Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Aardappel wint sterk aan populariteit in de gordel van smaragd
Haverkort, A.J. - \ 2011
Aardappelwereld 65 (2011)1. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 24 - 29.
aardappelen - groenteteelt - akkerbouw - consumptie-overschot - aardappelchips - marketing - teelt - java - potatoes - vegetable growing - arable farming - consumer surplus - crisps - cultivation
Aardappelonderzoeker Anton Haverkort van Plant Research International (PRI) uit Wageningen trok onlangs ruim een week door West en Centraal Java. Dit deed hij in het kader van een project voor het opwaarderen van de aardappelteelt in Indonesië. De aanvraag hiervoor kwam van landbouwraad Hans van der Zijl uit Jakarta. Aan Haverkort en zijn reisgenoten van PRI, Joost van der Burg en Thomas Been, was het de taak te kijken hoe de teelt hier duurzamer te maken is en goodwill te kweken bij de bevolking voor de Nederlandse aardappelnijverheid. In vogelvlucht beschrijft hij waarom van de groeiende belangstelling voor het gewas in deze gordel van smaragd.
Dynamics of small ruminant development in Central Java-Indonesia
Gede Suparta Budisatria, I. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; E. Baliarti. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085043645 - 144
schapen - geiten - herkauwers - dierlijke productie - bedrijfssystemen - dynamica - winsten - landbouwontwikkeling - java - sheep - goats - ruminants - animal production - farming systems - dynamics - profits - agricultural development - java
Gouden Hoorns : de geschiedenis van de veehouderij op Java 1850-2000
Barwegen, M.W. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo. - Rotterdam : OPTIMA - ISBN 9789085043232 - 316
vee - veehouderij - dierhouderij - geschiedenis - rassen (dieren) - rassen (taxonomisch) - diervoeding - diergezondheid - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - java - indonesië - nederlands indië - livestock - livestock farming - animal husbandry - history - breeds - races - animal nutrition - animal health - rural development - agricultural development - java - indonesia - netherlands east indies
Birds on fragmented islands : persistence in the forests of Java and Bali
Balen, S. van - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081506 - 181
vogels - dierecologie - populatiedynamica - bedreigde soorten - bescherming - natuurbescherming - habitats - ontbossing - bossen - overleving - java - bali - birds - animal ecology - population dynamics - endangered species - protection - nature conservation - habitats - deforestation - forests - survival - java - bali

This study describes, analyses and provides suggestions for the amelioration of the impact of age-long deforestation on the distribution of forest birds on the islands of Java and Bali (Indonesia). The first section deals with colonisation and extinction processes of forest birds in a number of remaining forest patches on Java. In the regenerating forest of the Krakatau Islands colonisation and extinction of land birds appear to follow vegetation succession, and therefore seem to affect the monotonic change as predicted by MacArthur & Wilson's equilibrium theory of island biogeography.

Extinction of forest birds in the Bogor botanical gardens appears to mirror closely the condition of bird communities in the surroundings of this isolated woodland patch. Distribution patterns of forest birds across 19 highly scattered forest fragments ranging from six to 50,000 hectares show clearly that the ability of birds to survive in surrounding habitat reflects the ability to survive in these patches. To show this, four ecological groups of forest birds have been distinguished: (1) forest interior birds, (2) forest edge birds, (3) woodland birds and (4) rural/urban birds. Nestedness patterns (in which species are found in all fragments larger than the smallest one in which it occurs) are found to be strongest for species restricted to forest interior and edge, weaker for secondary growth, and weakest for rural and urban bird species. A large number of forest interior species appear to be absent from most patches smaller than 10,000 ha, and most are entirely absent from forest patches smaller than 100 ha.

In the second section of this thesis the conservation status of three globally threatened, high-profile birds is analysed. The endemic, endangered Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi , traditionally considered amongst the most vulnerable forest dwellers, appears to survive in 137-188 breeding pairs in often small and isolated rainforest patches; its survival is explained by (a) juvenile dispersal capabilities, (b) broader niche widths and (c) rather opportunistic feeding. Partly protected by local taboos on hunting, the vulnerable green peafowl Pavo muticus has survived many centuries of human pressure; nowadays at least 1000 birds are scattered across numerous subpopulations. The wild population of the endemic, critically threatened endemic Bali starling Leucopsar rothschildi collapsed since its discovery in 1910 to near extinction in 1990, due to habitat loss and popularity amongst bird-keepers world-wide; despite various conservation measures (captive breeding, awareness programmes, etc.) an intricate web of socio-economic factors prevents the species from emerging from this precarious situation.

Quantified and integrated crop and livestock production analysis at the farm level : exploring options for land use of mixed farms on heavy limestone soils south of Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Efdé, S.L. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): H.M.J. Udo. - S.l. : Efdé - ISBN 9789054854968 - 230
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - erosiebestrijding - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - landevaluatie - grondvermogen - bodemgeschiktheid - indonesië - java - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - sustainability - erosion control - water conservation - soil conservation - land evaluation - land capability - soil suitability - indonesia - java - integrated farming systems

To develop adequate and sustainable land use plans, a clear assessment of the potential of the land and of the existing farming systems, as well as an identification of ways to attain these potentials is required. The agricultural system in the limestone area south of Malang is classified into different land units, land uses and livestock units. Land uses include a further distinction into agro-forestry system and annual crop. Simulation models are used as a tool to explore the production potential of crops and livestock. Existing crop simulation models are used and adjusted to the situation at hand. A new livestock simulation model is developed that includes major farm household influences, particularly the influence of land and land use on the feed resource and on livestock production. The model considers also the seasonality of feed availability; feed is quantified on a monthly basis. Two production orientations, with their specific technologies, were distinguished; low external-input agriculture (relying on manure only) and yield-oriented agriculture (relying on inorganic fertilizers only). The present crop and livestock productions are far below the potentials, as were explored with the simulation models. Constraints to agricultural production in the research area are high erosion, a low soil organic matter and a declining natural soil fertility. Hence options for land use are explored which focus on biophysical sustainability. The latter is defined here as avoiding excessive erosion, at least maintaining the present soil organic matter content of 2% and maintenance of a closed balance of the most limiting resource.

Systems with cattle, more perennials and yield-oriented agricultural systems leave more biomass than current cropping thus creating more cover, litter and mulch. An increase in the use of inorganic fertilizers seems the only viable direction towards more biomass production. Increased fertilizer use will improve the quantity and quality of crop yields as well as of crop residues for animal husbandry. Since 100% of crop residues never will be used in animal husbandry, effort should be made to return the left-overs to the soil in order to maintain or increase the soil organic matter content, i.e. better residue management. The extra manure both in terms of quantity and quality will also contribute to the latter goal. Finally, the higher soil organic matter content will improve the physical state of the heavy clay soils thus improving their water holding capacity, it will lower the soil's erodibility and improve nutrient use efficiency. So, use of inorganic fertilizers will trigger a cascade of effects that all point in the direction of a more sustainable use of the natural resources.

Relevance of ruminants in upland mixed-farming systems in East Java, Indonesia
Ifar, S. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D. Zwart; H.M.J. Udo. - S.l. : Ifar - ISBN 9789054855811 - 139
bedrijfssystemen - herkauwers - gemengde landbouw - java - farming systems - ruminants - mixed farming - java
In Indonesia, upland agriculture is associated with resource-poor farmers, land degradation, and low agricultural production. The common premise is that cattle productivity in upland areas is low and that this is mainly caused by a shortage of feed. The area chosen to carry out this study on the relevance of ruminants for upland mixed farming systems was the limestone area, a marginal upland area, in the southern part of Malang regency in East Java. The data collection was done within the framework of an interdisciplinary agricultural research training project. Two villages were selected as research sites because of their differences in land use and soil characteristics; land use dominated by sugarcane and annual crops vs land use where agroforestry is becoming increasingly important. Cattle are by far the most important livestock in the limestone area. Farmers aim at both physical production (progeny, increase in body weight, manure, draught power) and intangible benefits. The intangible benefits comprise the capital embodied in animals kept and the possibility of disposing of animals as and when required: insurance and finance. If the intangible benefits are counted in, farmers arrive at a daily return to labour from livestock similar to the ongoing daily wages in the agricultural sector. Systems for sharing ruminants enable the available labour and capital to be better used and distribute wealth more evenly in the village, and play a major role in replenishing herds after periods of severe drought. The use of cattle for land cultivation is related to the land use system. Land use also has important consequences for the feed resource base. Livestock keepers obtain a large proportion of feeds from communal areas and from crop fields operated by other farmers. In both villages the feeding system and herd size are well adapted to the available resources. Simulation proved to be a useful tool for understanding the feeding practices and the evaluation of proposed new technologies. Biological production can only be increased by increasing the amounts of high quality feeds. Overall, by keeping ruminants farmers efficiently allocate their resources i.e. labour and capital according to their household objectives. The objectives in research and development programmes should be set in relation to all benefits of livestock keeping. The interdisciplinary research approach has given insight into the versatility of livestock in supporting human welfare.
Raising cane : linkages, organizations and negotiations in Malang's sugar industry, East Java
Hartveld, A.J. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; F. Huskens. - S.l. : Hartveld - ISBN 9789051665468 - 331
saccharum officinarum - suikerriet - economische groei - landbouw - productie - technologie - technische vooruitgang - productiestructuur - agrarische structuur - java - saccharum officinarum - sugarcane - economic growth - agriculture - production - technology - technical progress - production structure - agricultural structure - java

The linkages between the Javanese sugar industry and the village communities have drawn the attention of both historians and social scientists. The formal organization of these linkages has changed drastically since Indonesia's independence; from plantation into outgrowers production contract systems. The Indonesian government nowadays regulates the sugar markets and the tripartite institutional structure, coordinating activities between the outgrowers' organizations and the mills, under directives of the district government.

This study, based on field data collected during the 1990/1991 cane growing season, is a sociology of economic life, dealing with organizational changes in the agro-industrial linkages in the sugar sector in one particular region. The first section of the book describes the longterm changes in the organizational structure of the sugar industry, both on the national and regional levels. The book then discusses the current organization of cane production and local-level marketing. The results of three village studies from different agro-ecological zones are presented in the second section. The book finally gives a comparative analysis of the organization of cane production and the patterns of interaction in the different agro-ecological zones. This comparison is related to an analysis of the interactions between actors with differing interests in the institutions and informal networks that form Malang's sugar production system at the supra-local level.

How farmers cope : case studies of decision-making in six farm households in south of Malang, East Java
Wahab, S.A. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): D.B.W.M. van Dusseldorp; J.D. Speckmann. - S.l. : Wahab - ISBN 9789054855699 - 262
besluitvorming - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - huishoudens - sociale klassen - boeren - landbouw - indonesië - java - decision making - farm management - households - social classes - farmers - agriculture - indonesia - java

This thesis is about decision-making in six farm households in East Java. The research carried out uses the case study approach and focuses on the intellectual locus of the actors who took decisions. The indigenous knowledge and the way it is generated and used by farmers when they make decisions is considered relevant in this respect. Beginning with Chapter 1, the central issue is, how do poor farmers arrive at decisions regarding their farm household's and what is the rationale underlying the decisions they make?

In Chapter 2 four theories are discussed to illuminate farmers' decision-making. It begins with van Dusseldorp's basic linking-loop-model. Van Dusseldorp's model gives a sequence of steps in the decision-making process and is mainly used as an instrument for systematizing and organizing the research data. In this chapter also Christina Gladwin's theory of real life choice is mentioned, in which Gladwin distinguishes between two stages in the decision-making process: During the first stage, farmers eliminate potential alternatives by comparing their aspects with the assets available to them. In the second stage, the farmer subsequently elaborates on the alternative he has chosen. The study, however, will principally focus its attention on the first stage of Gladwin's theory. In chapter 2 also the attentive and pre-attentive decision-making theory of Hugh Gladwin and Michael Murtaugh is discussed. This theory states that decisions are often made pre-attentively when it comes to routine activities. Huijsman's theory of decision-making under risk and uncertainty, also described in Chapter 2, states that there are two possible ways in which farmers make their decisions when they make them under uncertain situations: The first way is through cautious optimization. Here farmers gradually improve their agricultural productivity and increase the income generated from their agricultural activities, while keeping production and financial risks at a manageable level. The second way entails improving existing techniques and experimenting,

Chapter 3 explains methodology used: the case study approach. The most important techniques that are applied are open-ended interviews, structured interviews, and participant observation. Life histories have also been made.

The description of the area is given in Chapter 4. The research area is situated in the limestone range, south of Malang. The villages Kedung Salam and Putukrejo Salam were researched because they contain farm households confronted with a relatively low income, a low crop productivity, and a high level of soil erosion. Kedung Salam is approximately 66 kilometers south of Malang and Putukrejo about 49 kilometers.

The case studies of the farm households are finally presented in Chapter 5. The studies speak for themselves. They simply tell about the farmers, the decisions they made in regard to their farms, and why they made those decisions.

A comparison and an analysis of factors influencing the decision-making processes is discussed in Chapter 6. Four families were mature households, one family was a child bearing household, and one was occupied with child rearing. With the exception of Pak Sahara family, the five remaining had holdings less than one hectare, and only a small part of their land consisted of very good soil. All the farm households reared livestock which they either owned or shared. Some farmers were relatively educated, while others were illiterate. Out of all the farmers, Sabar was the most innovative. With regard to income, three farm households (Simin's, Bagong's and Karman's) fell I under the poverty line whereas the other three (Bani's, Sahara and Matori's) were somewhat above it.

A recapitulation of the theories cited and their relationships to the findings are presented in Chapter 7. The basic linking-loop-model proved to be useful for organizing and systematizing the material.

Additionally, the findings of the study seem to agree with the characteristics of the first stage of the real life choice theory. The decision-making process concerning cropping patterns have shown that a farmer will choose an alternative or a combination of alternatives of crops only when it meets the necessarily minimum conditions. A crop or combination of crops will be chosen on the basis of two sets of criteria: when the aspects of the alternatives match the assets available, and when the needs of a household are met, most notably its food security. For most farm households in this study, food security and survival were the most important objectives; however, for households (e.g. Sabar and Bani) with fairly large holdings, good soil, and a reasonable degree of food security, market-oriented objectives were significant and, so, greater risks were taken. The final decision regarding the selling of livestock was always preceded by a comparison of various alternatives.. as was shown in the cases of Pak Simin and Pak Matori.

In the decision making processes concerning non-farm activities. farmers and their wives carefully assessed various aspects of each potential, non-farm activity. Only when the aspects of the alternative matched a family's assets was an alternative selected. Striking in the studies was that the alternative chosen was not the one which could render the highest return. In the case of Pak Karman, for example, the safety of the family took precedence over a possible higher return. For Pak Bagong, collecting of firewood, however profitable, was seen as too risky because of the chance of arrest.

The case studies have shown that all the decision-making processes were initially made attentively. There are four possible reasons for this: 1) The selected issues were so important for the small farmers because they could affect the continuity of the farm and the household; 2) the region south of Malang belongs to a risk prone agricultural area and, so, farmers were always confronted with uncertainties; 3) the households had no capacity to absorb the consequences of a certain decision: e.g. a crop failure. A wrong decision, after all, could bring disaster to a family; 4) the issues involved and the way questions were asked during the interviews forced farmers and their wives to go back to the past when they made decisions for the first and, therefore, attentively. Because farmers and their wives gave detailed descriptions of their decision-making processes without having to be prodded, It may be assumed that they made the decisions, they described, attentively. For poor farmers in risk prone areas, it seems that there is little room for pre-attentive decision-making when it comes to selecting alternatives.

The findings also correspond to the theory used by Huijsman, especially as regards the strategies for cultivating new cropping varieties. The study found that farmers and their wives were experimenters. The decision making processes of the poor farmers were mainly influenced by household needs and survival. Only Pak Sabar made decisions that in the long run could improve his family's socioeconomic position. Cautious optimization can be seen by the way farmers managed their farms. Farmers usually did not begin to cultivate their crops until a minimum of seven successive days of rain had gone by. This, they hoped would reduce the risk of a false start of the season. They preferred to use a mixed cropping system in which different crops grew on the same plot. This is another indication that their intention was to minimize the risk of crop failure and to economize their agricultural production. This strategy was flexible and, as a result, best in coping with environmental uncertainty.

Chapter 8 discusses some decisive factors that will affect the future development of the households and the area. Important factors that will determine the future development of the area are the climate and the condition of the land, Chapter 8 predicts that pressure on the land will intensify because of increasing land fragmentation and over exploitation.

The socio-economic progress of farmers is largely determined by the land they inherit at the start of their farming career. Inheritance, in fact, serve as a foundation for his subsequent success or failure. The way land is divided among the heirs is the reason why land is becoming more and more fragmented and will create serious problems in the near future. Further fragmentation of land holdings will not only bring many more families below the poverty line but will also cause a further deterioration of the land due to a loss of fertility and to erosion.

Small holders are extremely vulnerable. Their entire property often only consists of a very small piece of land, a house often in poor condition, old furniture, little equipment, and a few heads of livestock which they often share with an owner. The sickness of a household member, therefore, especially when he or she is ill for a prolonged period of time, is likely to be a disaster. His or her illness has a direct impact on both on the farm and the economy of the household. Sick household members bring costs for doctors and medicines; consequently, these families often have to sell their cattle and their land and, as a result, their ability to farm is made more difficult. Often they are forced to live on credit which they find difficult to pay off.

The social network of the farmers, based on kinship, neighbourliness, and economic relationships, plays a significant role in the lives of small farmers. It is important for obtaining credit, for gaining access to land, for sharing cattle. It is also significant for acquiring information and inputs. Social networks are particularly crucial when young, married couples start off and when a family member becomes sick. These networks allow the people to share their poverty and, as a result, enable poor households to escape complete ruin when they encounter difficulties.

The impact of government programs for improving the socio-economic well being of rural people in the area has been limited. Up till the time of the research, the government in this area has mainly dealt with the re-greening program. Still the Brantas watershed project provided target groups (mainly men) with planting material for trees and fruit trees. The motive behind this program was not only to improve the socio-economic conditions of poor farmers in this area, but also to protect the lake behind the Sutami dam (Karangkates) from silting as a result of soil erosion in the upland areas south of Malang

The development efforts sponsored by the government in the area north of Malang has stimulated a considerable industrial development. The industries are mainly concentrated between the cities of Surabaya and Malang, but very little of the economic growth has trickled down to the villages south of Malang. In this area, there are only several small scale, low technology industries such as rice miils and limestone kilns.

Taking all factors into consideration, the development of the limestone area is extremely problematic. Whatever governmental programs are designed and implemented for this area, or however rational, systematic and innovative the farmers and their wives make their decisions , viable agricultural development will still only be possible when the number of farmers in the area is reduced either through diversification or through out-migration.

Farm household level optimal resource allocation : an explorative study in the limestone area of East Java
Rheenen, T. van - \ 1995
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Kuyvenhoven; R. Rabbinge. - S.l. : Van Rheenen - ISBN 9789054854579 - 145
bedrijfssystemen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - familiebedrijven, landbouw - werk - java - privé-inkomen - farming systems - small farms - family farms - work - java - private income

The role of agriculture changes markedly when an economy is transforming from developing to developed. The dramatic structural transformation in the development process has consequences for the policies to be implemented. Acknowledging differences between countries, generally speaking, four phases can be distinguished: (1) getting agriculture moving, (2) agriculture as a contributor to growth, (3) integrating agriculture into the macro-economy, and (4) agriculture in industrial economies. In many low income countries, the agricultural sector is still in the 'getting agriculture moving' phase. Due to policies that discriminate against agriculture in many low income countries the sector has not been able to play its potential role in economic development and hence hampering overall economic development. This awareness gives extra reason to evaluate the possibilities for agriculture. Agricultural research is one of the instruments that can be used to enhance the role of agriculture in development. Those that will eventually have to accomplish the goals that are set for agriculture are farm household members. To determine the research agenda at farm household level, agricultural research institutes have relied increasingly on farming systems analysis methods.

Fanning systems analysis methods, however, have not been free from problems (Chapter 2). These problems are: fanning systems analysis is vulnerable to subjectivity, has been too qualitative, is mainly farmer oriented, has been mainly crop oriented, has suffered from institutional problems, has been confronted with time conflicts, lacks gender differentiation, and has seen no unification of methods. To overcome some of these problems a new methodology for farming systems analysis was designed. Because this new methodology is more quantitative than most farming systems analysis methods it is named quantitative farming systems analysis. The new methodology encompasses the analysis of the bio-physical and socio-economic components of farming systems. The information that is generated through these analyses is used in a farm household level optimal resource allocation procedure.

The working method for the farm household level optimal resource allocation procedure includes three stages and seven steps (Chapter 3). Stage 1: model preparation including (1) goal variable definition and constraint determination, (2) system definition and time horizon determination, and (3) generation of data requirements. Stage 2: (4) construction of the FLORA model. Stage 3: model utilization including (5) computing the playing field, (6) conducting sensitivity analyses, and (7) scenario construction.

The study area is situated in the limestone area, South of Malang, East Java, Indonesia (Chapter 4). This area was selected because farm households in the study area are confronted with relatively low incomes, low crop productivity, and high levels of soil loss. Both the local government and the Brawijaya University, where the project was located, share efforts to improve the welfare of farm households in the study area.

Results computed during Stage 3 of the farm household level optimal resource allocation procedure are presented in Chapter 5. The manner in which the procedure was developed deviated from the original design. The reasons for this are described (Chapter 6). Also the contribution of the FLORA procedure in overcoming the problems facing farming systems analysis methods is evaluated. Due to institutional conditions the procedure to establish goals for research interactively with stakeholders had to be postponed, but this dissertation enables goals for research to be presented to stakeholders and trade-offs between goal variables to be demonstrated. This dissertation concludes that future efforts to implement QFSA to establish goals for agricultural research should focus on: clear research objectives, selective data collection, better interdisciplinarity, phasing of research activities, and simple and quick modelling procedures.

Integrated pest management : farmer field schools generate sustainable practices : a case study in Central Java evaluating IPM training
Fliert, E. van de - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling, co-promotor(en): J.C. Zadoks. - Wageningen : University of Agriculture - ISBN 9789054851240 - 304
bestrijdingsmethoden - plantenplagen - plantenziekten - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - geïntegreerde bestrijding - onderwijs - opleiding - farmer field schools - java - control methods - plant pests - plant diseases - integrated pest management - integrated control - education - training - farmer field schools - java

An evaluation study of the National Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programme in Indonesia was conducted in one Central-Javanese district looking into processes and effects occurring at the village level when sustainable practices in rice cultivation, which contrast in many respects with the prevailing high-external- input technology, are introduced through nonformal farmer training in conditions created by policy measures. The IPM training contents consisted of a set of principles, instead of preset recommendation, providing the farmers with a tool for decision making. Training processes were field-oriented and based on experiential learning. Main objective was that farmers become independent decision makers and managers of their farms. Trainers performed as facilitators of the learning process. As a result of training, farmers took better-informed pest management decisions, pesticide use and expenditures on pest control decreased, yields increased, and yield variability became smaller. Horizontal communication on IPM was hampered by the non-representativeness of trained farmers in the farming communities.

The nonformal training approach appeared to be consistent with the ecological approach of IPM. The experience of the Indonesian IPM Programme showed interesting perspectives for extension supporting sustainable agriculture.

Virus diseases of garlic, shallot and Welsh onion in Java, and prospects for their control : report of a consultancy study at LEHRI/ATA-395, Lembang, Java, Indonesia; January 13 - February 22, 1992
Dijk, P. van - \ 1992
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO
allium ascalonicum - allium fistulosum - allium sativum - ziektebestrijding - knoflook - indonesië - plagenbestrijding - plantenziekten - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - gewasbescherming - rapporten - sjalotten - stengeluien - java - disease control - garlic - indonesia - pest control - plant diseases - plant pathogenic bacteria - plant protection - reports - shallots - welsh onions
Rethinking erosion on Java: a reaction
Graaff, J. de; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1992
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 40 (1992)4. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 373 - 379.
erosie - java - bodem - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - erosion - java - soil - yield increases - yield losses - yields
In a recent article (Diemont et al., 1991) about erosion on Java, it has been postulated that low inputs, not surface erosion, is the main cause of low productivity of upland food crops on this island. In this article it is argued that this hypothesis is too simple. An analysis of empirical field data about the effect of erosion on crop productivity indicates that the effects of erosion and agronomic inputs are confounded. Erosion causes farmers to apply low inputs because only limited returns can be expected on eroded lands. The relations between erosion and crop productivity are site specific; the extent and quality of conservation measures and intensity of agronomic inputs varies per soil type.
Planning as a learning process : a strategy for planning land use programmes at local level with special reference to the uplands of Java
Hoek, A. van den - \ 1992
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Maaren, co-promotor(en): H.A. Luning. - S.l. : Van den Hoek - ISBN 9789698202002 - 232
bosbouw - landgebruik - pachtstelsel - bebossing - meervoudig landgebruik - landbouwgrond - voorlichting - onderwijs - buitengewoon onderwijs - gebergten - java - forestry - land use - tenure systems - afforestation - multiple land use - agricultural land - extension - education - special education - mountains - java
Introduction

The challenge for land use management in the nineties is to initiate a people- centered development process which creates opportunities for local people to make their own choices about which development strategy to follow. This need is felt in particular for upland areas where government initiated blue- print programmes for land use management have a record of failure. The major reason is that these programmes are often not adjusted to cope with the complexity and diversity of the uplands. Land use management encompasses both short-term and longterm benefits and is confronted with rapid changes. The differing role of private, state and communal lands in combination with a complex system of control and utilization makes land use management difficult to fully understand. This study responds with the development of an alternative strategy for planning sustainable land use programmes at local level and has the following objectives:
- to develop a strategic model for people-centered planning of sustainable land use programmes;
- to develop a flexible planning method that can serve as land use management tool at local level;
- to test the feasibility of the strategy for the uplands of East Java, Indonesia.

Strategic model

The two major principles of the strategic model are:
- Programmes are planned and implemented through a learning process in a local and organizational dimension. The local dimension includes a learning process of planning, implementing and monitoring of small scale programmes. The planning process is short, but planned interventions are regularly adjusted based on new insights and changing conditions. In the organizational dimension the learning process proceeds through three different phases of trial, development and expansion. In this dimension, the government can learn how to manage the strategy of implementing local level planning and how to change attitudes, norms and organizational competence of organizations in order to do so. This dimension embraces local, regional and national governments.
- Three major variables have to be considered in programme planning: land use system; interventions and organizations. Sustainable land use programmes are only possible if a good fit between these variables is achieved.

In the strategic model these two principles are combined; a fit between the variables is achieved through a learning process. Because achieving a fit between the three variables is a complicated matter, it requires a phased approach which consists of the following three steps: a trial phase, a development phase and an expansion phase. In the trial phase, the focus is on achieving a fit between interventions and land use system in the local dimension. This is achieved through the implementation of trial cases in local level planning in which villagers, field workers of organizations and local leaders become acquainted with this new approach of planning sustainable land use programmes at a local level. In the development phase, attention is focused on achieving a fit between organizations and land use system. Through the development of human resources and extension processes the skills and attitudes of those involved may gradually change to become more people-oriented. In the expansion phase the focus is on achieving a fit between interventions and organization. In this phase the planning approach is accepted and applied at a national level. Changes in government structures and procedures, such as decentralization and strengthening of local leadership need to be achieved. By dividing the process into phases, the complex problems associated with planning sustainable land use become manageable, and step by step the ultimate goal of achieving a fit between all three variables can be reached.

Planning method

In order to reach an optimal fit between the three variables of the strategic model in the trial phase, a planning method should be applied to collect and analyse data that can be transformed into the design of effective programmes. No 'off-the-peg' planning method is available, instead a combination of existing approaches, methods and techniques is needed.

Three development approaches can be distinguished to this end: planning of land use development; extension approaches and project management approaches. Generally speaking, each approach covers a different side of the strategic model. Land use development focuses on achieving a fit between interventions and land use system; extension processes can be used in achieving a fit between land use system and organizations; and the fit between interventions and organizations can be accomplished with the help of project management techniques.

For planning land use development in the trial phase a number of current methods and techniques are discussed. These are Farming System Analysis, Land Evaluation, Agroecosystem Analysis, Landscape Planning, Rapid Rural Appraisal and Gender Analysis. The criteria set by the strategic model determine which aspects of these present planning methods and techniques are useful for the development of a new planning method. None of these methods and techniques as such are ideal as an operational planning method for realizing the first phase of the strategic model. A synthesis of all useful features into a new land use planning method is proposed.

For the trial phase the focus is on planning land use development while opportunities to develop extension processes and to influence project management are limited. Therefore plans should basically be tailored to the existing competence of organizations. Within these limitations some attention can be paid to extension processes and management techniques by introducing an additional step to land use planning, called programming which includes the preparation of a detailed design and a programme planning matrix.

Planning environment on Java

The environment for the planning of land use development programmes is diverse and complex in the uplands of East Java. Farmers react to the wide diversity in the land use system by developing a large number of different land use strategies. By contrast, government organizations use standardized programmes with uniform and mostly inflexible procedures for planning and implementation. Village development planning procedures exist, but do not yet function properly. Local organizations responsible for village development planning do not yet possess the skills and capability to develop such plans, and centrally organized sectoral agencies still dominate this 'bottom-up' planning process. The dominance of the central government can be explained by the incorporation of a number of socio-cultural features in their policy, such as the principles of 'sole authority', consensus, and harmony. The government uses these principles to encapsulate autonomous local organizations in the government administration, orienting the local leaders more to government rules and procedures than to the needs of the local population.

This orientation towards government administration has two major implications for the current planning of interventions. Firstly, the interventions are adjusted to the competence of implementing organizations rather than letting the organizations develop their competence to implement the tasks of locally planned interventions. Secondly little more than lip-service is paid to the participation of villagers in planning.

Notwithstanding these shortcomings in the present village development planning process, official government policy has some room for improvement. This may allow for a more balanced planning process new approach.

Secondly, constraints which can be expected while applying the model on Java are described. The feasibility of the trial phase of the strategy is evaluated based on experiences with implementing the trial cases on Java. In this evaluation the question is raised as to what extent the results of local level planning on Java can respond to the research objectives as formulated at the start of this study. No experience has been gained as yet with implementing the development and expansion phase. One programme that provides some valuable lessons for the feasibility of the phased learning process of the strategic model is the Java Social Forestry Programme (JSFP). This programme has followed a comparable phasing strategy and has already reached the expansion phase.

Conclusions and policy recommendations

This evaluation results in a number of conclusions on conditions to be fulfilled for successful implementation of the strategy. To sum up:
- although the strategy is aimed at the local level, it cannot be realized at local level only as it requires involvement of regional and national government organizations to deal with changing communication processes and organizational structure;
- objectives in village development planning should be set realistically in the knowledge that short term results will always dominate long term benefits, tangible results will get higher priority than social changes, while top-down influences from sectoral agencies will prevail;
- in addressing the organizational dimension a choice should be made between following an approach of 'decentralized trial cases' versus 'centrally guided bottom-up process'. Whichever strategy is chosen it needs careful management to avoid difficulties in institutionalization or a too rapid expansion respectively;
- it is necessary for the government to be shown better results in terms of sustainable land use development programmes at local level implemented by highly committed villagers. Only then may they be motivated to accept such a participatory approach at the cost of losing some power or consensus;
- implementing a participatory planning process is an initially slow process, to which government agencies need to be committed.

These conditions are translated into a number of policy recommendations for donor agencies and governments pertaining to: long-term and continuous commitment; development of the management capacity and motivation of people involved; and strengthening the competence of a government organization for responsive governance.

Experiences in Java have illustrated the importance of congruence between the design of land use interventions; the development of communication processes and the development of organizational competence. The whole range of actors involved who strive for sustainable land use - from villagers to programme managers - will have to contribute to achieving this fit. They will only be able so when they view PLANNING AS A LEARNING PROCESS.

Environmental measures for malaria control in Indonesia. A historical review on species sanitation.
Takken, W. ; Snellen, W.B. ; Verhave, J.P. ; Knols, B.G.J. ; Atmosoedjono, S. - \ 1990
Wageningen : Agricultural University (Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 90-7) - ISBN 9789067541862 - 167
vectorbestrijding - infectieziekten - malaria - ziektepreventie - anopheles - java - indonesië - geschiedenis - culicidae - vector control - infectious diseases - malaria - disease prevention - anopheles - java - indonesia - history - culicidae
Analysis of land use development - a system dynamics land use model for Gunung Kidul Java.
Klein, J.P.G. de - \ 1989
Yogyakarta, Indonesia : Forestry Faculty, Gadjah Mada University (Fonc Project Communications 1989-5) - 75
bosbouw - landgebruik - pachtstelsel - bebossing - landevaluatie - grondvermogen - bodemgeschiktheid - meting - experimenten - statistiek - simulatie - modellen - onderzoek - java - forestry - land use - tenure systems - afforestation - land evaluation - land capability - soil suitability - measurement - experiments - statistics - simulation - models - research
Farmers and finance : experience with institutional savings and credit in West Java
Moll, H.A.J. - \ 1989
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): F.P. Jansen. - S.l. : Moll - 135
landbouwkrediet - financiën - investering - rekeningen van landbouwbedrijf - boekhouding van landbouwbedrijf - java - landbouwcoöperaties - plattelandscoöperaties - agricultural credit - finance - investment - farm accounts - farm accounting - java - agricultural cooperatives - rural cooperatives

This study deals with an experimental savings and credit scheme developed for vegetable farmers in West Java, Indonesia, by a technical cooperation project between the governments of Indonesia and The Netherlands. Key elements were:
a) An organizational structure with three levels: the project as financial institution, village cooperatives, and groups of approximately 50 farmers.
b) Emphasis on financial viability through an interest rate of 5.4 percent per month on the short-term loans provided and through the combination of savings and credit services.
c) Location of the savings and credit services in the groups.

The review and analysis of the scheme after seven years of operation shows that all costs of the scheme can be covered by the interest receipts and that the savings of the group members resulted in a considerable build-up of own capital in the groups; the scheme is thus financially viable. Further was demonstrated that it is possible to reach farming communities with diverse financial potential all over the vegetable production areas in West Java. These achievements are largely the result of the incorporation of groups in the organizational structure, which results in easy access, members' preparedness to save, and a reasonable cost level through the use of management capacity available in the local communities.

The discussion of the experiences of the scheme in the context of the provision of financial services to farmers in developing countries in general, results in the formulation of seven essential factors regarding the environment in which financial institutions operate and regarding the operation of financial institutions providing services to farmers.

Amorphous clay coatings in a lowland oxisols and other andesitic soils of West Java, Indonesia.
Buurman, P. ; Jongmans, A.G. - \ 1987
Pemberitan Penelitian Tanok dan Pupuk 7 (1987). - p. 31 - 40.
andepts - andosols - ferralsols - java - oxisols - red soils - vulkanische gronden - volcanic soils
Household economy and tree growing in upland Central Java.
Poel, P. van den; Dijk, H. van - \ 1987
Agroforestry Systems 5 (1987)2. - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 169 - 184.
agroforestry - farming systems - forestry - java - social forestry
Landscape - ecology of Ujung Kulon (West Java, Indonesia)
Hommel, P.W.F.M. - \ 1987
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): I.S. Zonneveld, co-promotor(en): M.M.J. van Balgooy. - Wageningen : Hommel - 206
landschap - landschapsecologie - geomorfologie - plantenecologie - java - landscape - landscape ecology - geomorphology - plant ecology - java

This study deals with the Ujung Kulon peninsula, situated on the westernmost tip of the island of Java (Indonesia). Descriptions are given of the area's history, climate, geology, gemorphology, soils, flora, vegetation and fauna. For three of these land-attributes, viz. geomorphology (landform), soils and vegetation, classification systems are presented. The classification of vegetation types is based on their complete floristic composition and carried out by tabular comparison of plot-data. Relations between all landattributes are studied, resulting in the description of landscape units that are shown on a landscape-ecology map (scale 1 : 75 000). Special attention is paid to the impact of the 1883 Krakatau eruption on soils and vegetation, the orographic vegetation zones as determined by the so-called 'telescope-effect' and the availability of foodplants for the Javan rhinoceros.

Effects of various vegetation layers of an Acacia auriculiformis forest plantation on surface erosion in Java, Indonesia
Wiersum, K.F. - \ 1985
In: Soil erosion and conservation / El-Swaify, S.A., Moldenhauer, W.C., Lo, A., - p. 79 - 89.
erosie - bosbouw - hydrologie - indonesië - bodem - bodembescherming - bomen - waterbescherming - beheer van waterbekkens - acacia auriculiformis - java - erosion - forestry - hydrology - indonesia - soil - soil conservation - trees - water conservation - watershed management - acacia auriculiformis - java
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