Optimising the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires using Mixed Integer Linear Programming
Lemmen-Gerdessen, J.C. van; Souverein, O.W. ; Veer, P. van 't; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2015
Public Health Nutrition 18 (2015)1. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 68 - 74.
frequency questionnaires - design - issues
Objective To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Design Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The methodology was demonstrated for an FFQ with interest in energy, total protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, total carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and potassium. Results The food lists generated by the MILP model have good performance in terms of length, coverage and R2 (explained variance) of all nutrients. MILP-generated food lists were 32–40 % shorter than a benchmark food list, whereas their quality in terms of R2 was similar to that of the benchmark. Conclusions The results suggest that the MILP model makes the selection process faster, more standardised and transparent, and is especially helpful in coping with multiple nutrients. The complexity of the method does not increase with increasing number of nutrients. The generated food lists appear either shorter or provide more information than a food list generated without the MILP model.
Pesticides and the Patent Bargain
Timmermann, C.A. - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2015)1. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 1 - 19.
intellectual property - crop protection - productivity - resistance - innovation - issues - rights - policy - pests
In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be able to make free use of the publicly available knowledge described in the patent document, which is deemed useful. Resistance to pesticides destroys however the usefulness of information listed in patent documents over time. The invention, here pesticides, will have a decreased effectiveness once it enters the public domain. In some cases pesticides lose most of their efficacy shortly after temporary exclusive rights expire. Society’s share of the patent bargain—having new useful knowledge available in the public domain—is lost. Resistance can be slowed down, if pesticide use is limited by optimal compliance. Stimulating proper use is generally not compatible with existing market incentives for patent holders, since these have to be able to maximize profits in order to recoup research and development costs and satisfy obligations to the company’s stakeholders. Another incentive system is needed to ensure longevity of pesticides, which at the same time does not hamper future research.
Understanding wicked problems and organized irresponsibility: challenges for governing the sustainable intensification of chicken meat production
Bueren, E.M. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 8 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 14.
supply chain management - antibiotic-resistance - escherichia-coli - risk - agriculture - uncertainty - future - issues - green
Framing sustainable intensification as a wicked problem reveals how inherent trade-offs and resulting uncertainty and ambiguity block integrated problem solving as promoted by sustainable chain management approaches to production and consumption. The fragmented institutional set-up of the chains avoids that individual actors take responsibility for risks they helped to produce, resulting in ‘organized irresponsibility’. Governance arrangements for sustainable chain management focus especially on reducing risk and uncertainty and ignore trade-offs instead of acknowledging them. For the Dutch chicken meat chain, this article explores how wicked problems and organized irresponsibility influence governance opportunities for sustainable intensification.
Payment for Environmental Services and Power in the Chamachán Watershed, Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2014
Human Organization 73 (2014)4. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 351 - 362.
ecosystem services - neoliberalism - governance - pimampiro - security - issues - rights - andes - chile - state
Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a globally expanding concept used to address environmental degradation. PES advocates argue that conservation of ecosystems can and should be enhanced by voluntary transactions among environmental service providers and buyers. PES policy and interventions instruments, however, are not neutral development tools entering voids. Apart from being manufactured by scientific, policy and development networks with particular market-environmentalist visions, values and interests, PES also deeply interacts with the contradictions and unequal power structures of those local societies where the policy tool is introduced. This paper shows how comprehending the historic and current struggles over natural resources among stakeholders who provide and demand ‘environmental services’ is fundamental to understanding PES workings and outcomes. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the Chamachán watershed, Northern Ecuadorian Highlands, we analyze the dynamics and entwining of ‘visible’, ‘hidden’ and ‘invisible’ power mechanisms in shaping PES and natural resource control. Our findings show how power asymmetries among stakeholders pervaded negotiations and agreements. The paper highlights the political character of market-based conservation efforts and the power plays that surround PES interventions.
Water for forests to restore environmental services and alleviate poverty in Vietnam: a farm modeling approach to analyze alternative PES programs
Damien, J. ; Boere, E.J.M. ; Berg, M.M. van den; Dang, D. ; Cu, T.P. ; Affholder, F. ; Pandey, S. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 423 - 437.
sustainable land-use - ecosystem services - southeast-asia - agricultural intensification - payments - impact - issues - deforestation - technologies - population
Most forested areas in South East Asia are located in mountainous areas, where they are reservoirs of biodiversity and have important watershed regulating functions. However, the continuing provision of these environmental services may be jeopardized by land use changes. To re-establish natural or productive forests, programs are being proposed in which participating farmers can set aside some of their cultivated sloping land and receive payment for maintaining the newly forested land. This paper compares two types of payments for ecosystems services (or PES)-type programs designed to favor reforestation by farming households: “Payments for forests” (PFF) and “Terraces for forests” (TFF). Both programs involve setting aside sloping land for reforestation but differ in the type and amount of compensation offered. PFF offers annual payments per area of retired land. TFF offers to cover the cost of converting a certain amount of a farm's sloping land into terraces, combined with annual payments per unit area of retired land. The main objective of the paper is to compare the two types of programs in terms of cost-efficiency – can we get the same amount of forest at lower cost? – and equity – will the poorest farmers participate? Using mathematical programming, we developed a set of farm models corresponding to typical farms in a mountainous district in Northern Vietnam. We simulated participation rates of different types of farms in the two types of PES programs. For each PES, we assessed the amount of land converted into forest, the cost of the program, and its impacts on land use and household revenues, at individual farm and village level. Results of our simulations showed that increasing access to irrigated terraces as a way of compensating for converting land to forest increased the participation of the poorest farmers and was more cost efficient than pure cash payments. This suggests that existing PFF programs are biased against the smallest landholders in the region whereas they could be transformed into win–win programs likely to increase forested areas and reduce inequalities among farm households. Our paper demonstrates that PES schemes, when fine-tuned to the South East Asian context, could not only be used to restore ecosystem services, but also to alleviate poverty.
Valuing ecosystem services in community-based landscape planning: introducing a wellbeing-based approach
Liu, J. ; Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2014
Landscape Ecology 29 (2014)8. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1347 - 1360.
natural-resource management - monetary valuation - design - issues - sustainability - participation - commons
The challenge of incorporating the concept of ecosystem services in landscape planning has been widely acknowledged, yet values of ecosystem services are not well considered in current landscape planning and environmental governance. This is particularly the case when local stakeholders are strongly involved in decision making about adapting the landscape to future demands and challenges. Engagement of stakeholders introduces a variety of interests and motives that result in diverging value interpretations. Moreover, participative planning approaches are based on learning processes, implying that the perceptions of value evolve during the planning process. Current valuation approaches are not able to support such process. Therefore we argue that there is a need for a novel view on the mechanism of integrating valuation in the different stages of community-based landscape planning, as well as for tools based on this mechanism. By revisiting the original conception of ecosystem services and redefining the value of an ecosystem service as its comparative importance to human wellbeing, we develop a conceptual framework for incorporating ecosystem service valuation that captures the full spectrum of value and value changes. We acknowledge that in the social interactions during the planning process values are redefined, negotiated and reframed in the context of the local landscape. Therefore, we propose a valuation mechanism that evolves through the phases of the cyclic planning process. We illustrate the use of this mechanism by proposing a tool that supports stakeholder groups in building a value-based vision on landscape adaptation that contributes to all wellbeing dimensions.
Predictive potential of wildlife value orientations for acceptability of management interventions
Jacobs, M.H. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Sijtsma, M.T.J. - \ 2014
Journal for Nature Conservation 22 (2014)4. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 377 - 383.
conservation - netherlands - hierarchy - attitudes - issues - model
tWildlife value orientations are patterns of basic beliefs that give direction and meaning to fundamentalvalues in the context of wildlife. Wildlife value orientations can help managers estimate public eval-uations to management interventions. Their usefulness, both practically and scientifically, depends ontheir predictive potential. This article examined the predictive value of wildlife value orientations on theacceptability of wildlife management interventions in different situations. The situations varied in (a)severity of the human wildlife problem and (b) severity of the interventions for wildlife. Two wildlifevalue orientations were measured: domination (human needs have priority over wildlife well-being, 10items) and mutualism (rights are assigned to wildlife, 9 items). Acceptability was measured as a dichoto-mous variable for management interventions across 5 different situations. The predictive value of wildlifevalue orientations was largest for acceptability of the most severe interventions (hunting, 35–42% of vari-ance explained), followed by the least severe interventions (doing nothing, 5–17%) and the intermediateinterventions (shaking eggs or applying contraceptives, 1–9%) in the scenarios that include a problemfor humans. Value priorities appear to be an integral feature of value orientations. Intermediate inter-ventions do not harm wildlife, but might solve the problem caused by wildlife. Such interventions alsocreate minimal small internal value conflicts. Orientations that prioritize values and offer a template forconflict resolution are likely to have less predictive potential for these interventions.
The “mapping out” approach: effectiveness of marine spatial management options in European coastalwaters
Soma, K. ; Ramos, J. ; Bergh, Ø. ; Schulze, T. ; Oostenbrugge, H. van; Duijn, A.P. van; Kopke, K. ; Steinmüller, V. ; Grati, F. ; Mäkinen, T. ; Stenberg, C. ; Buisman, F.C. - \ 2014
ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (2014)9. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 2630 - 2642.
bayesian belief networks - multicriteria evaluation - social acceptance - fisheries - participation - framework - support - policy - issues - areas
Marine spatial management is challenged by complex situations in European countries where multiple stakeholder interests and many management options have to be balanced. EU policy initiatives such as the proposed Marine Spatial Planning Directive, are in different ways targeting area allocation in European waters. In this circumstance, EU marine management needs assessments based on a satisfactory evaluation framework design that can ensure a transparent treatment of different types of information including interests, values, and facts. The main goal of this article is to introduce an evaluation framework applicable to marine management in European countries. This socalled CoExist framework maps out different types of relevant knowledge to assess future possibilities for use or no-use of marine areas and links this with appropriate management measures. The CoExist framework is based on the principles of ensuring transparent treatment of different types of information as well as appropriate stakeholder representation which can ensure legitimacy. Empirical findings in six European case studies have been obtained while conducting the CoExist framework. Applying the basic principles of the CoExist framework when planning future management directions of the coexistence of multiple activities in the long-run will expectedly affect the ecological and social-cultural goals by counterbalancing the economic ones.
Drivers of change in agricultural water productivity and its improvement at basin-scale in developing economics
Kumar, M.D. ; Dam, J.C. van - \ 2013
Water International 38 (2013)3. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 312 - 325.
use efficiency - irrigation efficiency - management - issues - india
We approach the issue of water productivity in agriculture by identifying five sets of drivers of change. We find that irrigation efficiencies at the field level can result in real water savings under certain conditions, but that small farmers in most of South Asia and Africa have little incentive to adopt the appropriate measures. Although water productivity improvement and water savings at the regional level are possible through a shift to economically efficient crops, such changes may be constrained by concerns with respect to domestic and regional food security, rural employment, and farming system resilience
Payment for Environmental Services and Unequal Resource Control in Pimampiro, Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. ; Budds, J. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2013
Society & Natural Resources 26 (2013)10. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 1217 - 1233.
ecosystem services - latin-america - poor - conservation - issues - help
Payments for environmental services (PES) schemes are widely promoted to secure ecosystem services through incentives to the owners of land from which they are derived. Furthermore, they are increasingly proposed to foster conservation and poverty alleviation in the global South. In this article, we analyze the social relations that have shaped the design, implementation, and outcomes of a PES scheme in Pimampiro, Ecuador. While previous studies describe this case as successful, we show that the PES scheme reinforces existing social differences, erodes community organization, undermines traditional farming practices, and perpetuates inequalities in resource access in the “working” landscape inhabited by the upstream peasant community paid for watershed management. We argue that PES schemes are thus not neutral initiatives imposed upon blank canvases, but intersect with existing development trajectories and power relations. We conclude that analyses of PES need to look beyond conservation to critically examine local resource management and distribution.
Revealing an invisible giant: A comprehensive survey into return practices within original (closed-loop) supply chains
Krikke, H. ; Hofenk, D.J.B. ; Wang, Y. - \ 2013
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 73 (2013). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 239 - 250.
reverse logistics - product returns - management - recovery - issues - models
Forward supply chain actors are increasingly involved in the full life cycle of their products and the packaging used. Where in the past these were disposed of via (public) waste management systems or sold in cascade markets, now returns management becomes key to focal companies. Moreover, recent literature emphasizes that returns can be a value creator rather than a cost of business as it can save the environment, provide critical resources and customer value. But relevant, up-to-date data on returns and return practices is scarce, whereas such data is essential to show the potential value of returns and make a business case for returns management to practitioners. Based on a global survey among manufacturers/wholesalers/retailers and third party service providers, this paper presents comprehensive descriptive statistics on and analysis of current return practices. We develop and test propositions on the drivers, volumes and value of different returns along the life cycle; show the inefficiencies in current return practices leading to value destruction instead of the advocated value creation; and compare return practices in different regions and industries. We also provide recommendations for converting value destruction into value creation. Although progress is slow, there are hopeful signals that the potential of returns managements will be unlocked in the near future
Integrating three lake models into a Phytoplankton Prediction System for Lake Taihu (Taihu PPS) with Python
Huang, J.C. ; Gao, J.F. ; Hormann, G. ; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2012
Journal of Hydroinformatics 14 (2012)2. - ISSN 1464-7141 - p. 523 - 534.
water-quality - framework - interface - ecosystem - issues - tools - china
In the past decade, much work has been done on integrating different lake models using general frameworks to overcome model incompatibilities. However, a framework may not be flexible enough to support applications in different fields. To overcome this problem, we used Python to integrate three lake models into a Phytoplankton Prediction System for Lake Taihu (Taihu PPS). The system predicts the short-term (1-4 days) distribution of phytoplankton biomass in this large eutrophic lake in China. The object-oriented scripting language Python is used as the so-called 'glue language' (a programming language used for connecting software components). The distinguishing features of Python include rich extension libraries for spatial and temporal modelling, modular software architecture, free licensing and a high performance resulting in short execution time. These features facilitate efficient integration of the three models into Taihu PPS. Advanced tools (e. g. tools for statistics, 3D visualization and model calibration) could be developed in the future with the aid of the continuously updated Python libraries. Taihu PPS simulated phytoplankton biomass well and has already been applied to support decision making.
A cross-national consumer segmentation based on contextual differences in food choice benefits
Onwezen, M.C. ; Reinders, M.J. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Jasiulewicz, A. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Guerrero, L. - \ 2012
Food Quality and Preference 24 (2012)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 276 - 286.
latent class analysis - market-segmentation - choice questionnaire - health - convenience - acceptance - attitudes - motives - issues - fruit
One of the greatest challenges to developing more successful marketing strategies in the food sector is gaining an understanding of the diversity of consumer needs. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on consumers’ self-stated general importance ratings of a range of food benefits. It also aims to explore whether these segments are predictive for the importance that these consumers attach to food benefits at different consumption moments and in different consumption situations and whether these segments are predictive for consumers’ perceptions of specific food products in terms of these food benefits. A large survey (N = 2083) was administered in four European countries. The present study shows that meaningful cross-national consumer segments can be identified on the basis of the importance that consumers attach to benefits related to health, convenience, satiety, sensory aspects, affect and personal norms. Furthermore, the study shows that the consumer segments identified on general importance ratings differ in the importance they attach to benefits across different moments and situations of consumption and across perceptions of different healthy food products versus unhealthy food products. The findings indicate that consumer segmentation based on general food choices is meaningful for policymakers and marketing managers, as this general segmentation provides information on specific consumer choices.
Moral Convictions and Culling Animals: A Survey in the Netherlands
Cohen, N.E. ; Brom, F.W.A. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2012
Anthrozoos 25 (2012)3. - ISSN 0892-7936 - p. 353 - 367.
mouth-disease - attitudes - welfare - foot - epidemic - ethics - issues - crisis
In this paper the results are presented of a national survey in the Netherlands. The aim was to identify and describe the convictions about animals that people have in Dutch society and the role of these in judgments on the culling of healthy animals during an animal disease epidemic. A total of 1,999 responses was received and two groups of respondents were distinguished: A profile (50% of the respondents) and B profile (28%). The A profile respondents considered humans to be superior to animals, whereas the B profile respondents considered both to be equal. Both groups were of the opinion that animals have value, that people have a duty to care for and protect all animals, and that all animals have a right to life. These convictions were based on a number of values, such as animal life, the ability of animals to feel pain and emotions (sentience), and the importance of animal species in the ecosystem. The results of a case study suggest that convictions play a role in judgment. More A respondents agreed with the culling of healthy animals during an animal disease epidemic. More B respondents partly (dis)agreed or disagreed with this. Most respondents (A: 81%, B: 61%) agreed with culling to protect human life. The most important argument against culling was the value of animal life. The A respondents rated all arguments against culling significantly lower than did the B respondents.
The Relationship between Information Exchange Benefits and Performance: the Mediating Effect of Supply Chain Compliance in the Chinese Poultry Chain
Peng, G. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Wang, W. - \ 2012
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 15 (2012)4. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 65 - 92.
indicators - collaboration - directions - management - issues - model
This paper aims to examine the relationships between information exchange benefits and company performance, and the mediating effect of supply chain compliance on this relationship. A sample of 165 buying companies and of 96 suppliers were analyzed by partial least square (PLS) path modeling. Five company characteristics, including company size, company age, company type, quality standard implemented, and administrative level of a location, were added as control variables in the model. The paper extends our understanding on the relationships between perceived communication benefits, supply chain compliance, performance and company characteristics. Managerial implications are generalized for buyers and suppliers respectively.
Economic Modelling for water Quantity and Quality Management: A Welfare Program Approach
Zhu, X. ; Ierland, E.C. van - \ 2012
Water Resources Management 26 (2012)9. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 2491 - 2511.
river-basin management - allocation - efficiency - resources - framework - design - issues
This paper presents an integrated economic model which is able to explicitly address both water quantity and quality. We use a welfare program to maximize social welfare subject to the economic and ecological constraints, where interactions, emissions and environmental impacts are incorporated. Such a welfare program can provide the marginal values of commodities and therefore can price water by means of shadow pricing. The optimal solution to a specified program provides the optimal response strategies, i.e. the efficient allocation of resources in the economy including water use and the efficient level of water quality. We illustrate the mechanism in a numerical example and show, as an example, how we can achieve efficiency by reserving water in the high season for times of high demand in the low season and by introducing price differentiation between the two seasons
The Prospects for Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Vietnam: A Look at three payment schemes
Phuc Xuan, To; Dressler, W.H. ; Mahanty, S. ; Pham Thu Thuy, ; Zingerli, C. - \ 2012
Human Ecology 40 (2012)2. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 237 - 249.
environmental services - central highlands - conservation - philippines - devolution - poverty - issues
Global conservation discourses and practices increasingly rely on market-based solutions to fulfill the dual objective of forest conservation and economic development. Although varied, these interventions are premised on the assumption that natural resources are most effectively managed and preserved while benefiting livelihoods if the market-incentives of a liberalised economy are correctly in place. By examining three nationally supported payment for ecosystem service (PES) schemes in Vietnam we show how insecure land tenure, high transaction costs and high opportunity costs can undermine the long-term benefits of PES programmes for local households and, hence, potentially threaten their livelihood viability. In many cases, the income from PES programmes does not reach the poor because of political and economic constraints. Local elite capture of PES benefits through the monopolization of access to forestland and existing state forestry management are identified as key problems. We argue that as PES schemes create a market for ecosystem services, such markets must be understood not simply as bald economic exchanges between ‘rational actors’ but rather as exchanges embedded in particular socio-political and historical contexts to support the sustainable use of forest resources and local livelihoods in Vietnam.
Past and future trends in grey water footprints of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to major world rivers
Liu, C. ; Kroeze, C. ; Hoekstra, A.Y. ; Gerbens-Leenes, W. - \ 2012
Ecological Indicators 18 (2012). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 42 - 49.
crop products - issues
The grey water footprint (GWF) is an indicator of aquatic pollution. We calculate past and future trends in GWFs related to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into major rivers around the world. GWFs were calculated from past, current and future nutrient loads in river basins using the Global NEWS model. We present water pollution levels (WPLs), deduced from GWFs for more than 1000 rivers. The calculated GWFs and WPLs of the different river basins show a large variation among different periods. WPL values generally increased between 1970 and 2000. For the year 2000 about two-thirds of the basins have WPL values exceeding 1 for N or P, indicating that the pollution assimilation capacity has been fully consumed. Even though the other rivers have a WPL <1, this does not guarantee that at sub-basin level or within particular periods of the year no eutrophication exists. High WPLs are generally found in rivers in tropical–subtropical areas. For dissolved organic N and P, the problems are located mostly in the southern hemisphere. The results indicate that many rivers may become more polluted with dissolved N and P in the future.
A genomics and multi-platform metabolomics approach to identify new traits of rice quality in traditional and improved varieties
Callingacion, M.N. ; Boualaphanh, C. ; Daygon, V.D. ; Anacleto, R. ; Sackville Hamilton, R. ; Biais, B. ; Deborde, C. ; Maucourt, M. ; Moing, A. ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Erban, A. ; Kopka, J. ; Hansen, T.H. ; Laursen, K.H. ; Schjoerring, J.K. ; Hall, R.D. ; Fitzgerald, M.A. - \ 2012
Metabolomics 8 (2012)5. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 771 - 783.
plant metabolomics - metabolite - components - nutrition - issues - bread - grain - acid - bran
Using a novel approach combining four complementary metabolomic and mineral platforms with genome-wide genotyping at 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, we have investigated the extent of biochemical and genetic diversity in three commercially-relevant waxy rice cultivars important to food production in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Following cultivation with different nitrogen fertiliser regimes, multiple metabolomic data sets, including minerals, were produced and analysed using multivariate statistical methods to reveal the degree of similarity between the genotypes and to identify discriminatory compounds supported by multiple technology platforms. Results revealed little effect of nitrogen supply on metabolites related to quality, despite known yield differences. All platforms revealed unique metabolic signatures for each variety and many discriminatory compounds could be identified as being relevant to consumers in terms of nutritional value and taste or flavour. For each platform, metabolomic diversity was highly associated with genetic distance between the varieties. This study demonstrates that multiple metabolomic platforms have potential as phenotyping tools to assist breeders in their quest to combine key yield and quality characteristics. This better enables rice improvement programs to meet different consumer and farmer needs, and to address food security in rice-consuming countries.
Enhancing benefits from polycultures including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) within integrated pond-dike systems: A participatory trial with households of varying socio-economic level in rural and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh
Karim, M. ; Little, D.C. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Telfer, T. ; Wahab, M.A. - \ 2011
Aquaculture 314 (2011)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 225 - 235.
resource-poor farmers - farming systems - aquaculture - fertilization - diversity - thailand - issues - nile
Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into existing integrated farming systems on the broader pond-dike system and associated livelihoods in rural and peri-urban settlements in central north (Mymensingh District) of Bangladesh were evaluated. Farmer participatory research carried out during June 2004 to March 2005 showed that production of fish could be substantially increased by increasing nutrient inputs rather than by stocking tilapia as an additional species. However, the ‘improved’ nutrient input applied by farmers was still well below the level required for optimal tilapia performance. Rural households benefited more than peri-urban households through enhanced direct consumption of fish and vegetables. In contrast, peri-urban households benefited more through cash sales of both fish and vegetables than rural households. Households with access to ponds, identified as relatively better-off and worse-off in the researched communities benefited equally selling and consuming fish and vegetable. Similar production levels of vegetable production between groups applying different fish culture practises suggesting that increased investment in fish production is complementary rather than competitive to vegetable production in integrated pond-dike farming systems. It was concluded that considerable potential exists to further develop pond-dike systems, which would improve livelihoods of both better-off and worse-off producers. Reference is made to the potential impacts of such changes in integrated pond-dike management if promoted more widely in Bangladesh.