social support and subjective norm, probable, and on the subscale, self-efficacy, unlikely. Furthermore, whether the initial effects will carry forward to the intermediate and ultimate outcomes needs to be confirmed. The modest effects of Healthy Ageing can partly be explained by the challenges on organisational level which delayed and suppressed project implementation. Furthermore, the project might have benefited from a more systematic approach in order to ensure better alignment between the intervention components and formulated objectives. Finally, target group differentiation is highly recommended. This evaluation of Healthy Ageing illustrates how researchers can cope with the evaluation challenges of complex interventions which cannot be fully controlled. In turn, this provides valuable lessons for the development of intervention programmes and evaluation designs in public health practice.

Ervaringsleren op de boerderij : beschrijving van de interventies bij Topaze, BJ Brabant en Juzt
Hassink, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Agrosystems (Rapport / Plant Research International 471) - 24
zorgboerderijen - jeugdzorg - gedragsproblemen - persoonlijke ontwikkeling - antisociaal gedrag - geestelijke gezondheid - interventie - social care farms - child welfare - behaviour problems - personal development - antisocial behaviour - mental health - intervention
De interventie Ervaringsleren op de boerderij is bedoeld voor jongeren met ernstige problemen in de persoonlijke ontwikkeling. Ze vertonen internaliserend en externaliserend probleemgedrag. De jongeren hebben een gebrek aan inzicht in de problematiek. Op het gebied van het gezin zien we dat ouders hun grip verliezen op de jongeren. Ouders voelen zich onmachtig en de communicatie tussen ouders en jongeren is inadequaat.
Er is geen enkel werkzaam principe dat altijd werkt. Een eerste verkenning van het begrip werkzame principes
Wartna, J. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Koelen, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 31
gezondheidsbevordering - levensstijl - interventie - gezondheidsbescherming - health promotion - lifestyle - intervention - health protection
Sinds 2008 onderhoudt RIVM Centrum Gezond Leven (CGL) het loketgezondleven.nl met een interventie database (I-database). In deze I-database zijn leefstijlinterventies opgenomen die geclassificeerd zijn als ‘theoretische goed onderbouwd’, als ‘waarschijnlijk effectief’ of als ‘bewezen effectief’. In de databank Effectieve Jeugdinterventies staan jeugdinterventies die op dezelfde manier geclassificeerd zijn evenals op de web portal het Nederlands Centrum Jeugdgezondheid. Professionals kunnen een interventie indienen en ter beoordeling voorleggen aan de Erkenningscommissie Interventies. Werkzame principes zijn gekoppeld aan de doelen van een interventie en gaan over principes die het effect van een interventie tot stand brengen. Het is echter nog onduidelijk wat er precies bedoeld wordt met 'werkzame principes' en wat dit vervolgens betekent voor het erkenningstraject. De leerstoelgroep Gezondheid en Maatschappij is daarom gevraagd een beperkt literatuuronderzoek te doen en een aantal interviews uit te voeren met personen uit de praktijk van gezondheidsbevordering en de jeugdgezondheidszorg (december 2011- februari 2012). Doel van dit onderzoek is om meer helderheid te krijgen over het begrip werkzame principes zodat er een besluit kan worden genomen of het expliciteren van werkzame principes waardevol is voor het erkenningstraject.
Risky encounters : institutions and interventions in response to recurrent disasters and conflict
Heijmans, A. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732675 - 308
instellingen - interventie - risicofactoren - risico - plaatselijke bevolking - rampen - politieke conflicten - risicovermindering - sociale participatie - afghanistan - indonesië - filippijnen - ontwikkelingslanden - institutions - intervention - risk factors - risk - local population - disasters - political conflicts - risk reduction - social participation - afghanistan - indonesia - philippines - developing countries

The thesis focuses on local level responses to recurrent small disasters and conflict in Afghanistan, Indonesia and the Philippines. It critically reflects on Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) approaches to understand the gap between CBDRR policy and actual outcomes. It considers the multi-level institutions through with meaning and implementation of CBDRR policy are negotiated and transformed, from the conceptual policy design stage until the arena where decisions on risk solutions and resource allocation are made. Disasters and conflict are both understood as the product of a cumulative set of institutional arrangements and policy decisions over a long period of time. Vice versa, disasters and conflict affect institutional arrangements and re-order power relations. Interventions like CBDRR are not isolated, distinct entities, but are very much embedded in a context of particular institutional arrangements, which constrain or enable local actors to advance their risk-solutions. Through CBDRR interventions actors defend and mobilize around CBDRR practices that are meaningful to them, or resist institutions and practices that carry meanings they find disagreeable. This results in the manifold manifestations of CBDRR practices and outcomes. The research concludes that there is no such thing as the CBDRR approach. Instead, there are different processes through which local NGOs, civil society organizations, funding agencies and government agencies arrive at a specific framing of local realities and their responses in the context they live and work. These are related to their histories, current state - civil society relationships, and their mandate on how they legitimize their interventions. These actors either underscore the politics of their interventions or rather de-politicize them. From the experiences of this research it is plausible to conclude that when one ignores to view CBDRR interventions in a political and institutional manner, the out­comes of the interventions are likely to reproduce the status quo and are not supporting the vulnerable populations. The implication for humanitarian aid agencies is to include an institutional and political analysis in risk and vulnerability assessments to explain people’ vulnerability. This is crucial for strategizing actions and to engage in the political arena of disaster risk reduction with the aim to create safe and resilient communities. Rather than simply aiming for isolated village-level project objectives, CBDRR interventions have to think ahead of results to be achieved at district and even national level.

Strengthening institutions or institutionalising weaknesses? : interactions between aid and institutions in Huíla Province, Angola
Serrano, M.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731289 - 310
interventie - humanitaire hulp - ontwikkelingsprojecten - instellingen - plaatselijk bestuur - angola - afrika - interacties - intervention - humanitarian aid - development projects - institutions - local government - angola - africa - interactions
This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the case of Angola’s conflict, which lasted from independence in 1975 until 2002. It discusses aid policy and practice during the war and in the post-war context by examining various types of aid interventions and how they unfold on the ground. It shows that during the emergency, humanitarian practice largely ignored or bypassed local institutions. However, strengthening institutional capacity has become an explicit objective of post-conflict aid interventions. This thesis analyses the main types of institution-building interventions that have dominated Angola’s reconstruction period. It shows that these are strongly shaped by the legacy of relief practices on the legitimacy of local institutions, and on the functioning of the aid system. As a result, aid interventions rather than strengthening local institutions, often institutionalise their weaknesses.
Rural realities between crisis and normality : livelihood strategies in Angola, 1975-2008
Dijkhorst, H.K. van - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730978
strategieën voor levensonderhoud - middelen van bestaan - interventie - humanitaire hulp - angola - plattelandssamenleving - conflict - livelihood strategies - livelihoods - intervention - humanitarian aid - angola - rural society - conflict

In this thesis I examined the ways in which rural people in Huíla province, Angola, have dealt with crises and adapted their livelihoods accordingly. These responses and adaptations to crises are then juxtaposed against the variety of interventions by state and aid agencies which affect rural livelihoods in broad terms. The Angolan population has lived through a long history of conflict, starting with an independence war against Portugal since 1961, and evolving into a civil war from the start of independence in 1975 lasting until 2002. Throughout this violent history, humanitarian actors made a significant range of interventions with the intention to alleviate the suffering of the country’s population and help them rebuild their lives and livelihoods after the end of the war in 2002. In this thesis I analysed these interventions, especially related to the recovery of rural livelihoods, to understand the assumptions underlying them, as well as their outcomes.

The core question that guided the research underlying this thesis was the following: How are people’s livelihoods affected in times of crisis, and how do aid interventions influence the livelihood options that people have in Huíla province, Angola? In my analysis I used the concept of a humanitarian arena in order to 1) acknowledge the diversity of actors that shape the outcomes of aid processes, 2) move away from normative explanations of aid and rather focus on its everyday practices, and 3) focus on the negotiations, experiences and agency of the actors at the interface at which processes of aid are shaped. This builds on an actor-oriented approach which calls attention to agency, actors and interfaces to explain that planned development is rarely a linear process but rather a site of struggles and negotiations amongst a variety of actors. The fieldwork underlying this thesis was done in six villages with different experiences of conflict, aid, and livelihoods.

I look at the concept of livelihoods as comprising the assets and activities that people employ to make a living, and the access to these (Ellis 2000a, 10). I deviate from the policy construct of a livelihoods approach, which tends to define livelihoods by a restricted focus on the various capitals. Rather, I have looked at livelihoods as being more flexible in nature in which the disappearance of some assets can be dealt with by strengthening others. Livelihoods are fluid and flexible, and certainly have to be so in situations of crisis and conflict. Aid in this thesis is seen as one of the many strategies that people rely on for their survival in times of crisis. Humanitarian aid is analysed in this thesis and in particular its changing practice due to the more protracted nature of the crisis situations it operates in. This has demanded the incorporation of rehabilitation and development approaches, translated in a stronger engagement with the state, and a shift from a focus on individuals to society. I question the practices of Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD) approaches when it is uncertain whether intervention objectives can be attained or processes have to be abandoned. This thesis sheds light on the consequences of such unfinished LRRD processes.

This research has analysed the everyday realities and outcomes of post-war recovery and reconstruction practices by aid agencies and the Angolan state. It shows how aid programmes that focus on resettlement of conflict-affected populations and rebuilding of rural livelihoods can have unintended consequences when little attention is given to follow up of these activities that were assumed to lead to development. At the same time, the research shows how state post-war reconstruction efforts by the state largely bypass rural areas, or at worst even lead to renewed displacement from land and livelihoods. Therefore, the title of this thesis reiterates that livelihoods in conflict and post-conflict situations continuously move between crisis and normality, yet that this phenomenon is not necessarily linked to war itself. Also, the use of the word normality underscores the underlying assumptions on which aid interventions are designed in processes of livelihood recovery: a return to normality. One can question what ‘normal’ livelihoods are in the Angolan context of long-term instability. Also, who defines normality? As shown in this thesis, aid actors have had quite uniform and fixed assumptions and interpretations about what ‘normal’ rural livelihoods should look like, reflected in the one-size-fits-all interventions that consequently took place.

Opportunities for diabetes prevention: risk factors for diabetes and cost-effectiveness of interventions = Mogelijkheden voor diabetespreventie : risicofactoren voor diabetes en kosteneffectiviteit van interventies
Jacobs-van der Bruggen, M.A.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): C.A. Baan; P.H.M. van Baal. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857792 - 158
suikerziekte - ziektepreventie - levensstijl - cost effective analysis - interventie - risicofactoren - alcoholinname - tabak roken - gewicht - diabetes - disease prevention - lifestyle - cost effectiveness analysis - intervention - risk factors - alcohol intake - tobacco smoking - weight
Social relationships and healthy ageing : epidemiological evidence for the development of a local intervention programme
Croezen, S. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Lisette de Groot, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856917 - 128
gezondheid - verouderen - ouderen - sociale participatie - interventie - gezondheid op regionaal niveau - gemeenschapsprogramma's - gezondheidsbeleid - sociale relaties - health - aging - elderly - social participation - intervention - community health - community programs - health policy - social relations
Introduction
In view of the growing number of older people in our society and the related consequences for health and well-being, research focussing on healthy ageing is essential. Already, the associations between supportive social relationships and healthy ageing have been established. However, there is as yet no consensus about whether or not it is the structure of the social network, its function- ing or a combination that is most important for health, and in addition, about which aspects of structure and function are important.

Aim
The main objective of this thesis was to investigate aspects of the structure and functioning of social relationships and their influence on mental, physical and social health in older people. This was relevant to obtain scientific evidence for practice-based research to support local policy making on healthy ageing.

Methods
Different characteristics and functions of social relationships, such as frequency of contact, different sources of social network ties, satisfaction with relationships, positive and negative perceptions of social support and social engagement have been analysed in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Cross-sectional data are from six community health services in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The overall sample size constituted of 24,936 people aged 65 and over (response 79%). Prospective data are from the Doetinchem Cohort Study. The first examination round (1987-1991) comprised 12,448 men and women aged 20 to 59 years. The overall response rate was 62% for the baseline measurement and 79%, 75% and 78% for rounds 2, 3 and 4 respectively.

Results
Cross-sectional analyses showed that satisfaction with the social contacts was strongly related to physical (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.11-2.64), mental (OR 4.65; 95% CI 4.20-5.15) and self-perceived health (OR 2.52; 95% CI 2.29-2.78). Longitudinal analyses underlined this finding by showing that unfavourable levels of social support were predictive for health-compromising behaviours and poor health over a 10-year period of follow-up, and for increased mortality risk over a 15- year period of follow-up (HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.03-2.39). Furthermore, neighbours were found to be an important source of the social network ties of older people in relation to physical (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.68-2.07), mental (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.39-1.69) and self-perceived health (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.30-1.54).

Further exploration of the relationship between social support and loneliness using structural equation modelling identified that social support in everyday situations may serve as a good start- ing point for health promotion activities to prevent loneliness. To better target health promotion activities for healthy ageing, analyses were performed to group older people into subgroups with similar social engagement activity patterns. Five clusters were identified: 1) less socially engaged elderly; 2) less socially engaged caregivers; 3) socially engaged caregivers; 4) leisure-engaged elderly; and 5) productive-engaged elderly. Older people who were not engaged in any social activity other than the care for a sick person, were identified as a possible target group, given the relatively high share of unhealthy people among them. In this non-socially engaged target group, the prevalence of loneliness was 48%, compared to 30% in the socially engaged groups; poor self-perceived health: 41% compared to 14%; poor mental health: 25% compared to 9%; poor physical health: 27% compared to 2%.

Conclusion
Well-functioning social relationships were favourably associated with health. By integrating all results, the local data have strengthened the scientific evidence-base for local policy making and have contributed to the development of an evidence-based community intervention supporting social participation among older people.
De consumptie van dierlijke producten : ontwikkelingen, invloedsfactoren, actoren en interventies
Beekman, V. ; Pronk, A. ; Smet, A. de - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 192) - 59
dierlijke producten - consumptie - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - interventie - beleid inzake voedsel - marktanalyse - animal products - consumption - food consumption - consumption patterns - intervention - food policy - market analysis
LEI Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) met behulp van kwantitatief onderzoek onderzocht hoe de consumptie van dierlijke producten zich in Europese landen in de afgelopen decennia heeft ontwikkeld. Daarnaast zijn met behulp van kwalitatief onderzoek mogelijke interventies geïdentificeerd gericht op het beïnvloeden van de consumptie van dierlijke producten. Dit onderzoek biedt een basis voor de verdere uitwerking en uitvoering van door publieke en private actoren te nemen maatregelen gericht op verandering of vermindering van de consumptie van dierlijke producten.
HIV/AIDS and human development in sub-Saharan Africa : impact mitigation through agricultural interventions : an overview and annotated bibliography
Müller, T.R. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 3) - ISBN 9789076998503 - 131
plattelandsontwikkeling - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - landbouwsector - epidemieën - volksgezondheid - interventie - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - rural development - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - human immunodeficiency viruses - agricultural sector - epidemics - public health - intervention - africa south of sahara
This last part of the AWLAE series on HIV/AIDS and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa focuses on the epidemic as a challenge to human development in general and rural development in particular. In the face of the impact of the epidemic as described in parts one and two of the series, the agricultural sector can potentially play an important role in mitigating some of its effects. Strategies for agricultural intervention are of particular importance in sub-Saharan Africa, given the fact that most of the countries hardest hit by the epidemic are heavily reliant on agriculture. Different agricultural sector based mitigation strategies are discussed. It is further argued, however, that such interventions need to be complemented by interventions from the health and other sectors, in particular by treatment regimes including access to antiretroviral drugs. The text is followed by an annotated bibliography.
Een policy framework: Overgewicht in het dagelijks leven van consumenten
Trijp, H.C.M. van; Temminghoff, M. - \ 2005
Voeding Nu 7 (2005)12. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 21 - 24.
voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - consumentengedrag - voedingsgewoonten - obesitas - overgewicht - lichamelijke activiteit - interventie - motivatie - gedragsveranderingen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - food consumption - consumption patterns - consumer behaviour - feeding habits - obesity - overweight - physical activity - intervention - motivation - behavioural changes - scientific research
Auteurs stellen een 'policy framework' voor, waarbij zij daadwerkelijk consumentengedrag zien als toegevoegde waarde in het huidige palet aan onderzoeksinspanningen. Er wordt veel onderzoek verricht naar gedragsdeterminanten van overgewicht. Zij vinden dat het onderzoek te versnipperd is, vaak gedaan naar deeldeterminanten en vaak experimenteel van karakter. Volgens hen is het nuttig als er inhoudelijk meer integratie van de onderzoeksinspanningen komt, waardoor ook de kosten efficiënter worden.
In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe
Bolding, J.A. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; N.G. Röling, co-promotor(en): P. van der Zaag. - Wageningen : Ponsen & Looijen - ISBN 9789085041283 - 398
watergebruik - waterbeheer - kleine landbouwbedrijven - zimbabwe - regering - interventie - landbouwbeleid - water use - water management - small farms - zimbabwe - government - intervention - agricultural policy
How discontinuities become continuities : the dynamics of participatory development in rural China
Wang Yihuan, - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789058088680 - 231
plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsstudies - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelingsprojecten - participatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - conflict - interventie - china - hebei - rural development - development studies - rural sociology - development projects - participation - rural communities - conflict - intervention - china - hebei
ABSTRACT This research focuses on an understanding of the multiple forms in which small farmers families attempted to resolve their livelihood problems and develop viable farming strategies. The study was essentially explorative; therefore, the findings attempted to be valuable in documenting the "social construction" of farming practice and local community networks and in offering a view, "from below", of present and future agricultural scenarios. Following literature of Robert DeWalt (1979); John Bennett (1982), Norman Long and Jan Douwe van der Ploeg (1994), the research uses the notions of "adaptive strategies" and "farming styles", combining a concern for land use and the management of other types of "capital": natural, economic, human and social resources (Scoones, 1998), with an emphasis on how existing economic mileux shape farm-livelihood decision making. Running throughout the research, the thesis tries to generate additional knowledge on the issue of cropping patterns and sustainable rural livelihoods based on agriculture (Chambers et al, 1989), from the point of view of farmers' perceptions on resource management. The fieldwork was divided into two phases. The first part lasted 30 months with the aim to know in deep the main rural livelihoods of a small settlement called Agrimaga in the central atlantic region of Costa Rica. The study included two inventory studies of 29 farms and the data gathered was analysed to see if it revealed any distinctive patterns in the use of productive resources and farming practices. At the same time, the surveys provided a useful baseline for selecting several study cases which covered a range of contrasting situations and reflecting different resource levels and farming types. Based in the fact that maize and cassava were the main crops, an additional analysis of their agricultural practices was made in order to know the degree of agrodiversity among those farmers. From the fieldwork carried out in Agrimaga, several hypothetical premises were generated aiming at providing an additional understanding of land use and livelihood scenarios from the perspective of local actors and social relations. The second part of the research was the application of a large social survey to 203 farmers from 23 communities, located in the same central area of the atlantic region, with the purpose of testing the hypothetical premises generated in Agrimaga. Despite the differences in resource endowments of the farmers sample, the gathered information verified the basic agricultural patterns found in Agrimaga. By means a path analysis, it was proved that variation in crop production is directly connected to differences in capital use ( agro-chemicals, in particular, fertilizer) and labour. The degree of commercialization and the percentage of fertile soil ("tierra negra") had no direct effect on crop production variations but through a higher cropping intensity. In turn, livestock production could only be attributed to differences in animal rate and pasture area. The same statistical device was used for analysing the income variations among farmers. The diagram obtained showed that off-farm, cropping and livestock activities were the main sources of familiar income but they were negatively correlated. This finding validate the independence among the three productive activities and might lead to confirm the hypothetical premise that rural livelihoods strategies in the central atlantic region are quite specialised: a) off-farm work; b) intensive agriculture and c) extensive livestock. Based on the later evidence a farmer typology was made according to the major share of the households' income ( more than 50% criterium). The findings showed that more than 80% of the farmers could be classified into three types: (i) "jornaleros" (day-labourer); (ii) cropping farmer and (iii) stock farmer. In the case of the "cropping farmer", the 87 percent of family income (per unit of labour) comes from intensive agriculture; for the stock farmer and the "jornalero" (day-labourer), the importance of such sources of income was 84 and 83 percent, respectively. Despite the farmer types distinguished are relatively homogeneous in access to resources and production objectives, many wage labourers have cattle and grow crops; some crop farmers are also involved in off-farm labour and some livestock farmers are also commercially involved in crop production. Regarding the later, he (she) is usually an absent producer and delegates this activity onto lesser employees because he (she) devotes their time to more lucrative or short term business. The mentioned typology was contrasted with farmers' own classification and the results showed that more than 80% of the farmers who classified themselves as day labours, are also classified as such by the income composition criterion; also for the cropping farmers, the match was 60%. Finally, the research attempt to shed additional light on the issue of agricultural planning and the viability and development of manageable rural livelihood strategies for small farmers in the context of the era of economic globalization.
Interventions in Smallholder Agriculture. Implications for extension in Zimbabwe
Bolding, J.A. ; Mutimba, J. ; Zaag, P. van der - \ 2003
Harare : University of Zimbabwe Publications - ISBN 9780908307524 - 345
kleine landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - agrarische structuur - landbouwhervorming - voorlichting - zimbabwe - interventie - landbouwvoorlichting - small farms - farm size - agricultural structure - agrarian reform - extension - zimbabwe - intervention - agricultural extension
Working apart together : civiel militaire samenwerking tijdens humanitaire operaties
Bollen, M. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G.E. Frerks; J.M.L.M. Soeters; A.L.W. Vogelaar. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086068 - 286
internationale samenwerking - manschappen - samenleving - strijdkrachten - buurtactie - interacties - interventie - crises - rwanda - wereld - noodhulp - burgerlijke staat - militaire hulp - internationale conflicten - kosovo - intervention - crises - emergency relief - international cooperation - military personnel - armed forces - society - community action - interactions - rwanda - world - civil status - military aid - international conflicts - kosovo

Introduction

This study is about civil-military cooperation during humanitarian operations. It aims at explaining civil-military cooperation processes and at identifying ways in which collaboration may be improved. This book evaluates the experiences with civil-military relations by researching the following questions:

What are conditions for civil-military cooperation during humanitarian operations?

What are characteristics of civil-military alliances?

What problems are impeding civilian actors and the military to cooperate?

How can civil-military cooperation be improved?

In this summary, the second section describes the background to the research. From the third section onwards the answers to the research questions are discussed.

Background to this study

During the last decade of the 20th century, upsurges of intense animosity among many of the world's five to eight thousand ethnic groups have set the trend for violence. As a result, the number of complex humanitarian emergencies soared. From the mid-nineties onwards, the international community became increasingly aware that to deal with the consequences a wide spectrum of resources and a multi-faceted response was required. Amongst others, this brought forth new linkages between differing and non-traditional partners, such as civilian humanitarian organisations and international militaries who have been working together on humanitarian operations.

Civil-military cooperation has become a characteristic of humanitarian operations in the nineties. However, in spite of positive results, civil-military cooperation during humanitarian operations has been controversial from the onset. The appropriateness of military contributions to humanitarian operations is questioned both from the military as well as from the civilian perspective.

At a strategic level, civil and military actors acknowledge the vital importance of increased coordination and cooperation. Up until now, they appear to have adopted a mainly reactive attitude. As a consequence, a shared comprehensive vision and approach to the complex humanitarian problems seems to have been developing at a slow pace. There appears to be neither monitoring nor process evaluation with regard to civil-military collaboration. Lessons are learned independently. The exchange of information and feedback are administered by driblets between the various organisations and disciplines. There seems to be hardly any sharing of innovations among the actors involved in different sectors. Therefore, the extent to which these innovations may induce changes remains limited.

However, at the operational level civilians and the military have cooperated intensively to solve the daily problems. The multi-actor approach has been leaning heavily on the dedication of civilian and military actors at hand to perform their interdependent tasks. At this level the military and civilian actors are confronted with the lack of communication, information exchange, community and comprehensiveness. Synergy has been hard to achieve. In spite of their interdependencies, civilian actors and their military counterparts are also representing their own interests. Civilian and military planning and logistics are directed towards goals both parties hold in common as well as towards their own interests. Therefore, it may happen that one party thwarts the other in reaching its goals. Finally, civil-military cooperation between unfamiliar and widely diverging partners can be hindered by visions on collaboration that have been developed unilaterally by one of the organisations. When the potential partners have not been invited to participate in the development of cooperation policies, chances are they will reject any forms of cooperation resulting from this process. The attitude of civilian actors towards the military concept of Cimic may be viewed as an example. According to humanitarian organisations Cimic mainly serves the interests of the military. Therefore, civilian actors refuse to cooperate within Cimic-structures that are governed by the military.

Conditions of civil-military cooperation

The case studies on operation Provide Care (1994) and on operation Allied Harbour (1999), described in chapters 5 and 6 of the book, are the core of this study. During both the operations Dutch military were involved with civilian actors in order to cope with the humanitarian problems at hand. The case studies describe the ways in which collaboration processes developed, the ways in which the unfamiliarity and the differences between the partners affected the alliances and the problems with regard to civil-military cooperation that were encountered.

Both during operation Provide Care and operation Allied Harbour civilian and military actors collaborated in the field of construction, logistics, transport and distribution, and medical support. During operation Provide Care the cooperation was limited to representatives of NGOs and UNHCR. In addition to representatives of these institutions, during operation Allied Harbour, the military in Albania Force (AFOR) also worked closely with the authorities in the host-countries and other UN-aid organisations. In both operations civilian-military cooperation emerged on an ad-hoc basis on the request of civilian actors. According to the military I interviewed, the representatives of humanitarian organisations often took a leading position in the civil-military alliance.

Both civilian and military actors are convinced that cooperation depends on three conditions. Firstly, an early military presence at the start of the operation will contribute to the emergence of collaboration. At this stage civilian actors usually lack coping capacity to deal with the relief demands. The second condition to civil-military cooperation is the extent to which the military mission commands the resources that are complementary to the civilian needs. Lastly, the nature of the military mission and of its mandates is an important condition.

During both operations the military experienced a decline in the need for cooperation on the side of their civilian partners. The military mention three causes for this decline. Firstly, the military assistance accelerates the pace in which humanitarian aid is delivered. In this way the emergency situation gets under control sooner. During subsequent stages of the operation the demands for external support are changing in comparison with the emergency situation. Often, civilian aid organisations are able to deal with these altered demands without additional military support. In other words, the military have made themselves redundant. Secondly, as the operation proceeds over time, the number of civilian organisations present in the area usually increases. Under the condition that the security situation does not deteriorate, the civilian actors become less dependent on the continuing military support. The tables may even turn to the extent, that ongoing military assistance is regarded as improper competition. Lastly, the need to cooperate decreases when the military are not able to timely adapt to the new context after the emergency-situation. Due to the above mentioned causes civilian actors no longer feel that collaboration with the military will lead to a win-win situation.

In line with these findings, both civilian and military partners state the following reasons for civil-military cooperation: their lack of coping capacity to perform the job on their own, the needs for additional resources, specialist's know-how and expertise. Moreover, the need to increase the scope of the humanitarian activities, the lack of other suitable partners and the lack of humanitarian expertise are mentioned as reasons for civil-military cooperation.

These reasons for civil-military cooperation reflect the principle of altruistic self-interest by which civil-military relations appear to be governed. This means that civil-military cooperation will emerge and continue as long as the alliance is felt to serve the interests of both sets of parties.

According to the military I interviewed, their civilian counterparts determine both the development and the nature of the relationships in the alliance, and also decide the duration of the alliance. This phenomenon can be understood by taking into account the differences in autonomy regarding the military and civilian actors at an operational level. The start of a military mission is dependent on political decision-making processes that will often lag behind the actual demands for support. By the same token, the military cannot decide for themselves when their mission should be ended. According to the military, civilian actors, such as NGOs are far more independent. In their view, representatives of NGOs can limit or even end civil-military relations whenever it appears they are no longer in need of additional military support in order to achieve their goals. As a result, commanders may be facing a situation in which the need for military support seems to have vanished almost overnight, whereas the political decision-makers have not yet reached a conclusion about the end of the military mission. Under these circumstances, commanders are dependent on civilian actors to be able to keep their men and women at work.

As a consequence of these differences in autonomy, asymmetric dependency relations develop. Relations such as these, induce high levels of uncertainty. On an operational level, the military have to reduce their uncertainty to such an extent that their civilian counterparts regard them to be necessary partners. This means, the military have to command the expertise and resources needed to deal with changing demands. Besides, the military will have to cope with the uncertainty caused by their dependency on political decision-makers. To be able to reduce uncertainty continuous interaction, by means of communication and information exchange, is considered to be vital.

Characteristics of civil-military alliances

Civilian actors vary to the extent to which they are dependent on military support. However, during the first stages of humanitarian operations only a limited number of civilian organisations will be present. Often these actors are not capable of dealing with the complex demands for help. Civilian actors, that lack sufficient coping capacity, appear to be well aware of their dependency on additional military assistance. Dependent on the security situation they may be in need of protection and safety. Often they are in dire straits for logistical support, transport and distribution and engineering. The civilian actors perceive working with the military as a pragmatic strategy, enabling them to achieve their goals, even when they lack the necessary resources and know-how.

For the most part, the military I interviewed are convinced of the necessity to cooperate with civilian actors during humanitarian operations. This is due mainly to their self-proclaimed lack of humanitarian expertise. Therefore, I conclude that both interdependence and the awareness about interdependence are characteristic to civil-military alliances. In these alliances both sets of partners, taken on their own, lack sufficient coping capacity. Therefore, during their collaboration both parties experience a certain level of asymmetric dependency.

Besides being dependent upon one another in order to achieve results, partakers of civil-military alliances also experience another form of dependency. By collaborating, both sets of partners become dependent on the cooperative behaviour of the other party. A complicating factor is that civil-military relations often are initial relations. The unfamiliar partners' behaviour is unpredictable and the levels of uncertainty regarding the partners' cooperative intentions are high. Moreover, dependency on others is greater during humanitarian crises and with that dependency go premiums on determining trustworthy people and trustworthy coping methods. Therefore, the potential partners have to decide quickly with whom they are going to cooperate. To this effect, swift trust and a certain level of confidence in partner cooperation are needed among the different sets of parties in the field.

At an organisational level, civil-military cooperation has to be institutionalised to some degree. Under these conditions, partners at the operational level can accept their inherent conflicts of interest and differences of opinion as legitimate.

Basically there are two mechanisms by which the partners can reduce their uncertainty about the partners' behaviour and develop confidence. The first mechanism is based on control. Examples of control mechanisms are goal setting, rules and regulations regarding the participation in the alliance, monitoring the progress of activities and reporting on the results of the alliance. On the basis of such mutually agreed upon mechanisms the parties are able to reach consensus on the domains of cooperation and the division of responsibilities during the operation. Effective civil-military alliances are characterised by domain consensus, by which the behaviour of the unfamiliar partners becomes more predictable.

The second mechanism is based on the development of trust. Trust is important in civil-military relations for various reasons. Firstly, there exists no hierarchy between the different sets of parties. This means, that the partners cooperate on a voluntary basis and that trust is one the scarce means by which the alliance can be governed. Moreover, crisis conditions ratchet up the chance of cognitive and organisational errors. Civil-military alliances should be characterised by swift trust, because only then, civilian and military partners may dare to depend on one another in situations entailing risks.

Thirdly, civil-military interfaces are between partners who differ materially from each other. The military and civilian organisations represent different interests and are backed by different resources. Besides, both sets of parties are often differentiated in terms of power. Because of discontinuities such as these, alliances between the military and civilian organisations will be conflictuous by nature. In these relationships trust and distrust will manifest themselves at the same time. Lastly, trust is necessary, because the context of humanitarian operations is fluctuating. Under these circumstances, the development of mutually acceptable control mechanisms could take more time than is available.

It can be concluded, that the development of trust is influenced positively by continuous interaction on a daily basis, personal contacts, open communication, and information exchange in formal and informal settings. As a consequence, not only do the partners accept their own role and position in the alliance, but they also feel comfortable with the role and position of the other party. They experience their cooperation as normal. This phenomenon is known as situational normality. In civil-military alliances characterised by situational normality, the military partners even keep their confidence in the goodwill of their civilian counterparts, when the latter decide they want to terminate their involvement in the alliance. In other words, a high level of trust may imply that even in situations in which one partner damages the interests of the other, the disadvantaged party remains convinced of the other party's benevolence. This means that in civil-military relations that are characterised by high levels of trust, the partners will assume that the control mechanisms, such as domain consensus, will function appropriately.

Problems in civil-military cooperation

The use of military assets to assist in the humanitarian sphere is designed to supplement, rather than supplant the work of traditional humanitarian agencies. From a functional standpoint military assets can make four major kinds of contributions. Firstly, the military can work to foster a protective framework of overall stability within which civilian populations are protected and humanitarian activities are carried out. Secondly, the military can support the humanitarian organisations with logistics, personnel, engineering, and security. Thirdly, the military can execute relief activities themselves. These activities are referred to as civic action. During my field-research in Albania representatives of international aid organisations argued NATO's Albania Force was engaged in yet another kind of contribution namely, the organisation and coordination of humanitarian activities.

Military contributions with regard to civic action and crisis management may cause problems to the civil-military alliances. Based on the interviews with civilian actors, firstly, it appears that most civilian aid organisations are convinced of the military's lack of humanitarian expertise. Although the military may command the necessary resources, this does not mean they know how to use these resources appropriately.

Secondly, civilian aid organisations distrust the military motives to participate in humanitarian operations. On the one hand they fear that their goals may become secondary to the achievement of military-political motives. On the other hand they suspect the military's involvement to stem from a need for a new raison d'être in the post-Cold War era. As a result, civilian actors are divided among themselves regarding the appropriateness of collaborating with the military during humanitarian operations. Furthermore, any military initiatives on account of civic action or crisis management will be experienced as a potential threat to civilian organisations. Whenever the military involve themselves in civic action and crisis management, their involvement will evoke high levels of uncertainty and distrust. As a consequence, civilian actors will limit interaction with the military as much as possible and chances for the development of civil-military cooperation will be slim.

The third problem that inhibits civil-military cooperation stems from the fact that such relations are temporary. The need for cooperation is flexible and may vary according to the different stages of the operation. As the humanitarian operation continues, the specific demands for support change and usually the number of civilian aid-organisations increases. Both changes in demand and support affect the civilian parties' dependence on additional military resources. The need for civil-military cooperation seems to be highly demand-driven. This means that if and when the military are not able to timely adapt to the changing context, from a civilian point of view, civil-military alliances cease to be of use. (Always presuming of course, the security situation does not deteriorate). As mentioned before, contextual shifts, such as these, may cause serious management problems to commanders. In these situations military resources may be directed towards civic action. However, by performing these actions the military enter upon a domain that traditionally belongs to civilian aid organisations and run the risk to be regarded as competitors.

Fourthly, civil-military cooperation is inhibited under the circumstances when both sets of parties suspect each other of opportunistic behaviour concerning the use of resources and the purposes to cooperate. For instance, civilian actors may resist cooperating when they suspect the military will use their information for gathering intelligence.

Lastly, civil-military cooperation is impeded when exogenous political and strategic motives do not match the endogenous levels of interdependency, domain consensus and trust in the alliance. If strategic motives are communicated insufficiently civilian and military actors in the field may gather that they are forced to cooperate. The partners are strengthened in their conviction when it becomes more difficult to withdraw from the alliance from their own free will.

High levels of exogenous pressure require equally high levels of embeddedness and connectedness between both partner organisations. A prerequisite to these high levels of embeddedness and connectedness is a high level of confidence in partner cooperation. However, because relations in civil-military alliances usually are between partners unfamiliar to each other, high levels of confidence in partner cooperation cannot be expected from the onset. As a result, this lack of confidence may lead to the polarisation of civil-military relations. This means that mutual problems are not solved and differences of opinion or different operational cultures will not be accepted. As a result, civil-military cooperation will be minimised or else bogs down in conflict.

Suggestions to improve civil-military cooperation

Demand-driven civil-military cooperation

Civil-military alliances are essentially demand-driven. This means that the duration of the alliance is conditional on the demand for help. It is a characteristic of demand-driven civil-military alliances that its partners collectively agree upon the results of the alliance. For civil-military alliances to be effective there should be a fit between the military support and the demand for help.

Recommendation 1:

By continuously monitoring the demand for help together with their civilian counterparts, the military can gain insight into the needs for civil-military cooperation.

Recommendation 2:

The military can enhance their effectiveness as a partner in the alliance by improving their potential to adapt their resources, structures, goals and mind-sets to the demand for help.

The military role in civil-military cooperation

Civil-military cooperation and confidence in partner cooperation do not occur naturally. Shared goals and interdependencies are temporary only. Moreover, both sets of parties also pursue their own interests, thereby increasing the risk of opportunistic behaviour. Therefore, civil-military relations are the kind of relations in which both trust and distrust will be present simultaneously. During all stages of the operation, by a supporting and facilitating attitude the military will advance the increase of confidence in their cooperative behaviour.

Recommendation 3:

By adhering to a facilitating and supporting attitude the military will contribute to the development of trust.

If the military take initiatives concerning relief activities or concerning the organisation and management of the crisis without consulting civilian actors, these actors will be distrustful towards the military motives. For this reason, civilian actors often prove to be reluctant to join military-led Cimic centres. Instead, the military might add their Cimic-officers to civilian-led centres for the coordination of the humanitarian operation. Civil-military collaboration will then be promoted because of the following reasons.

Adding militaries to civilian-led centres for coordination and management reduces suspicions civilian actors may harbour against the military trying to take over;

As opposed to military Cimic-centres, civilian-led structures will be open to access to any civilian actor;

Intensive communication and information exchange on a day to day basis within civilian-led structures improves the insight into the demand for relief and in the kind of military assistance that is required;

By using the military as a linking-pin between the coordinating and operational levels, both the pace and the effectiveness of the civil-military cooperation in the field are stimulated.

Recommendation 4

Adding the militaries to civilian-led centres for coordination will promote civil-military cooperation.

Communication and information exchange in civil-military cooperation

Intensive communication and information exchanges are necessary for trust formation between unfamiliar partners. This insight has caused an increase in formal structures in the field, such as military-led centres for Cimic and their US pendant Centers for Civil-Military Cooperation. At the civilian side there have emerged parallel structures such as Humanitarian Information Centers, Humanitarian Operations Centers and On-Site Operations and Coordination Centers. This abundance of formal structures has created confusion and uncertainty, instead of the much coveted clarity and trust.

Recommendation 5

Formal structures for communication and exchange of information that are freely accessible to all sets of partners will foster civil-military cooperation.

To be able to act adequately on the demands for help, formal structures have to operate at a local level, "outside the wire" away from military headquarters. Moreover, the informal settings in which civil-military relations take place are important to the alliance. By working shoulder to shoulder on a daily basis the interaction between both sets of partners develops in natural way. On the basis of open and informal contacts situational normality may develop. In relationships that are characterised by this form of trust, the partners will indeed depend on one another. Moreover, they will be able to accept criticism regarding their behaviour and they will be positively inclined to taking risks. Besides, openness promotes the transparency of civil-military relations, thereby reducing the risks of opportunistic behaviour by one of the parties involved.

Recommendation 6

Open and informal contacts between civilians andtheir military partners are necessary for trust formation.

Recommendation 7

In their training and education the military have to learn what behaviour and skills contribute to trust formation in order to cooperate with civilian actors.

Conflicts of interest during humanitarian operations

As is the case with regard to civil-military cooperation, collaboration among the different sets of civilian actors does not run smoothly. The interfaces between different sets of civilian actors, such as NGOs, UN-aid organisations and the authorities of host-countries are characterised by discontinuities that add to their conflictuous nature. Because they position themselves to a large extent on the same markets and they draw upon the same financial donors, relations between civilian aid organisations will be competitive. Coordination and information exchange usually run stiffly. To complicate matters even more, in comparison to the international aid organisations the authorities of host-countries often adhere to different motives and interests with regard to the military support.

The instrument of actor analysis can be used as a means to map out the various interests, resources and supporters. In this way the military achieve insight into the demands for help and into the goals and motives of their potential partners. Actor analysis enables the military to understand the sources of discontinuities and the various positions of authority. Besides, on the basis of actor analysis the military may anticipate changes in interdependencies and their effects on the civil-military alliances. Moreover, actor analysis increases the participants' awareness of their interdependencies, core-competencies and of their expectations concerning cooperation.

Interactions at an operational level may also influence actors at a strategic level and institutions beyond the interface situation itself. The military and their civilian partners should cooperate in making the actor analysis. This path leads to a collective evaluation of the cooperation processes and may enhance the capacity for interorganisational learning.

Recommendation 8:

In view of the importance of both successful civil-military cooperation and the increase of the capacity for collective learning, during all collective operations the instrument of actor analysis should be used to provide feedback to both the civilian and military partners.

A green third way? : philosophical reflections on government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles
Beekman, V. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.J.J.A.A. Korthals; F.W.J. Keulartz. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083609 - 122
ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levensstijl - regering - interventie - filosofie - development - sustainability - lifestyle - government - intervention - philosophy

The book kicks off by remarking that the year 1972 must have been a very special year indeed. The Club of Rome published its report 'The Limits to Growth', the Ecologist published its 'Blueprint for Survival', and the United Nations held its first environmental conference in Stockholm. These three occasions were the first to use the notion of sustainable development with its current connotations. However, sustainable development only received its lasting status as a meta-objective for national and international environmental policy-making with the publication of the WCED-report 'Our Common Future' in 1987. This report defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Subsequently, the debate on sustainable development reached a new climax with the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This conference introduced the idea that sustainable development asks for adjustments of lifestyles and patterns of consumption, apart from adjustments in the sphere of production. UNCED emphasised the need for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles, and the second Dutch National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP2) translated this emphasis to the Dutch context.

UNCED and NEPP2 initiated an extensive public debate on government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles, which was dominated by communicative and economic strategies. Unfortunately, these strategies hitherto failed to reconcile government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles and respect for people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles. Therefore, this book's objective is to provide this very reconciliation by drawing an outline of a green third way for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles. This green third way presents itself as an alternative for the first (communicative) and second (economic) ways in the Dutch public debate. The book aims to articulate people's concerns about the deterioration of nature and the environment, materialised in the worldwide support for the notion of sustainable development, within a largely political liberal frame of reference.

Chapter 2 maps the Dutch public debate on government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles. This analysis shows that although communicative and economic strategies dominate the debate, these strategies are seriously flawed in their attempts to evade the principled question of whether government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles implies an intolerable infringement of people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles, visions of the good life or consumptive preferences. Communicative and economic strategies are thus criticised on three accounts: 1) their failure to recognise the inextricable interconnectedness between attitudes and behaviour in people's lifestyles; 2) their evasion of the question of how government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles could respect the individual freedom of choice; and 3) their unwillingness to investigate whether sustainable development could offer sound reasons to restrict this freedom of choice. Both strategies are, therefore, incapable of providing a meaningful interpretation of all key terms in the phrase 'government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles'. It is not much of a surprise then that they cannot reconcile government intervention and respect for people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles. Therefore, the chapters 3,4 and 5 subsequently set out to remedy these three flaws of communicative and economic strategies. Luckily, lately a third strategy dawned in the Dutch public debate. This third strategy provides some of the materials to develop an outline of a green third way for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles.

Chapter 3 argues, mainly inspired by Giddens's theory of structuration, his and Beck's accounts of reflexive modernisation and Douglas's grid-group analysis, for a narrative conceptualisation of the notions of lifestyle and self-identity. This conceptualisation 1) emphasises the inextricable interconnectedness of practices and narratives of self-identity in people's lifestyles, 2) stresses the duality of individual and society in the constitution of lifestyles, 3) changes the modernist distinction between citizen and consumer for the public-private hybrid of the citizen-consumer, and 4) maps the plurality of lifestyles in contemporary globalising, individualising and detraditionalising societies. The narrative conceptualisation of lifestyles implies that it is no longer possible to evade the question of whether government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles necessarily entails an intolerable infringement of people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles. It will not do to emphasise some remaining freedom in either practices or narratives of self-identity, since these practices and narratives are inextricably interconnected in people's lifestyles.

Chapter 4 argues, mainly informed by Berlin's and Rawls's political liberalism, Raz's liberal perfectionism and Habermas's notion of a deliberative democracy, that most government intervention in lifestyles is indeed an intolerable infringement of the individual freedom of choice. This liberal point of view 1) argues that respect for the individual freedom of choice implies that the government should take a neutral and anti-perfectionist stance, 2) holds it that directive, communicative and economic, strategies for government intervention would only be justified if certain choices harmed others, caused injustice, or were obviously irrational, 3) accepts, in the second instance, that the political liberal argument is not neutral and anti-perfectionist at all, but believes that this perfectionist turn only strengthens the need to respect the individual freedom of choice, and 4) advocates extensive public deliberation on the objectives and instruments of environmental policy-making. The political liberal emphasis on the need to respect the individual freedom of choice implies that directive strategies for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles generally do not show enough respect for people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles, unless it is obvious that certain lifestyles harm others or cause injustice.

Chapter 5 argues, mainly on the basis of Rawls's savings principle, Wissenburg's restraint principle, Passmore's chains of love, and De-Shalit's transgenerational communities, for a double interpretation of sustainable development as a principle of intergenerational justice and a future-oriented green ideal. This double interpretation 1) embraces the restraint principle and the argument that no individual can claim an unconditional right to destroy environmental goods as a baseline that could justify directive strategies for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles, 2) suggests that people's concerns about the deterioration of nature and the environment articulate future-oriented narratives of self-identity that could fuel non-directive strategies to develop further responsibilities towards nearby future generations, 3) prefers to draw a list of primary environmental goods instead of quantifying some environmental utilisation space as a practical guideline for day-to-day environmental policy-making, and 4) concludes that the uncertainty of scientific knowledge about the unintended environmental repercussions of consumptive choices casts serious doubt about attempts to justify directive strategies for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles beyond the requirement of sustaining the baseline of the restraint principle and the list of primary environmental goods. Sustainable development, thus, provides sound arguments to restrict people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles, when these lifestyles transgressed the baseline of the restraint principle and the list of primary environmental goods. However, the individual freedom of choice should not be restricted for any further environmental considerations. Non-directive strategies are thus to stimulate the development of such further responsibilities towards nearby future generations. The challenge for a green third way of government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles becomes to search for adjustments of social and material conditions that could tempt people to develop sustainable lifestyles.

Chapter 6, finally, returns from these rather unearthly reflections to the more mundane issues in the public debate on government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles by presenting an outline of a green third way. This green third way offers an alternative to the overly directive communicative and economic strategies for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles, and broadens the prevailing political landscape with a strategy that promises superiority in addressing the intricacies of environmental policy-making in liberal-democratic societies. Although this green third way leaves ample room to use communicative and economic instruments to secure the environmental baseline of the restraint principle and the list of primary environmental goods, these instruments are framed in a quite different perspective or set of premises now. A short discussion of the Schönau Energy Initiatives serves to illustrate the kernel of an alternative strategy. This green third way offers a non-directive strategy for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles in which the government hopes to stimulate the development of sustainable lifestyles by adjusting the social and material conditions that surround people in following their lifestyles. The green third way, thus, reconciles government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles and respect for people's freedom to follow their own lifestyles to a satisfactory degree. It accepts that the requirement to secure the environmental baseline of the restraint principle and the list of primary environmental goods justifies the use of directive strategies for government intervention in non-sustainable lifestyles in a limited set of conditions. However, it also emphasises that non-directive strategies should do the majority of the job. In this non-directive strategy the government should provide the social and material conditions in which a plurality of sustainable lifestyles could flourish.

Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project
Magadlela, D. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081575 - 294
ontwikkelingsprojecten - irrigatie - ontwikkeling - interventie - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale verandering - sociale interactie - relaties - dynamica - sociologie - zimbabwe - development projects - irrigation - development - intervention - rural development - social change - social interaction - relationships - dynamics - sociology - zimbabwe

This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with changes in their livelihoods which had been introduced from outside by development intervention. The study was sustained by the realisation that irrigation is not just a matter of technical artefacts, but has much to do with people, especially the people it is meant to benefit. Development practitioners and researchers should be interested not only in irrigation performance, but also in how people manipulate the irrigation resources available to them. How does irrigation development change the lives of the irrigators over time? How is it transformed and adapted by them? How does it change their perceptions of each other in view of their local social identities and differences? What do irrigation farmers use to gain improved access to irrigation resources? How do they manipulate their social, political, technical and management environments to their benefit? What lessons can we derive from "targeted" beneficiaries' analyses of how their lives have been transformed by development intervention?

The study focuses on social constructions of cultural identities, on social interaction and change among smallholder farmers in the context of irrigation development intervention in Eastern Zimbabwe. It shows how the introduction of an irrigation scheme not only created, but also nurtured and promoted processes of cultural identity and social differentiation among groups of rural producers who had previously had but few distinguishing social characteristics (such as ethnic affiliation). It is a study of how the irrigation context helps to highlight their social and cultural differences and leads to social conflicts and leadership struggles, and to how different individual actors devise strategies, such as enrolling outsiders into local struggles, to achieve their often conflicting group and individual objectives. The analysis portrays the irrigation scheme as a social and political 'domain' in which different groups of farmers and outsiders engage each other in negotiations over resources, and the meanings attached to these resources. In some instances, the irrigation domain is seen as an arena, a contested area where struggles take place over a diversity of livelihood resources such as water and land.

The study used the actor-oriented perspective as the theoretical basis for the analysis of research findings. An actor-oriented approach helps one recognise the agency of social actors in interactive situations. It requires a full analysis of the ways in which different social actors manage and interpret new elements in their life-worlds. The capacity of social actors to influence and shape their social surroundings is one of the salient features of the approach used in this Nyamaropa study.

The study is also about the omnipresence of encounters and clashes of different 'world-views' at the local level in the irrigation scheme. The clashes take place in the social, technical, administrative, managerial and political domains. It looks at how the different 'life-worlds' accommodate to each other in actors' daily interactions to give a semblance of harmony and attraction, co-existing with conflict and rejection. It is an analysis of the dynamism of social differences in irrigation intervention, and in any development intervention for that matter, that reveals the multiplexity of actors' interactions, and how their multiple relations and interlocking projects generate potentially explosive social exchanges. The study starts from the bottom, as it were, in its analysis of how different people in a specific rural development context create and live with complex social relations where daily interaction is characterised by strategic negotiation and mutual enrolment in other actors' projects. The analysis focuses more on local level dynamics, and does not deal, for example, with the politics of decision-making at higher levels of administration, such as the province or central government departments under which smallholder irrigation development falls. The study does, however, acknowledge the inevitable, sometimes useful role of macro-policy structures in influencing development outcomes at the local level.

As a sociological study, this research work focused on how people interacted, worked together, settled differences and used community resources in their daily struggles for survival. Irrigation literature in Zimbabwe has only recently begun to pay specific attention to the fact that irrigation development is essentially a social process. Part of the objective here is to contribute to the debate about how rural actors manage their differentiated irrigating lives, discourses, struggles and negotiations, conflicts and accommodations in their constantly changing social environments. In order to examine this complex social process, it was proposed to undertake a detailed analysis of one irrigation scheme and its impact both on farmers practising irrigated agriculture and on surrounding dryland communities.

The thesis is divided into four parts. Part One gives 'the story behind the study'. Then there is a background to the study in the form of Chapter 2. This chapter provides what I have called The Setting. This is Zimbabwe's agricultural history, the history of smallholder irrigation development in the country, a background to Nyamaropa irrigation intervention, and an introduction to the different social and political actors who appear throughout the book.

Part Two is about the embeddedness of social, political and power relationships, social and economic differences, in land and water resources. Chapter 3 deals with struggles over land and water among irrigation farmers. There is a debate on water ownership from the different actors' standpoints in the Nyamaropa area. This chapter is central in the sense that it introduces the crucial issues of cultural and social identity in relations between formal irrigators and non-irrigators, between original inhabitants of the now irrigated area and immigrants to the same area. These are some of the issues that set the scene for case analyses of the dynamics of development intervention, constructions and reconstructions of cultural and social identities and differences.

Chapter 4, also in Part Two, is about the issue of different claims to water use, between irrigation farmers in the Nyamaropa project, and villagers in the catchment area who use river water which is the source of water for the irrigation scheme downstream. Here the argument is that spatial distinctions, cultural identities, and a strong sense of communal existence, constitute a crucial entry point for the analysis of ways of assembling claims to resource use by different actors. Differences in community organisation feature as competing aspects of claims to resource utilisation.

Part Three is about the irrigation domain as a shared life-world. Chapter 5 is on gender images and irrigation life. There are cases of widows who struggle to survive in a tough and competitive irrigation environment. A salient feature of this chapter is how women relate to the irrigation scheme through their families or individual plots. Walking through the irrigation scheme one is struck by a common feature of the area: over seventy percent of people one sees working or meets in the fields are women and children, with the majority of them being women. A surprising, yet refreshing, phenomenon in the Nyamaropa irrigation scheme is that almost thirty percent of registered plotholders are widows! Some of them registered as widows when their men worked in town, so that they would have access to irrigated plots. This was a stratagem to beat the rule prohibiting those with wage-earning spouses from having access to irrigated land. It worked, to their advantage.

Chapter 6 focuses on irrigation extension specifically. This provides cases of farmers' encounters with Agritex (the national extension agency), and reveals the different views of similar situations between farmers and outsiders, and among farmers themselves in the presence of outsiders. This chapter focuses on one of the central issues in the study: that of how social differences among people impact on their responses to new knowledge and information. In this case, it is a matter of how farmers relate to Extension Workers as promoters of change, improvement and innovation.

Part Four is on official (and unofficial) regulations and practices, looking especially at government practice through Agritex and the traditional institution through the Headman. Chapter 7 deals with a delicate and sensitive subject of age, inheritance, sub-leasing and renting, and the irrigation rules which were ignored. The average age of plotholders in Nyamaropa was approximately 55 years, though there were plotholders as old as 84 years. Most of them were first generation plotholders. These were farmers who cleared the plots themselves when the project started in the late fifties. Most of the elderly irrigators were too old to fully utilise their irrigation plots, but still retained their names in the register. They regarded irrigation land as their family asset, against the official rule that they were lessees on state land. To maintain productivity, they sub-leased their plots to dryland farmers who needed irrigated land for food. Some of them had established networks with local businessmen who rented part of their land in return for paying irrigation fees for the plotholders. There were some long-term relationships of mutual assistance between the different types of farmers. Rules and regulations are seen here as among the tools at farmers' disposal in their constant negotiations for 'better deals' among themselves and with their resident Extension Workers.

Chapter 8 is the only chapter in Part Five. This section provides conclusions and theoretical analyses of research findings. It contextualises social difference and cultural identity in the life-situations of irrigators and drylanders in Nyamaropa. Discussed here are issues of how the different social groupings fit into the whole story of social dynamics of development intervention, and what some social theorists say on the issue of cultural identity and social difference (which is not much so far). This chapter brings together different theoretical issues raised in case material in the chapters before it. Chapter 8 also looks into problems facing 'irrigating lives' in smallholder irrigation schemes in the context of external intervention, and the issues and contradictions surrounding concepts such as cultural identity, and strategic difference in rural development.

One hopes that such a study will initiate a process that will lead to bringing out and appraising differences among development programme beneficiaries to make interventions not merely effective (by externalised criteria), but also meaningful to the range of people whose lives are unavoidably affected by its introduction. The study will help in the general understanding of social dynamics of rural development, of land reform and of poverty-reduction strategies in Zimbabwe and the Southern African region.

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