“My body breaks. I take solution.” Inhalant use in Delhi as pleasure seeking at a cost
Gigengack, R.A. - \ 2014
International Journal of Drug policy 25 (2014)4. - ISSN 0955-3959 - p. 810 - 818.
volatile substance misuse - street children - india - intoxication - addiction - science - rights - city
Background: Inhalant use has existed in India since the 1970s and has increased significantly over the last decades, especially among street-oriented young people. The latter constitute a heterogeneous category: children from street families, children 'of' the street, rag pickers, and part-time street children. There are also inhalant-using schoolchildren and young people in slums. Methods: Fieldwork was conducted for 1 year. Team ethnography, multi-sited and comparative research, flexibility of methods and writing field notes were explicit parts of the research design. Most research was undertaken with six groups in four areas of Delhi, exemplifying six generic categories of inhalant-using street-oriented young people. Results: Inhalants in India are branded: Eraz-Ex diluter and whitener, manufactured by Kores, are used throughout Delhi; Omni glue in one specific area. There is a general lack of awareness and societal indifference towards inhalant use, with the exception of the inhalant users themselves, who possess practical knowledge. They conceive of inhalants as nasha, encapsulating the materiality of the substances and the experiential aspects of intoxication and addiction. Fragments of group interviews narrate the sensory appeal of inhalants, and an ethnographic vignette the dynamics of a sniffing session. These inhalant-using street children seek intoxication in a pursuit of pleasure, despite the harm that befalls them as a result. Some find nasha beautiful, notwithstanding the stigmatization, violence and bodily deterioration; others experience it as an overpowering force. Conclusion: A source of attraction and pleasure, inhalants ravage street children's lives. In this mysterious space of lived experience, their self-organization evolves. Distinguishing between hedonic and side effects, addiction helps to understand inhalant use as at once neurobiological, cultural, and involving agency. The implications are that India needs to develop a policy of treatment and employment to deal with the addiction. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rapid control of Chinese star anise fruits and teas for neurotoxic anisatin by Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) high resolution mass spectrometry
Shen, Y. ; Beek, T.A. van; Claassen, F.W. ; Zuilhof, H. ; Chen, B. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2012
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1259 (2012). - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 179 - 186.
illicium-anisatum - gas-chromatography - ambient conditions - verum - identification - consumption - infants - intoxication - adulterant - desorption
After ingestion, products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) or other Illicium species, can cause epilepsy, hallucinations, and nausea due to the rare neurotoxic sesquiterpene dilactone anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a rapid, simple and unambiguous method for distinguishing between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise is important for food safety issues. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ambient ionisation coupled with orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the recording of mass spectra of anisatin in solid star anise fruits in seconds without any prior sample pretreatment. Spectra could be obtained in both positive ([M+NH4]+ at m/z 346.1496, C15H24NO8) and negative mode ([M-H]- at m/z 327.1074, C15H19O8) and gave the same outcome provided a mass resolution of at least 27,000 is available. The anisatin signal was typically >1000 times larger in Japanese star anise than in Chinese star anise thus allowing an unequivocal qualitative determination. Herbal teas containing star anise fragments too small to be visually recognised, could be analysed by preparing a tea in 6 min and subsequently sampling ~2 µL of tea on a glass rod. None of the 8 investigated retail teas contained significant quantities of anisatin. Spiking a complex herbal tea containing Chinese star anise with an equally concentrated tea prepared from Japanese star anise provided a linear calibration curve (R2 = 0.995) after normalising on a native constituent of Chinese star anise (standard addition method). This showed that adulteration down to 1% (w/w) is still measurable. Compared with existing PCR, TLC, GC–MS and HPLC–ESI-MS/MS procedures, the proposed DART–HRMS procedure is faster and simpler and moreover measures the actual biotoxin
Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks
Martena, M.J. ; Wielen, J.C.A. van der; Rietjens, I. ; Klerx, W.N.M. ; Groot, H.N. de; Konings, E.J.M. - \ 2010
Food Additives and Contaminants 27 (2010)2. - ISSN 0265-203X - p. 190 - 205.
indian ethnic remedies - heavy-metals - ayurvedic medicines - chinese medicines - intoxication - toxicity - spectrometry - ingestion - products - cinnabar
Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for therapeutic purposes, these constituents have caused intoxications worldwide. The aim of this study was therefore to determine mercury, arsenic, and lead levels in Asian traditional herbal preparations on the Dutch market. A total of 292 traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and traditional Tibetan medicine were sampled between 2004 and 2007. Samples were mostly multi-ingredient traditional herbal preparations containing herbs and minerals. The labeling of less than 20% of the traditional herbal preparations suggested the presence of mercury, arsenic or lead. These elements were shown by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 186 (64%) of 292 traditional herbal preparations. Estimated weekly mercury, arsenic, and lead intake levels were calculated for each traditional herbal preparation from the analytically determined concentrations and the recommended dose. A total of 59 traditional herbal preparations (20%) were likely to result in intakes of these elements significantly exceeding safety limits. Of these 59 traditional herbal preparations, intake estimates for 50 traditional herbal preparations significantly exceeded the safety limit for mercury (range = 1.4-1747 mg week-1); intake estimates for 26 traditional herbal preparations significantly exceeded the safety limit for arsenic (range = 0.53-427 mg week-1) and intake estimates for eight traditional herbal preparations were significantly above the safety limit for lead (range = 2.6-192 mg week-1). It is concluded that the mercury, arsenic, and lead contents of traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, and traditional Tibetan medicine remain a cause for concern and require strict control.