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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Effect of iodine supplementation in Indian pregnant women on maternal and newborn thyroid function and cognitive development
    Jaikrishna, N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; K Srinivasan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573338 - 244
    jodium - maternale voeding - zwangerschap - voeding - hypothyreoïdie - schildklierziekten - schildklierwerking - jodiumhoudend zout - minerale supplementen - kenvermogen - cognitieve ontwikkeling - mineraaltekorten - voedingsstoffentekorten - iodine - maternal nutrition - pregnancy - nutrition - hypothyroidism - thyroid diseases - thyroid function - iodized salt - mineral supplements - cognition - cognitive development - mineral deficiencies - nutrient deficiencies


    Background: Iodine is a key nutrient in neurodevelopment, and the fetus is entirely dependent on the iodine intake of the mother to fulfill this important requirement for proper brain function. While this is clearly known, it is uncertain if maternal iodine nutrition should be monitored separately against what is in current practice in public health programs to control iodine deficiency. Also, it is unclear whether it is beneficial to supplement pregnant women with iodine in mild-to moderately iodine deficient and also iodine sufficient areas. Finally, the role of thyroid dysfunction in depression during pregnancy is uncertain.

    Objectives: 1) to determine whether iodine supplementation to pregnant women improves maternal and newborn thyroid function, pregnancy outcome, birth weight, infant growth and cognitive performance; 2) to assess iodine intake and potential determinants of intake, in pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals; 3) to measure thyroid status during pregnancy and assess potential determinants of maternal thyroid function including iodine status, thyroid autoimmunity, body weight and anemia; 4) to assess the association of maternal depression, and thyroid function during pregnancy.

    Methods: 1) In a randomized placebo controlled trial (RCT), the MITCH (Maternal Iodine Supplementation and its Effects on Thyroid function and CHild Development) study, pregnant women, gestational age ≤14 weeks, in Bangalore, India, were randomized to receive either a daily supplement of 200 µg oral iodine or placebo from enrolment until delivery. Women were followed through delivery, and then with postnatal follow-up of their infants at 6 weeks, 1 and 2 year. Early neonatal development was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 6 weeks of age; neurocognitive assessment was done using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID III) at 1 and 2 years, and BRIEF-P (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) at 2 years; 2) A cross-sectional study comparing iodine status of pregnant women and their children, who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India; 3) A cross-sectional study among 334 pregnant women ≤14 weeks of gestation, in Bangalore, India, who were screened for the RCT; 4) Secondary analysis of the longitudinal data on 318 pregnant women in the RCT.

    Results: 1) In the RCT, there were no significant differences between groups in maternal thyroid function tests or thyroid volume during gestation. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction or anti-TPO antibodies did not differ significantly during gestation and postpartum. Postpartum, there were no significant differences between the maternal and infant groups in thyroid function, birth outcomes or UIC. Neonates whose mothers received iodine supplementation during pregnancy had better orientation scores at 6 weeks of age and lower scores of inhibition suggesting better executive function at 2 years of age although neurocognitive development on the BSID III were not significantly different between groups; 2) In the pilot study, a) median UIC in pregnant women was 172 µg/L, b) the median UIC was >150 µg/L in all trimesters and c) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters; the median UIC in children was 220µg/L, indicating ‘more than adequate’ iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (p=0.008). 3) In the cross-sectional study, 21% women were vegetarian, 19% were anemic and 23% were overweight or obese. Iodized salt was used by 98% of women and they were iodine sufficient, median UIC was 184.2 µg/L and all had normal thyroid volume. However, 18% of women had thyroid insufficiency: 3.7% had overt hypothyroidism (83% with positive TPO-Ab), 9.2% had subclinical hypothyroidism and 5.2% had hypothyroxinemia. Women consuming vegetarian diets did not have significantly lower iodine intakes or higher risk of hypothyroidism than those consuming mixed diets, but overweight/obesity and anemia predicted thyroid insufficiency; 4) In the longitudinal study, there was no significant difference in depressive symptoms between the iodine intervention and placebo groups. Women with depressive symptoms had significantly lower serum TSH compared to women without depressive symptoms in the first trimester. Pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms had a significantly higher number of medical symptoms.

    Conclusion: 1) Iodine supplementation in mildly iodine deficient and in iodine sufficient pregnant women was well-accepted and safe and did not increase the risk of excess iodine intake, hyper- or hypothyroidism, or thyroid autoimmunity. Though there were no significant effects of iodine supplementation on neonatal and maternal thyroid function and birth outcomes, there were modest effects on neurocognitive development of children as assessed by executive function of children at 2 years. Thus, additional follow-up of these children for neurocognitive testing at a later age when development and cognitive testing is more reliable would provide valuable add on information; 2) The iodized salt program in Bangalore, India was providing adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children, suggesting that the current WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake may need to be reconsidered; 3) Despite iodine sufficiency, many pregnant women had thyroid insufficiency predicted by low hemoglobin and higher BMI. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was >5-fold higher than reported in other iodine-sufficient populations of pregnant women, thus, screening of maternal thyroid function should be considered in antenatal care at hospitals in Bangalore, India; 4) Although iodine supplementation did not affect maternal depression, we highlighted the need for systemic screening for prenatal depression during antenatal visits as it is an independent risk factor for later development of clinical depression

    Uptake and distribution of iodine in cucumber, sweet pepper, round, and cherry tomato
    Voogt, W. ; Steenhuizen, J.W. ; Eveleens, B.A. - \ 2014
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Reports Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horiculture 1329) - 70
    glastuinbouw - tomaten - paprika's - komkommers - opname (uptake) - voedselgewassen - jodium - bemesting - meststoffen met sporenelementen - steenwol - recirculatiesystemen - teeltsystemen - greenhouse horticulture - tomatoes - sweet peppers - cucumbers - uptake - food crops - iodine - fertilizer application - trace element fertilizers - rockwool - recirculating systems - cropping systems
    Eénderde van de wereldbevolking lijdt aan een tekort aan het essentiële voedingselement jodium. De verrijking van groenten met jodium (biofortificatie) kan dit jodiumtekort helpen voorkomen. Daarom werd het effect bestudeerd van toediening van jodium-verrijkte meststoffen op de jodiumgehalten in komkommer, ronde - en kerstomaten en paprikavruchten, opgekweekt in steenwol met hergebruik van het drainwater.
    Effects of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women on thyroid function, pregnancy outcomes and newborn development in Thailand
    Gowachirapant, S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; P. Winichagoon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570290 - 162
    jodium - voedingstoestand - sporenelementtekorten - minerale supplementen - zwangerschap - schildklierwerking - zuigelingenontwikkeling - thailand - iodine - nutritional state - trace element deficiencies - mineral supplements - pregnancy - thyroid function - infant development - thailand

    Background: Iodine deficiency (ID) during pregnancy has been recognized as a major cause of hypothyroidism and adverse health consequences in both mothers and children. Although urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in school-aged children is recommended as an indicator to assess ID in the general population, it may not be a good surrogate for directly assessing iodine status in pregnant women. Iodine supplementation of mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women has been recommended worldwide; however, long-term benefit and safety of iodine supplementation in this group is uncertain. Finally, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may negatively affect thyroid function and pregnancy outcomes.

    Objectives: 1) to measure UIC in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children living in the same household; 2) to investigate the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid function, pregnancy and birth outcomes, and newborn development; 3) to evaluate the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with thyroid function and pregnancy outcomes.

    Methods: 1) In a cross-sectional pilot study, UIC was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n=302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in Bangkok; 2) Arandomized controlled trial was conducted with 200 µg iodine per day or placebo given to mildly ID pregnant Thai women from <14 weeks to term. Anthropometrics, maternal thyroid function, UIC and thyroid volume were measured at baseline, 2ndand 3rdtrimester, at delivery and 6-week postpartum. Birth outcomes were collected from hospital records. Neonatal thyroid function, UIC and thyroid volume were measured at delivery and 6 weeks after birth. The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales (NBAS) was used to assess newborn development.

    Results: 1) In the pilot study, median UIC in the pregnant women was 108 (11–558) µg/L and was lower than UIC in their school-aged children [200 (25–835) µg/L] (P<0.001); 2) In the RCT, medianUIC increased significantly from baseline in both groups, and the increase was higher in the iodine group (p<0.001). At 30 weeks of gestation, only 2% of the women in the placebo group and 7% in the iodine group reported a median UIC >500 µg/L. Maternal thyroid function, thyroid volume and the prevalence of all thyroid dysfunction subtypes did not differ significantly between treatment groups during the study (p>0.05). At 6-week postpartum, the prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (hyperthyroidism) was significantly lower in the iodine group (3%) as compared to the placebo group (9%) (OR: 95%CI, 0.17: 0.04-0.70). There were no significant differences between newborn groups in thyroid function, thyroid volume, birth characteristics, UIC and NBAS score (p>0.05); 3) Pre-pregnancy BMI was a negative predictor of free thyroxine (fT4) (β=-0.20, P<0.001) in early gestation (<14 weeks). Compared to normal weight women, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) of a low fT4 in overweight women was 3.64 (2.08–6.37) (P<0.01). In addition, secondary data analysis showed that overweight women had an 11-fold higher risk of delivering a large for gestational age infant compared to normal weight women, while women who had excessive GWG were 5.6 times more likely to deliver a macrosomic infant compared to women with normal GWG.

    Conclusion: 1) UIC in school-aged children should not be used as a surrogate for monitoring iodine status in pregnancy; 2) iodine supplementation (200 µg/d) in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant Thai women was effective in increasing iodine intakes into the adequate range but had no benefit on antenatal maternal thyroid function or newborn outcomes out to 6 weeks; however, it significantly reduced the risk of maternal postpartum thyroid dysfunction; 3) excess maternal body weight both before and during pregnancy may have adverse impacts on maternal thyroid function as well as birth weight. Therefore, maintaining normal body weight before and throughout pregnancy should be recommended.

    Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises
    Helmig, D. ; Lang, E.K. ; Bariteau, L. ; Boylan, P. ; Fairall, C.W. ; Ganzeveld, L.N. ; Hare, J.E. ; Hueber, J. ; Pallandt, M. - \ 2012
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117 (2012). - ISSN 2169-897X - 15 p.
    marine boundary-layer - dry deposition - surface - atlantic - iodine - water - coastal - parameterization - enhancement - chemistry
    A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vessel Ronald Brown during 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of Mexico, the southern as well as northern Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the persistent stratus cloud region off Chile in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These experiments resulted in the first ship-borne open-ocean ozone flux measurement records. The median of 10 min oceanic ozone deposition velocity (v(d)) results from a combined similar to 1700 h of observations ranged from 0.009 to 0.034 cm s(-1). For the Gulf of Mexico cruise (Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)) the median v(d) (interquartile range) was 0.034 (0.009-0.065) cm s(-1) (total number of 10 min measurement intervals, N-f = 1953). For the STRATUS cruise off the Chilean coast, the median v(d) was 0.009 (0.004-0.037) cm s(-1) (N-f = 1336). For the cruise from the Gulf of Mexico and up the eastern U. S. coast (Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise (GOMECC)) a combined value of 0.018 (0.006-0.045) cm s(-1) (N-f = 1784) was obtained (from 0.019 (-0.014-0.043) cm s(-1), N-f = 663 in the Gulf of Mexico, and 0.018 (-0.004-0.045) cm s(-1), N-f = 1121 in the North Atlantic region). The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), the Southern Ocean and northeastern Atlantic cruises, respectively, resulted in median ozone v(d) of 0.009 (-0.005-0.026) cm s(-1) (N-f = 2745) and 0.020 (-0.003-0.044) cms(-1) (N-f = 1147). These directly measured ozone deposition values are at the lower end of previously reported data in the literature (0.01-0.12 cm s(-1)) for ocean water. Data illustrate a positive correlation (increase) of the oceanic ozone uptake rate with wind speed, albeit the behavior of the relationship appears to differ during these cruises. The encountered wide range of meteorological and ocean biogeochemical conditions is used to investigate fundamental drivers of oceanic O-3 deposition and for the evaluation of a recently developed global oceanic O-3 deposition modeling system.
    Iron deficiency up-regulates iron absorption from ferrous sulphate but not ferric pyrophosphate and consequently food fortification with ferrous sulphate has relatively greater efficacy in iron-deficient individuals
    Zimmermann, M.B. ; Biebinger, R. ; Egli, I. ; Zeder, C. ; Hurrell, R.F. - \ 2011
    The British journal of nutrition 105 (2011)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1245 - 1250.
    controlled-trial - double-blind - dual fortification - body iron - hemochromatosis - iodine - salt - expression - children - schoolchildren
    Fe absorption from water-soluble forms of Fe is inversely proportional to Fe status in humans. Whether this is true for poorly soluble Fe compounds is uncertain. Our objectives were therefore (1) to compare the up-regulation of Fe absorption at low Fe status from ferrous sulphate (FS) and ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and (2) to compare the efficacy of FS with FPP in a fortification trial to increase body Fe stores in Fe-deficient children v. Fe-sufficient children. Using stable isotopes in test meals in young women (n 49) selected for low and high Fe status, we compared the absorption of FPP with FS. We analysed data from previous efficacy trials in children (n 258) to determine whether Fe status at baseline predicted response to FS v. FPP as salt fortificants. Plasma ferritin was a strong negative predictor of Fe bioavailability from FS (P <0·0001) but not from FPP. In the efficacy trials, body Fe at baseline was a negative predictor of the change in body Fe for both FPP and FS, but the effect was significantly greater with FS (P <0·01). Because Fe deficiency up-regulates Fe absorption from FS but not from FPP, food fortification with FS may have relatively greater impact in Fe-deficient children. Thus, more soluble Fe compounds not only demonstrate better overall absorption and can be used at lower fortification levels, but they also have the added advantage that, because their absorption is up-regulated in Fe deficiency, they innately ‘target’ Fe-deficient individuals in a population
    Random serial sampling to evaluate efficacy of iron fortification: a randomized controlled trial of margarine fortification with ferric pyrophosphate or sodium iron edetate 1-3
    Andersson, M. ; Theis, W. ; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Forman, J.T. ; Jakel, M. ; Duchateau, G.S.M.J.E. ; Frenken, L.G.J. ; Hurrell, R.F. - \ 2010
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (2010)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1094 - 1104.
    population pharmacokinetics - relative bioavailability - double-blind - transferrin receptor - dual fortification - whole diet - deficiency - absorption - iodine - salt
    Background: Random serial sampling is widely used in population pharmacokinetic studies and may have advantages compared with conventional fixed time-point evaluation of iron fortification. Objective: Our objective was to validate random serial sampling to judge the efficacy of iron fortification of a low-fat margarine. Design: We conducted a 32-wk placebo-controlled, double-blind, iron-intervention trial in 18–40-y-old Swiss women (n = 142) with serum ferritin (SF) concentrations
    Mineralenvoorziening melkschapen is maatwerk
    Verkaik, J.C. ; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2010
    V-focus 7 (2010)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 23 - 25.
    schapenhouderij - schapen - melkveehouderij - schapenvoeding - diervoedering - diervoeding - selenium - koper - jodium - sheep farming - sheep - dairy farming - sheep feeding - animal feeding - animal nutrition - selenium - copper - iodine
    Op biologische melkschapenbedrijven zijn koper, selenium en jodium beperkt aanwezig in het rantsoen. Bloedonderzoek wees uit dat de koperwaarde op enkele bedrijven te laag is, calcium op het randje zit en selenium ruimschoots voldoende aanwezig is. Dit zijn duidelijke signalen voor het ontwikkelen van een toegesneden melkschapenpremix.
    Effect of biologically produced sulfur on gas absorption in a biotechnological hydrogen sulfide removal process
    Kleinjan, W.E. ; Lammers, J.N.J.J. ; Keizer, A. de; Janssen, A.J.H. - \ 2006
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 94 (2006)4. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 633 - 644.
    dissolved sodium sulfide - aqueous-solutions - slurry reactors - mass-transfer - particles - iodine - co2
    Absorption of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous suspensions of biologically produced sulfur particles was studied in a batch stirred cell reactor, and in a continuous set-up, consisting of a lab-scale gas absorber column and a bioreactor. Presence of biosulfur particles was found to enhance the absorption rate of H2S gas in the mildly alkaline liquid. The mechanism for this enhancement was however found to depend on the type of particles used. In the gently stirred cell reactor only small hydrophilic particles were present (dp <3 ¿m) and the enhancement of the H2S absorption rate can be explained from the heterogeneous reaction between dissolved H2S and solid elemental sulfur to polysulfide ions, S x2-. Conditions favoring enhanced H2S absorption for these hydrophilic particles are: low liquid side mass transfer (KL), high sulfur content, and presence of polysulfide ions. In the set-up of gas absorber column and bioreactor, both small hydrophilic particles and larger, more hydrophobic particles were continuously produced (dp up to 20 ¿m). Here, observed enhancement could not be explained by the heterogeneous reaction between sulfide and sulfur, due to the relatively low specific particle surface area, high kL, and low [Sx2-]. A more likely explanation for enhancement here is the more hydrophobic behavior of the larger particles. A local increase of the hydrophobic sulfur particle concentration near the gas/liquid interface and specific adsorption of H2S at the particle surface can result in an increase in the H2S absorption rate
    Nog steeds schildklier
    Heide, D. van der - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 18
    schildklier - schildklierhormonen - schildklierziekten - jodium - fysiologie - thyroid gland - thyroid hormones - thyroid diseases - iodine - physiology
    Effects of Micronutrients during Pregnancy and Early Infancy on Mental and Psychomotor Development
    Verhoef, H. ; West, C.E. ; Bleichrodt, N. ; Dekker, P.H. ; Born, M.P. - \ 2003
    In: Micronutrient Deficiencies in the First Months of Life / Delange, F.M., West, K.P. Jr, Basel : Karger (Nestlé Nutrition workshop series 52) - ISBN 9783805575591 - p. 327 - 357.
    zwangerschap - zuigelingen - maternale voeding - zuigelingenvoeding - sporenelementen - jodium - ijzer - voedingsstoffentekorten - cognitieve ontwikkeling - psychomotorische ontwikkeling - pregnancy - infants - maternal nutrition - infant nutrition - trace elements - iodine - iron - nutrient deficiencies - cognitive development - psychomotor development
    The questions that are addressed in this chapter concern the extent to which a shortage of iodine and iron during fetal and infant development impairs mental development and the extent to which this impairment can be redressed by increasing the intake of these micronutrients
    Iodine deficiency and functional performance of schoolchildren in Benin
    Briel-van Ingen, T. van den - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; C.E. West; N. Bleichrodt. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085368 - 160
    jodium - deficiëntie - prestatietests - mentale vaardigheid - gehoorgrens - schildklierfunctietoetsen - schoolkinderen - benin - iodine - deficiency - performance tests - mental ability - auditory threshold - thyroid function tests - school children - benin
    The notion that iodine deficiency may lead not only to goiter and cretinism, but to a much wider range of disorders, from stillbirth and abortions, to hearing problems and mental and physical underdevelopment began to be accepted beyond the research community since the early 1980's. In 1990 it was estimated that these problems, collectively called iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), presented a public health problem in 118 countries and that over 40 million people were affected by some degree of mental impairment. Children who have been exposed to iodine deficiency in the pre- and early post-natal phases of life show varying degrees of mental and psychomotor retardation, depending on the duration and degree of the deficiency. Adequate maternal iodine intake before and during pregnancy prevents such disorders. The question however whether or not deficits in mental and psychomotor performance of iodine deficient children may be reversed by supple-mentation with iodine later in life has not yet been answered unequivocally.

    The research described in this thesis was set up to address this question. A double-blind placebo-controlled intervention was carried out in an iodine deficient area of northern Benin in the period 1995-1996. A single oral dose of iodized oil or placebo was administrated to 2 groups of schoolchildren, aged 7-11 years. The observation period was 10-11 months. However, 3 to 4 months after supple-mentation the population started to have access to iodized salt, in addition to non-iodized salt. Because iodine became available to both groups, the main hypothesis, i.e. that iodine supplementation would improve mental performance had to be modified. It was decided to take children whose iodine status, as measured by different indicators, did not change during the observation period as the "control" group. In addition to mental and psychomotor performance, other aspects associated with iodine deficiency were studied, including behavioral change and hearing thresholds and their relation with mental performance. The suitability of several indicators for measuring iodine status and thyroid function was evaluated.

    Results showed that an improvement in iodine status as measured by urinary iodine concentration, was reflected in a significantly improved performance on the combination of mental tests, 10 months after supplementation. Moreover, children with better iodine status could hear better than their peers with a poorer iodine status, while hearing thresholds were negatively correlated with performance on all mental tests, but one. The serum concentration of thyroglobulin and the urinary iodine concentration were found to be indicators most suitable for measuring change in iodine status in this age group. Although the influx of iodine into the area precludes the drawing of "hard" conclusions, the results presented suggest that iodine supplementation is likely to promote a catch-up process in functional performance of iodine deficient schoolchildren.

    Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China
    Zhao, J. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; C.E. West; Z. Chen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084651 - 166
    voedingsstoffen - jodium - mineraaltekorten - mineraalovermaat - voedingsstoornissen - struma - voedingsstoffenopname (mens en dier) - china - aanbevolen dagelijkse hoeveelheden - nutrients - iodine - mineral deficiencies - mineral excess - nutritional disorders - goitre - nutrient intake - china - recommended dietary allowances
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh, China

    Endemic goiter can be caused both by iodine deficiency and iodine excess. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Jiangsu Province, China and has been eliminated through salt iodization in a majority of counties in Jiangsu. In Feng, Pei and Tongshan Counties in Xuzhou Municipality, endemic goiter has been found to be associated with iodine excess. This thesis describes the relationship of iodine intakes ranging from normal to excessive with thyroid size, thyroid function, goiter prevalence, intellectual development, physical development and hearing capacity, and the efficacy and effectiveness of iodine intervention programs in schoolchildren. An ecological relationship of iodine intakes ranging from normal to excessive with an enlarged thyroid size, an increased prevalence of goiter and a perturbed thyroid function has been found in three counties in Xuzhou Municipality. A negative relationship of iodine intake from normal to excessive with intellectual quotient (IQ) in schoolchildren aged >11 y indicates that excessive iodine intake is associated with a decline in IQ. This was supported by the results of a meta-analysis of 16 studies where iodine excess was found to be related to a small but significant deficit in intellectual attainment of schoolchildren. Reduction of iodine intake from excessive to normal is accompanied by a reduction in thyroid size, a decreased urinary iodine concentration and a partial normalization of thyroid function. It is now estimated that iodine excess is a public health risk for nearly 16 million people in 92 counties of 10 provinces in China. Comparison of thyroid volumes collected from schoolchildren in the US and in Bangladesh with those in Europe found that the new WHO reference for the upper limit of normal thyroid volume is not applicable worldwide. A randomized trial in an iodine deficient area showed that it takes 12 months for enlarged thyroid glands to reduce to normal if iodine supply is consistently adequate. This period is longer if the iodine supply fluctuates. An evaluation of the effectiveness of iodine intervention programs in 9 counties of Jiangsu Province indicated that iodine deficiency has been eliminated in these counties. Based on the evidence from the work described in this thesis, a maximum allowable iodine concentration can be set at 300μg/L in drinking water or at 800μg/L in urine of adults. Iodine concentrations above these levels should be regarded as a public health risk.
    Effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development in primary school children in Malawi
    Shrestha, R.M. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; C.E. West; N. Bleichrodt. - S.l. : Shrestha - ISBN 9789054852346 - 105
    voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - voedselsupplementen - voedingsstoornissen - jodium - ijzer - fysiologie - schoolkinderen - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - food supplements - nutritional disorders - iodine - iron - physiology - school children

    Primary school children (n = 424) from the Ntcheu District, Malawi, aged 6 - 8 years, were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development. After the baseline measurements were carried out, children were given a single dose of iodized oil (1 mL Lipiodol®; 490 mg I) or placebo and daily doses of iron (ferrous sulphate, 60 mg of Fe) or placebo on weekdays (February-July and October- November 1991).

    The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-upper arm cicumference (MUAC), and four skinfolds while indicators of physical stamina included lung function, hand grip and sitting and standing ability. The psychomotor development tests were pegboard, ball throwing, tapping and reaction time tasks. The mental development tests included fluency and exclusion as a measure of fluid intelligence; quantity and verbal meaning to evaluate crystallized intelligence and visual memory and closure tests to measure perceptual skills. Baseline data were collected from October 1990 to January 1991 and the final tests and measurements were carried out in October-November 1991.

    The initial iodine and iron status was established by measuring the concentration of iodine in urine and of hemoglobin in blood. About 86% of children had urinary iodine concentrations below 0.4 μmol/L indicating moderate iodine deficiency while 18% of children had hemoglobin levels below 110 g/L which is the cut-off point for indicating anemia. Measurement of iodine in urine three months after supplementation showed a normal level of urinary iodine. After one year, the level had dropped to the baseline value. The change in haemoglobin could not be measured due to objections from the parents in obtaining further blood samples. About 27% of children were stunted while 2% were wasted when measured at both time points.

    One year after supplementation, the four treatment groups did not grow differentially indicating no effect of iodine or iron supplementation on physical growth. The iodinetreated group scored higher in tests of physical stamina as measured by sitting-standing and hand grip. The iodine treated group also significantly improved scores on the ball throwing exercise indicating an improvement in eye-hand coordination. No changes were noticed on reaction time, movement time and tapping indicating no effect of iodine on speed, dexterity and manual-motor coordination. The iron-treated group showed improvement only in eyehand coordination tests. No improvements were seen in other psychomotor tests.

    Subjects in all four groups improved their scores on all mental development tests. The analysis of the placebo group indicated a considerable learning effect especially in fluency. Detailed analysis were conducted based upon the differential improvement when compared with the placebo group during the final test. The iodine-treated groups showed a large improvement in fluid intelligence measured by the fluency and exclusion tests. This component of intelligence measures reasoning, classification and fluency. Perceptual skills, as measured by visual memory and closure, also improved considerably in the iodine-treated group. Crystallized intelligence, as measured by quantity and verbal meaning, was also improved in the iodine-treated group but to a lesser extent than fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence is associated with word meaning, factual knowledge, short termmemory and decision making. These skills are closely associated with the classroom environment.

    In the iron-treated group, a significant improvement was noted only in fluid intelligence and in the quantity test, a component of crystallized intelligence. No significant interaction of iodine and iron was noted. However, combined supplementation with iodine and iron sometimes resulted in an additive effect.

    It has been shown in several studies in which iodine has been administered to mothers prior to pregnancy or during gestation that iodine supplementation reduces spontaneous abortion and stillbirths and improves the birth weight, and the mental and psychomotor performance of children. Previous studies in which children have been supplemented with iodine have not been able to demonstrate unequivocally that such supplementation affects mental or psychomotor development. In the present study we were able to demonstrate that iodine supplementation to children as old as 6-8 yr could improve mental and psychomotor development. The present study also demonstrates that iodine supplementation was more effective than iron supplementation in the population studied but the low prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in children could have been responsible for such an outcome.

    Concerning supplementation with iron, several previous studies have indicated that correction of iron deficiency early in infancy tends to improve psychomotor and mental development more than when the correction takes place in later life. In the present study, supplementation with iron was found to improve eye-hand coordination and fluid intelligence which justify prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children as soon as such a problem is detected.

    An important finding from the perspective of planners is that 490 mg oral iodine may be inadequate to provide sufficient iodine for one year as indicated by the measurement of urinary iodine excretion. In iodine-deficient areas where provision of iodized salt is not available, the provision of iodized oil capsules could be an attractive alternative provided that the dosing schedule is adequate.

    Prevention and control of iodine deficiency : studies on the efficacy of oral iodized oil
    Furnee, C.A. - \ 1994
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast, co-promotor(en): F. van der Haar. - S.l. : Furnee - ISBN 9789054852490 - 109
    voedingsstoornissen - jodium - preventieve geneeskunde - ziektepreventie - preventie - nutritional disorders - iodine - preventive medicine - disease prevention - prevention

    Iodized oil, either injected or given orally, is the major alternative to iodized salt for controlling iodine deficiency. Oral administration has considerable advantages despite its shorter duration of effect. Little information is available on factors which influence the effect of orally administered iodized oil. In this dissertation the efficacy of oral iodized oil is studied with regard to the type of oil used, the dosage technique, intestinal parasites, nutritional status, sex and the consumption of raw cassava. The studies were carried out among Malawian school children. All results are based on iodine concentrations in casual urine samples collected at regular intervals after oral dosing with iodized oil. A model has been developed to describe the urinary iodine excretion pattern over time based on the retention and rate of elimination of iodine for subjects with different characteristics. The estimated durations of effectiveness were 13.7, 9.9 and 55.2 weeks for a single dose of iodized oil A (ethyl esters of iodized fatty acids; 490 mg iodine in 1 mL), a split-dose of oil A (2 x 245 mg iodine in 0.5 mL), and a single dose of iodized oil B (triacylglycerols; 675 mg iodine in 1.25 mL), respectively. In general, the duration of effectiveness of iodized oil A was significantly increased in subjects treated for parasitic infestations. For Entamoeba histolytica it appears that the absorption of oral iodized oil A is greatly disturbed as the assessed duration of effectiveness was found to be only 2 weeks for the untreated subjects. Children with a relatively large subcutaneous fat mass retained more iodine than subjects with little subcutaneous fat. For goitrous subjects both the retention and elimination of iodine were increased. A reduction in midupper-arm. circumference during the study increased the duration of effect. Based on the cumulative frequency distributions, of individually assessed durations of effectiveness, oral dosing with iodized oil was less effective in girls than in boys, and in those who consumed raw cassava than those who did not.

    Iodine deficiency disorders in the region Eastern, Central and Southern Africa : proceedings of a symposium held in Gaborone (Botswana) 20 November, 1986
    Haar, F. van der; Kavishe, F.P. - \ 1987
    Wageningen : Netherlands International Nutrition Institute (Report / Netherlands International Nutrition Institute, International Course in Food Science and Nutrition 5) - ISBN 9789070840181 - 78
    jodium - gebreksziekten - centraal-afrika - oost-afrika - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - iodine - deficiency diseases - central africa - east africa - africa south of sahara
    Ontwikkeling jodiumbepaling
    Kienhuis, P. ; Hollman, P. - \ 1982
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 82.29) - 33
    jodium - jodiumgetal - kwantitatieve analyse - kwantitatieve technieken - meettechnieken - analytische methoden - voedingsmiddelen - iodine - iodine value - quantitative analysis - quantitative techniques - measurement techniques - analytical methods - foods
    Doel van dit onderzoek is: Het ontwikkelen van een kwantitatieve bepaling van jodium in levensmiddelen. De mogelijkheid is onderzocht om in veraste broodmonsters rechtstreeks het jodiumgehalte te bepalen m.b.v. de door jodium gekatalyseerde Ce-As reaktie. Daarbij zijn verschillende smelten uitgeprobeerd, is de mengvolgorde van de reagentia in de Ce-As-reaktie onderzocht en is gekeken naar het nut van de Hg+ toevoeging voor het verkrijgen van een blankowaarde.
    Jodiumgehalte van voedingsmiddelen
    Anonymous, - \ 1981
    Wageningen : Pudoc (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie no. 4541)
    bibliografieën - chemische samenstelling - voedsel - voedselsamenstelling - voedingsmiddelen - anorganische verbindingen - jodium - voedingswaarde - eigenschappen - kwaliteit - bibliographies - chemical composition - food - food composition - foods - inorganic compounds - iodine - nutritive value - properties - quality
    Literatuuroverzicht jodiumbepaling
    Kienhuis, P. ; Hollman, P. - \ 1981
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 81.51) - 19
    jodium - jodiumgetal - analytische methoden - voedingsmiddelen - iodine - iodine value - analytical methods - foods
    Doel van dit onderzoek is: Keuze van een of meerdere analysetechnieken voor de bepaling van jodium. Naar aanleiding van vragen naar het jodiumgehalte in gangbaar en alternatief voortgebrachte levensmiddelen is de ontwikkeling van een of meerdere bepalingsmethoden ter hand genomen. Als eerste fase in deze ontwikkeling is dit overzicht samengesteld, waaruit twee methoden naar voren komen, die getoetst zullen worden in levensmiddelen.
    Literatuuroverzicht jodiumbepaling
    Kienhuis, P. ; Hollman, P. - \ 1981
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 81.51) - 19
    jodium - jodiumgetal - analytische methoden - voedingsmiddelen - iodine - iodine value - analytical methods - foods
    Doel van dit onderzoek is: Keuze van een of meerdere analysetechnieken voor de bepaling van jodium. Naar aanleiding van vragen naar het jodiumgehalte in gangbaar en alternatief voortgebrachte levensmiddelen is de ontwikkeling van een of meerdere bepalingsmethoden ter hand genomen. Als eerste fase in deze ontwikkeling is dit overzicht samengesteld, waaruit twee methoden naar voren komen, die getoetst zullen worden in levensmiddelen.
    Iodine in soils : water, air and plants
    Anonymous, - \ 1975
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 3712)
    bibliografieën - jodium - niet-metallische elementen - bodem - bibliographies - iodine - nonmetallic elements - soil
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