How farmers’ characteristics influence spontaneous spreading of stone bunds in the highlands of Ethiopia: a case study in the Girar Jarso woreda
Abi, Meskerem ; Kessler, C.A. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Tolossa, Degefa - \ 2020
Environment, Development and Sustainability 22 (2020)1. - ISSN 1387-585X - p. 317 - 335.
sustainable land management - readiness to change - intrinsic motivation - social capital - extension strategies
This study aims to identify key differences between farmers who spontaneously implement stone bunds (i.e. farmers implementing stone bunds by their own initiative) and farmers who do not. Data were collected in the Girar Jarso woreda in the central highlands of Ethiopia, through a household survey with 80 farmers: 40 with spontaneously implemented stone bunds and 40 without. Independent samples t test, principal component analysis and regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Results show that five key-factors explain differences between the two groups of farmers: (1) readiness to change, (2) available resources, (3) social capital, (4) type of family, and (5) commitment. These factors together explain 73% of the variance in the data set and show that particularly characteristics related to the farmer’s intrinsic motivation play a crucial role to spontaneously implement and integrate stone bunds into the farming system. Furthermore, results show that young farmers are most committed to soil conservation: they are often intrinsically motivated dynamic farmers who are ready to change their future and improve productivity and food security. The study suggests that government extension programmes should therefore focus more on these young and dynamic farmers and foster their readiness to change. This implies that extension workers and government officials should better understand the crucial role of farmers’ intrinsic motivation when dealing with sustainable land management, and also reformulate extension strategies and messages. This is particularly important when developing a scaling-up strategy that helps to sustainably increase agricultural production and achieve food security of small-holder farmers in Ethiopia.
Adapting the current mass mobilization approach in Ethiopia to enhance its impact on sustainable land management: Lessons from the Sago-kara watershed
Teka, M.A. ; Kessler, C.A. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Tolossa, Degefa - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 248 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - 9 p.
participatory training - intrinsic motivation - integrated farm planning - drought mitigation - sustainable land management
This paper analyses the effect of an adapted – more participatory and more integrated – mass mobilization training approach on Ethiopian farmers' motivation to practice integrated farming and invest in Sustainable Land Management (SLM). It is based on the results of an experiment carried-out in the Sago-kara watershed in the Central highlands of Ethiopia, in which a group of 26 farmers received an adapted training at the start of the mass mobilization campaign in 2016, which aimed to strengthen farmers' knowledge and awareness about natural resource management, drought mitigation and integrated farm planning. One year later, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through group discussions, field observations and household surveys. For the before-after comparison we used descriptive statistics to analyze the data; the with-without comparison (with a control group) differences were statistically tested at 1% and 5% probability levels. The results show that the adapted training approach enhanced awareness of farmers, created motivation for integrated farm management and fostered implementation of SLM practices in the field. Most interesting is that farmers who followed the training better plan for drought mitigation and are more aware of the possible effects of drought on their farming activities. The study concludes that the current mass mobilization approach in Ethiopia can have more impact on SLM if it would pay serious attention to: 1) creating awareness on the causes and effects of erosion and drought focusing on sustainability issues, 2) fostering farmers' intrinsic motivation to be good stewards of their land; 3) training in integrated farm planning, and 4) developing farm plans based on farmers’ visions for resilient farming. In order to make agricultural extension in Ethiopia more effective, one has to start with capacity building of the rural extension staff in participatory training methods, followed by empowering and motivating farmers for SLM. This will not only lay a foundation for sustainable agriculture and more food security on the farm, but is also crucial for the scaling-up of resilient farming to watershed and landscape levels in Ethiopia.
Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial
Simons, M. ; Chinapaw, M.J.M. ; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Brug, J. ; Vet, E. de - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 13 p.
promote physical-activity - sedentary screen time - body-mass index - intrinsic motivation - self-determination - economic burden - obesity - children - overweight - youth
Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS =¿adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents.
Your health our concern, our health whose concern? : perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana
Aberese-Ako, M. ; Dijk, H. van; Gerrits, T. ; Arhinful, D.K. ; Agyepong, I.A. - \ 2014
Health Policy and Planning 29 (2014)suppl.2. - ISSN 0268-1080 - p. ii15 - ii28.
quality-of-care - interactional justice - intrinsic motivation - developing-countries - procedural justice - public-sector - consequences - satisfaction - performance - framework
Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making, recognizing their needs and challenges and working together to address them are critical.
Public praise vs. private pay: Effects of rewards on energy conservation in the workplace
Handgraaf, M.J.J. ; Lidth de Jeude, M. van; Appelt, K.C. - \ 2013
Ecological Economics 86 (2013). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 86 - 92.
intrinsic motivation - social dilemmas - behavior - cooperation - incentives - economics - impact - norms
Any solution to rising levels of CO2 depends on human behavior. One common approach to changing human behavior is rewarding desired behavior. Because financial incentives often have side effects that diminish efficacy, we predict that social rewards are more effective, because they invoke adherence to descriptive and injunctive social norms. We investigated this by measuring electricity use for 13 weeks at a Dutch firm. Each week, employees were rewarded for conserving energy. They either received monetary rewards (€0–€5) or social rewards (grade points with a descriptive comment). Rewards were either private or public. In both the short and long term, public rewards outperformed private rewards, and social rewards outperformed monetary rewards. This suggests that private monetary rewards, although popular, may be ineffective. Instead, public social rewards may be a more promising approach to stimulating energy conservation. We argue that this approach should be considered more frequently by policy-makers.
Consumers’ intention to use health recommendation systems to receive personalized nutrition advice
Wendel, S. ; Dellaert, B.G.C. ; Ronteltap, A. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
BMC Health services research 13 (2013). - ISSN 1472-6963
information technology - intrinsic motivation - privacy concerns - e-commerce - online - model - experiences - trust - perspective - perceptions
Background: Sophisticated recommendation systems are used more and more in the health sector to assist consumers in healthy decision making. In this study we investigate consumers' evaluation of hypothetical health recommendation systems that provide personalized nutrition advice. We examine consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system as a function of options related to the underlying system (e.g. the type of company that generates the advice) as well as intermediaries (e.g. general practitioner) that might assist in using the system. We further explore if the effect of both the system and intermediaries on intention to use a health recommendation system are mediated by consumers' perceived effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Methods: 204 respondents from a consumer panel in the Netherlands participated. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Each respondent evaluated three hypothetical health recommendation systems on validated multi-scale measures of effort, privacy risk, usefulness, enjoyment and intention to use the system. To test the hypothesized relationships we used regression analyses. Results: We find evidence that the options related to the underlying system as well as the intermediaries involved influence consumers' intention to use such a health recommendation system and that these effects are mediated by perceptions of effort, privacy risk, usefulness and enjoyment. Also, we find that consumers value usefulness of a system more and enjoyment less when a general practitioner advices them to use a health recommendation system than if they use it out of their own curiosity. Conclusions: We developed and tested a model of consumers' intention to use a health recommendation system. We found that intermediaries play an important role in how consumers evaluate such a system over and above options of the underlying system that is used to generate the recommendation. Also, health-related information services seem to rely on endorsement by the medical sector. This has considerable implications for the distribution as well as the communication channels of health recommendation systems which may be quite difficult to put into practice outside traditional health service channels.
Offering choice and its effect on Dutch children’s liking and consumption of vegetables: a randomized controlled trial
Zeinstra, G.G. ; Renes, R.J. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2010)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 349 - 356.
self-determination theory - psychological reactance scale - intrinsic motivation - food preference - fruit - perspective - acceptance - behavior - freedom - context
Background: Children's vegetable consumption is below recommended amounts. According to self-determination theory, stimulating children's feelings of autonomy by offering a choice of vegetables may be a valuable strategy to increase their vegetable liking and consumption. The effect of choice-offering on children's vegetable liking and consumption has, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether having a choice between 2 vegetables enhances children's vegetable liking and consumption. Design: Three hundred three children (age: 4–6 y) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 dinner conditions in a restaurant setting. Two similarly liked vegetables were presented, after which the child had no choice, a premeal choice, or an at-meal choice. Subsequently, the dinner was consumed with one parent present. Comparisons between the 3 conditions regarding children's meal experience, vegetable liking, and vegetable consumption were made by using analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Children's vegetable consumption did not differ (P = 0.54) between the conditions as follows: 56 ± 45 g in the no-choice condition, 51 ± 46 g in the premeal-choice condition, and 49 ± 47 g in the at-meal-choice condition. In the no-choice condition, high-reactant children (who are more sensitive to psychological, persuasive pressure) consumed fewer vegetables (45 ± 42 g) than did low-reactant children (73 ± 43 g; P = 0.04). Vegetable liking was similar in all 3 conditions (P = 0.43). Children appreciated being able to choose in the premeal-choice condition. Conclusions: A premeal choice between 2 vegetables was appreciated by the children but did not increase their vegetable liking and consumption. The no-choice condition decreased vegetable consumption in high-reactant children. Future research should investigate the effects of choice-offering in the long term and in more familiar eating settings. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN03035138
Leisure time physical activity motives and smoking in adolescence
Verkooijen, K.T. ; Nielsen, G.A. ; Kremers, S.P.J. - \ 2009
Psychology of Sports and Exercise 10 (2009)5. - ISSN 1469-0292 - p. 559 - 564.
college-students - extrinsic motivation - intrinsic motivation - sport participation - health behaviors - substance use - self-esteem - exercise - initiation - progression
Objectives: The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking in adolescence by investigating adolescents' motives for participation in leisure time physical activity. Methods: The study involved cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a postal survey involving 16-22-year old Danes. The hypothesized associations were examined using hierarchical logistic regression analyses. Results: An inverse association between participating in leisure time physical activity and smoking was found. Participation in leisure time physical activity for friendship or competition reasons were conditions that strengthened the inverse association between physical activity and smoking in males. In contrast, participation for the reason of losing weight or gaining self-esteem appeared to weaken the inverse association among females, In addition, the motives enjoyment, health and, in females, friendships and stress relief were associated with less smoking irrespective of participation level, while the motives self-esteem, losing weight and, in males, friendships were unrelated or even positively related to smoking. Conclusions: The association between adolescents' leisure time physical activity and smoking behavior differs with the underlying motivation for the activity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.