Information, trust and pesticide overuse: Interactions between retailers and cotton farmers in China
Jin, S. ; Bluemling, B. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 72-73 (2015). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 23 - 32.
risk perceptions - bt cotton - knowledge - management - pest - workers - health - costs - crops - ipm
In the absence of adequate extension services, retailers have become the major information source for farmers’ pesticide use in rural China. Pesticide application for smallholders is rather complex, and mistakes can lead to significant crop losses. Farmers, therefore, seek sources of information regarding pesticide use. This paper first explores how different kinds of retailers may employ different strategies of providing information to farmers. We find that for village, town, and county retailers, the more familiar they are with farmers, the more likely they are to amplify the recommended dosage of pesticide use. In cooperatives, who buy pesticides from an extension station, the information is directly transferred to member farmers without information distortion. Apart from examining retailers’ different strategies of information provision, this paper also asks in how far farmers’ trust in retailers may affect pesticide use. It finds that trust in different kinds of retailers indeed varies and plays a critical role in converting information into farming behavior. Members of the cooperative show rather high levels of trust in their retailer, while farmers who are not members of a cooperative show low levels of trust in retailers. Pesticide use is a joint result of retailers’ information provision strategies and farmers’ trust. The lowest pesticide use occurs when accurate information is provided and when farmers highly trust the information provider. Overuse occurs with either information distortion or low levels of trust. Cooperatives have advantages both in terms of information provision and trust, thereby leading to the lowest use of pesticides.
Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries
Parsa, S. ; Mores, S. ; Bonifacio, A. ; Chancellor, T. ; Condori, B. ; Crespo-Perez, V. ; Hobbs, S. ; Kroshel, J. ; Ba, M. ; Rebaudo, F. ; Sherwood, S.G. ; Vanek, S.J. ; Faye, E. ; Herrera, M. ; Dangles, O. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)10. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3889 - 3894.
ipm - implementation - security - farmers - future
Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.
Costs and effectiveness of on-farm measures to reduce aquatic risks from pesticides from the Netherlands
Eerdt, M.M. van; Spruijt-Verkerke, J. ; Wal, A.J. van der; Zeijts, H. van; Tiktak, A. - \ 2014
Pest Management Science 70 (2014)12. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1840 - 1849.
integrated pest-management - agriculture - communities - strategies - ipm
Background The European Union requires growers to implement the principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) by 2014. In this paper, we provide a quantitative overview of the costs and effectiveness of voluntary IPM measures in 15 crops in the Netherlands. We will focus on aquatic risks and define effectiveness as the potential to reduce the risks posed to aquatic organisms. We further identify which of these measures have actually been adopted by growers and why certain measures have not been adopted. Results Of the 105 measures evaluated, the most effective measures with respect to risk reduction were emission reduction and substitution of high-risk pesticides (each up to 80% reduction). IPM measures directed towards lowering pesticide use generally showed a smaller risk reducing potential. However, 40% of these measures reduced the overall cost of pest management. About 60% of all 105 measures were voluntarily implemented by growers. The most commonly adopted measures were pest prevention, low-dose spraying and spray drift reduction. Cost appeared to be an important incentive for adoption; however, other factors such as risk perception, education and practicability were equally important. Conclusions Voluntary IPM measures have significantly contributed to reducing aquatic risks (15-50% risk reduction depending on crop type). Further risk reduction could be achieved when more growers adopt the most effective measures like spray drift reduction and substitution of high-risk pesticides. However, IPM hardly reduced the number of pesticide applications and therefore the dependence on chemical crop protection continued to be high.
Technical and institutional constraints of a cotton pest management strategy in Benin
Togbe, C.E. ; Zannou, E.T. ; Vodouhè, S. ; Haagsma, R. ; Gbehounou, G. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2012
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 60-63 (2012). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 67 - 78.
pesticide use - ipm - farmers - adoption - africa
A pest management strategy entitled Staggered Targeted Control (in French Lutte Étagée Ciblée, known as LEC) has been promoted in Benin since 1988 as an alternative to the conventional spraying strategy in order to reduce production costs and improve cotton yield and quality. Many cotton growers are eager to use LEC and many projects are promoting it but the strategy is not widely applied in cotton growing areas. This study identifies the main reasons that hinder the adoption of LEC. Results show that LEC in its current form could not be considered a viable innovation because of a lack of alignment among key elements within the cotton sector. Socio-organizational arrangements for the management of pesticide leftovers and the setting up of a mechanism for farmers’ empowerment are key institutional changes that could shift crop protection towards wider adoption of LEC. Actors in the cotton sector have furthermore suggested a transition towards a participatory approach in extension to improve farmers’ expertise in LEC implementation, bypassing existing channels for delivery of LEC pesticides, and promoting alternatives like botanicals and biopesticides.
Have biopesticides come of age?
Glare, T. ; Caradus, J. ; Gelernter, W. ; Jackson, T. ; Keyhani, N. ; Köhl, J. ; Marrone, P. ; Morin, L. ; Stewart, A. - \ 2012
Trends in Biotechnology 30 (2012)5. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 250 - 258.
biological-control - biocontrol agents - fungal entomopathogens - sclerotinia-minor - theobroma-cacao - plant-pathogens - insect pests - management - efficacy - ipm
Biopesticides based on living microbes and their bioactive compounds have been researched and promoted as replacements for synthetic pesticides for many years. However, lack of efficacy, inconsistent field performance and high cost have generally relegated them to niche products. Recently, technological advances and major changes in the external environment have positively altered the outlook for biopesticides. Significant increases in market penetration have been made, but biopesticides still only make up a small percentage of pest control products. Progress in the areas of activity spectra, delivery options, persistence of effect and implementation have contributed to the increasing use of biopesticides, but technologies that are truly transformational and result in significant uptake are still lacking