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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Optimising land use in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia : modelling ecosystem benefits and land use dynamics
    Suwarno, Aritta - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578739 - 156
    land use - deforestation - decentralization - ecosystem services - ecosystems - forest policy - forests - modeling - kalimantan - indonesia - landgebruik - ontbossing - decentralisatie - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - bosbeleid - bossen - modelleren - kalimantan - indonesië

    The rising global population has increased the demand for food, renewable energy and other materials. Yet at the same time to meet this demand requires land and the amount of available land is finite. Considering the importance of land and ecosystems in providing benefits for human, I conducted four independent research on the socio-economic and biophysical aspects of ecosystem service, in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The first three independent studies were used to understand ecosystem management under decentralised forest governance in Indonesia and its influence on ecosystems, ESs and the benefits that different beneficiaries receive. The fourth study combines the outcomes from the previous three studies to assess and select the most appropriate areas for conservation and community development. As the results, I show the applicability of the ecosystem services concept and land-use modelling in optimising land-use under certain decentralised forest governance systems. My thesis’ results were obtained through the application of methods and steps that integrated a comprehensive set of qualitative and quantitative analyses to support land-use optimisation in the Kapuas Protected Forest Management Unit. My results can inform decision makers on the options of land-use optimisation and the consequences of their management decisions regarding land-use intensification, nature conservation and local economic conditions. I show how land-use optimisation provides an important step in preventing further land degradation and ecosystem loss.

    Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Sumarga, E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lars Hein. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574854 - 156
    landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - ontbossing - oliepalmen - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - kalimantan - indonesië - land use planning - land use - modeling - deforestation - oil palms - ecosystem services - ecosystems - kalimantan - indonesia

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts, allowing the inclusion of a broader set of ecosystem services types such regulating services and cultural services. Consistent with the principles of national account, ecosystem accounting focuses on assessment of the contribution of ecosystem in generating benefits for human well-being. Those valuation characteristics allow ecosystem accounting to explicitly visualize the comprehensive values of ecosystem contribution, and integrate them in a standardized national account.

    There is a wide range of potential application of ecosystem accounting in natural resource management and environmental preservation. This includes the provision of basic data on the values of multiple ecosystem services (both in terms of physical quantities and monetary values), monitoring ecosystem services dynamics, analyzing impacts of land-use change and land management on the trade-offs of ecosystem services, and development of ecosystem services based land-use planning. Ecosystem accounting approach has also been widely involved in addressing critical environmental issues such as deforestation, GHG emissions, and biodiversity conservation.

    Considering the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem services distribution, spatial analysis is a key element in ecosystem accounting. The availability of spatial information of the values of ecosystem services creates opportunity for a broad range of applications required for land-use planning and management, such as identification of areas with high variability of ecosystem services (often called as ecosystem services hotspots) and areas with high aggregate values of ecosystem services, identification of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem services demand interaction, and analysing the impacts of land-use change on the trade-offs of ecosystem services. Most importantly, spatial information of a comprehensive set of ecosystem services values allows land-use planners to analyse the relationship between any options of land management and the existence of a combination of ecosystem services, hence the best management type which optimize the provision of ecosystem services can be formulated.

    The objective of this thesis is to develop an ecosystem services approach to land-use planning through integration of ecosystem accounting and spatial modelling, with a specific case study on deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan Indonesia. The main motivations of this study includes the high rate of deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, the environmental degradation related to the deforestation such as greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity loss, the uncertainty of provincial land-use planning, and the lack of experiences on the integration of ecosystem accounting in land-use planning.

    In chapter 2 of this thesis, seven key ecosystem services (timber production, rattan production, oil palm production, paddy rice production, carbon storage, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat) are assessed and mapped at a provincial scale. The ecosystem services are assessed in term of physical quantities. Three mapping techniques are applied: spatial interpolation, lookup tables, and Maximum Entropy (Maxent) modelling. An ecosystem services based land-use planning is tested using the seven ecosystem services maps to identify areas for oil palm expansion. This study shows that selection of the best spatial modelling technique for ecosystem services mapping highly depends on the availability of input data and the characteristics of spatial distribution of ecosystem services. This study also demonstrates the significant support of spatial information of ecosystem services in provincial land-use planning.

    In chapter 3, six ecosystem services mapped in chapter 2 (timber production, rattan production, oil palm production, paddy rice production, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat) are valued in monetary terms. The valuation also includes additional cultural service, i.e. nature recreation. Two valuation methods consistent with the principles of ecosystem accounts are applied: resource rent valuation and costs based approach. The monetary values of ecosystem services are then mapped, allowing analysis on the aggregate values of the seven ecosystem services in different land-use types. This study shows the capability of resource rent valuation in filtering and visualizing the value of ecosystem contribution in providing benefits that have market values, and the applicability of a costs based approach for carbon sequestration valuation. However, application of the cost based approach is considered inappropriate in monetary valuation of biodiversity habitat, and further improvement is required. This study also shows how the trade-offs of ecosystem services from the past and the potential land-use change can be analyzed based on the spatial information of monetary values of ecosystem services.

    Chapter 4 of this thesis presents land-use change modelling, with a specific case of modelling oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan. An integrated deductive inductive modelling is developed, using logistic regression and scenario based modelling. The scenarios used in the modelling consist of two scenarios reflecting the past and the current policies on oil palm expansion, i.e. a business as usual scenario and a moratorium scenario, and one alternative scenario, i.e. the sustainable production scenario, developed based on stakeholder workshop and ecosystem services approach studied in chapter 2. Based on the monetary values of ecosystem services valued and mapped in chapter 3, the societal costs and benefits of oil palm expansion based on the three policy scenarios are then analyzed. The model forecasts the continuation of strong oil palm expansion in the period 2015 – 2020, in particular in case of the business as usual scenario, and forecasts that oil palm expansion would level off in the period 2020 – 2025 in all three scenarios. In the business as usual scenario, this expansion would lead to substantial net costs to society resulting from a loss of ecosystem services, particularly from carbon emission emissions. The sustainable production scenario provides the highest net benefits to society, however, implementation of this scenario requires fundamental change of current land-use policy.

    Chapter 5 presents hydrological and economic impacts of oil palm development on peat, with a case study in the ex mega rice project area, Central Kalimantan. Hydrological aspect of oil palm development have not been studied in the previous chapters, and this chapter addresses this aspect through modelling three types of flooding on drained peatland for oil palm: impaired drainability, frequent flooding, and near permanent inundation. The model integrates current knowledge on subsidence rates and drinage limits, and uses a high resolution LiDAR DEM. The results of the model are presented up to 2136. The economic impacts are analysed through two land-use scenarios: the oil palm scenario assuming all peatlands in the study area will be converted into oil palm, and the mix scenario combining natural forest preservation, jelutung forest development and oil palm plantation. This study shows that in 100 years’ time only around 10% of the area would still be suitable for oil palm. This study also shows that under the first scenario, the social costs of carbon emissions considerably outweigh the benefits of oil palm production. In term of private benefits, the mixed land-use option scores better even at the first plantation cycle. The mix land-use scenario also potentially preserve about 84,000 ha habitat for orangutan. This study provides useful inputs for a comprehensive analysis on the sustainability of oil palm development on peatland.

    In general this thesis demonstrates the significant contribution of ecosystem accounting and spatial modelling for land-use planning. Valuation methods and spatial modelling techniques developed in this study provide basis for completing ecosystem accounting in Central Kalimantan, with potential applicability in other regions. By addressing the critical environmental issues in Central Kalimantan, i.e. deforestation and oil palm expansion and their environmental and economic impacts, this study contributes to formulate a better land-use management, which facilitates the need for oil palm development while maintaining the provision of important ecosystem services.

    Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion
    Smit, H.H. ; Meijaard, E. ; Laan, C. van der; Mantel, S. ; Budiman, A. ; Verweij, P. - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
    land-use - conservation - deforestation - biodiversity - biomass - kalimantan - landscape - biofuels - malaysia - amazon
    Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.
    Runoff, discharge and flood occurrence in a poorly gauged tropical basin : the Mahakam River, Kalimantan
    Hidayat, H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Ton Hoitink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737434 - 114
    oppervlakkige afvoer - afvoer - overstromingen - monitoring - tropen - modellen - rivieren - cartografie - voorspelling - kalimantan - indonesië - runoff - discharge - floods - monitoring - tropics - models - rivers - mapping - prediction - kalimantan - indonesia

    Tidal rivers and lowland wetlands present a transition region where the interests of hydrologists and physical oceanographers overlap. Physical oceanographers tend to simplify river hydrology, by often assuming a constant river discharge when studying estuarine dynamics. Hydrologists, in turn, generally ignore the direct or indirect effects of tides in water level and discharge records. This thesis aims to improve methods to monitor, model and predict discharge dynamics in tidal rivers and lowland wetlands, by focussing on the central and lower reaches of the River Mahakam (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), and the surrounding lakes area. The 980-km long river drains an area of about 77100 km2 between 2°N - 1°S and 113°E - 118°E. Due to its very mild bottom slope, a significant tidal influence occurs in this river. The middle reach of the river is located in a subsiding basin, parts of which are below mean sealevel, featuring peat swamps and about thirty lakes connected to the river via tie channels.

    Upstream of the lakes area, at about 300 km from the river mouth, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP) has been horizontally deployed at a station near the city of Melak (Chapter 2). The H-ADCP profiles of velocity are converted to discharge adopting a new calibration methodology. The obtained time-series of discharge show the tidal signal is clearly visible during low flow conditions. Besides tidal signatures, the discharge series show influences by variable backwater effects from the lakes, tributaries and floodplain ponds. The discharge rate at the station exceeds 3250 m3s-1 with a hysteretic behaviour. For a specific river stage, the discharge range can be as high as 2000 m3s-1. Analysis of alternative types of rating curves shows this is far beyond what can be explained from kinematic wave dynamics. Apart from backwater effects, the large variation of discharge for a specified river stage can be explained by river-tide interaction, impacting discharge variation especially in the fortnightly frequency band.

    A second H-ADCP station has been setup in the lower reach of the Mahakam, near the city of Samarinda, where the tidal discharge amplitude generally exceeds the discharge related to runoff (Chapter 3). Conventional rating curve techniques are inappropriate to model river discharge at this tidally influenced station. As an alternative, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed to investigate the degree to which tidal river discharge at Samarinda station can be predicted from an array of level gauge measurements along the tidal river, and from tidal level predictions at sea. The ANN-based model produces a good discharge estimation, as established from a consistent performance during both the training and the validation periods, showing the discharges can be predicted from water levels only, once that a trained model is available. The ANN models perform well in predicting discharges up to two days in advance.

    Chapter 4 addresses the role of backwater effects and tidal influences on discharge time-series used to calibrate a rainfall-runoff model. The HBV rainfall-runoff model is implemented for the Mahakam sub-catchment upstream of Melak (25700 km2). In a first approach, the model is calibrated using a discharge series derived from the H-ADCP measurements from Melak station. In a second approach, discharge estimates derived from a rating curve are used to calibrate the model. Adopting the first approach, a comparatively low model efficiency is obtained, which is attributed to the backwater and tidal effects that are not captured in the model. The second approach produces a relatively higher model efficiency, since the rating curve filters the backwater effects out of the discharge series. Seasonal variation of terms in the water balance is not affected by the choice for one of the two calibration strategies, which shows that backwaters do not have a systematic seasonal effect on the river discharge.

    To allow for investigation of the causes of backwater effects, satellite radar remote sensing is employed to monitor water levels in wetlands (Chapter 5). A series of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images is used to observe the dynamics of the Mahakam River floodplain. To analyze radar backscatter behavior for different land cover types, several regions of interest are selected, based on land cover classes. Medium shrub, high shrub, fern/grass, and degraded forest are found to be sensitive to flooding, whereas peat forest, riverine forest and tree plantation backscatter signatures only slightly change with flood inundation. An analysis of the relationship between radar backscatter and water levels is carried out. For lakes and shrub covered peatland, for which the range of water level variation is high, a good water level-backscatter correlation is obtained. In peat forest covered peatland, subject to a small range of water level variation, water level-backscatter correlations are poor, limiting the ability to obtain a floodplain-wide water surface topography from the radar images.

    Chapter 6 continues to investigate the degree in which satellite radar remote sensing can serve to distinguish between dry areas and wetlands, which is a difficult task in densely vegetated areas such as peat domes. Flood extent and flood occurrence information are successfully extracted from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. A fully inundated region is easily recognized from a dark signature on radar images. Open water flood occurrence is mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area reveals consistently higher backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. Those observations are used to establish thresholds for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area. An all-encompassing flood occurrence map is obtained by combining the flood occurrence maps for areas with and without vegetation.

    Chapter 7 synthesizes the findings from the previous chapters. It is concluded that the backwater effects and subtle tidal influences may prevent the option to predict river discharge using rating curves, which can best be interpreted as a stage-runoff relationship. H-ADCPs offer a promising alternative to monitor river discharge. For a tidal river, an ANN model can be used as a tool for data gap filling in an H-ADCP based discharge series, or even to derive discharge estimates solely from water levels and water level predictions. Discharge can be predicted several time-steps ahead, allowing water managers to take measures based on forecasts. The stage-runoff relationship derived from a continuous series of H-ADCP based discharge estimates may be expected to be much more accurate than a similar rating curve derived from a small number of boat surveys. The flood occurrence map derived from PALSAR images can offer a detailed insight into the hydroperiod, the period in which a soil area is waterlogged, and flood extent of the lowland area, illustrating the added value of radar remote sensing to wetland hydrological studies. In future work, radar-based floodplain observations may serve to calibrate hydrodynamic models simulating the processes of flooding and emptying of the lakes area.

    Opinions on legality principles considered in the FLEGT/VPA policy in Ghana and Indonesia
    Wiersum, K.F. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2013
    Forest Policy and Economics 32 (2013). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 14 - 22.
    voluntary partnership agreement - environmental governance - forest communities - poverty - livelihoods - enforcement - kalimantan - lessons - trade
    The Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade programme (FLEGT) of the European Union aims at stimulating both legal timber production and good forest governance. The EU establishes Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) with individual tropical timber exporting countries; these VPAs should be developed through a stakeholder-inclusive governance process and define national standards for timber legality. The national policy level serves as an interface between the EU policy and the local realities of forest exploitation. This article assesses whether new assemblages of timber legality standards were developed at this interface. It presents the opinions of people actively engaged in the FLEGT/VPA process in Ghana (n = 38) and Indonesia (n = 40) about which principles regarding timber legality, law enforcement and social safeguards were considered during the VPA negotiations in each country. Almost half of the respondents (44%) were positive about the integrative focus of VPA discussions focusing on both forestry and livelihood issues, 40% considered it had mostly a limited focus or traditional timber sector focus, and 16% indicated a high degree of attention to social responsibility issues. There were differences in the characteristics of respondents and their opinions between Ghana and Indonesia; these reflect differences in organisation of the FLEGT/VPA process. The findings demonstrate how depending on country-specific policy processes principles from an international forest policy are adapted at national level; this may involve new assemblages of the original policy principles
    Soil organic carbon stocks and changes upon forest regeneration in East Kalimantan- Indonesia
    Yassir, I. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Peter Buurman; Bram van Putten. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789064645761 - 175
    natuurlijke verjonging - tropische bossen - imperata cylindrica - secundaire bossen - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - organisch bodemmateriaal - bodemeigenschappen - vegetatie - plantensuccessie - kalimantan - indonesië - natural regeneration - tropical forests - imperata cylindrica - secondary forests - soil carbon sequestration - soil organic matter - soil properties - vegetation - ecological succession - kalimantan - indonesia

    Imperata grassland is a common vegetation type in Kalimantan (Indonesia), and other parts of South-East Asia. It indicates a high degree of degradation of the vegetation, and mostly occurs after slashing and burning of primary forest. Through secondary succession Imperata grassland is converted into new secondary forest and much of the original biodiversity is restored. The overall objective of the thesis was to study the regeneration of Imperata grasslands in East Kalimantan, and to measure the effects of regeneration on soil properties, with emphasis on the organic fraction. The research strategy was to compare plots of different regeneration stages, characterized by the period elapsed since the vegetation was last burned.
    Results show that during regeneration of Imperata grasslands, both vegetation composition and soil properties change, including chemistry of soil organic matter. Soil carbon stocks are higher under Imperata grasslands than under primary forest, and increase further upon natural regeneration of grassland to secondary forest. Highest carbon stocks are found in the later regeneration phases. Lower carbon stocks under primary forests are due to extremely low fertility, combined with shallow soils and low root mass in the topsoil. Root density as observed in the field is much higher under the grass vegetation. Results show as well that soil organic matter decomposition is most advanced under forest, as indicated by lower amounts of plant derived compounds and higher contribution of microbial matter. The results indicate that decomposition efficiency is related to soil organic matter chemistry, but more to abundance of N-compounds than to that of potentially recalcitrant compounds.
    In our case study, soil texture appears an important factor in the vegetation succession. On sandy soils, there is a strong increase with time of Pteridium aquilinum L., while the number of other species is lower. This slows down the development towards secondary forest. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of environmental factors and vegetation show that pH, bulk density, sand and clay are the factors related to the distribution of species. The rapid secondary succession indicates that Imperata grasslands are not a final and stable stage of land degradation, but that frequent fires are necessary to maintain Imperata grasslands. If protected from fire and other intrusions such as shifting cultivation, Imperata grassland will readily develop into secondary forest. Imperata grasslands seem to be permanent because of human interference, especially through burning, and because so far few attempts have been made to sustainable rehabilitation.

    Flood occurence mapping of the middle Mahakam lowland area using satelite radar
    Hidayat, H. ; Hoekman, D.H. ; Vissers, M.A.M. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. - \ 2012
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16 (2012). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1805 - 1816.
    forested wetlands - river basin - inundation - kalimantan - indonesia - patterns - example - borneo - palsar - model
    Floodplain lakes and peatlands in the middle Mahakam lowland area are considered as ecologically important wetland in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. However, due to a lack of data, the hydrological functioning of the region is still poorly understood. Among remote sensing techniques that can increase data availability, radar is well-suitable for the identification, mapping, and measurement of tropical wetlands, for its cloud unimpeded sensing and night and day operation. Here we aim to extract flood extent and flood occurrence information from a series of radar images of the middle Mahakam lowland area. We explore the use of Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) imagery for observing flood inundation dynamics by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, in lakes and in peatlands, using pressure transducers. For validation of the open water flood occurrence map, bathymetry measurements were carried out in the main lakes. A series of PALSAR images covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 through 2010 were collected. A fully inundated region can be easily recognized on radar images from a dark signature. Open water flood occurrence was mapped using a threshold value taken from radar backscatter of the permanently inundated river and lakes areas. Radar backscatter intensity analysis of the vegetated floodplain area revealed consistently high backscatter values, indicating flood inundation under forest canopy. We used those values as the threshold for flood occurrence mapping in the vegetated area.
    Planning hydrological restoration of peatlands in Indonesia to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions
    Jaenicke, J. ; Wösten, H. ; Budiman, A. ; Siegert, F. - \ 2010
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15 (2010)3. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 223 - 239.
    peat swamp forest - tropical peat - kalimantan - malaysia - fluxes - fires
    Extensive degradation of Indonesian peatlands by deforestation, drainage and recurrent fires causes release of huge amounts of peat soil carbon to the atmosphere. Construction of drainage canals is associated with conversion to other land uses, especially plantations of oil palm and pulpwood trees, and with widespread illegal logging to facilitate timber transport. A lowering of the groundwater level leads to an increase in oxidation and subsidence of peat. Therefore, the groundwater level is the main control on carbon dioxide emissions from peatlands. Restoring the peatland hydrology is the only way to prevent peat oxidation and mitigate CO2 emissions. In this study we present a strategy for improved planning of rewetting measures by dam constructions. The study area is a vast peatland with limited accessibility in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Field inventory and remote sensing data are used to generate a detailed 3D model of the peat dome and a hydrological model predicts the rise in groundwater levels once dams have been constructed. Successful rewetting of a 590 km² large area of drained peat swamp forest could result in mitigated emissions of 1.4–1.6 Mt CO2 yearly. This equates to 6% of the carbon dioxide emissions by civil aviation in the European Union in 2006 and can be achieved with relatively small efforts and at low costs. The proposed methodology allows a detailed planning of hydrological restoration of peatlands with interesting impacts on carbon trading for the voluntary carbon market.
    Restoration Ecology of Lowland tropical Peatlands in Southeast Asia: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions
    Page, S. ; Hoscilo, A. ; Wösten, J.H.M. ; Jauhiainen, J. ; Silvius, M.J. ; Rieley, J. ; Ritzema, H.P. ; Tansey, K. ; Graham, L. ; Vasander, H. ; Limin, S. - \ 2009
    Ecosystems 12 (2009)6. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 888 - 905.
    peat swamp forest - indonesia - interrelationships - kalimantan - fires
    Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of local to global significance. To address these problems, landscape-scale restoration measures are urgently required. This paper reviews and illustrates, using information from on-going trials in Kalimantan, Indonesia, the current state of knowledge pertaining to (i) land-cover dynamics of degraded peatlands, (ii) vegetation rehabilitation, (iii) restoration of hydrology, (iv) rehabilitation of carbon sequestration and storage, and (v) promotion of sustainable livelihoods for local communities. For a 4500 km2 study site in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, we show a 78% reduction in forest cover between 1973 and 2003 and demonstrate that fire, exacerbated by drainage, is the principal driver of land-use change. Progressive vegetation succession follows infrequent, low-intensity fires, but repeated and high-intensity fires result in retrogressive succession towards non-forest communities. Re-wetting the peat is an important key to vegetation restoration and protection of remaining peat carbon stocks. The effectiveness of hydrological restoration is discussed and likely impacts on greenhouse gas emissions evaluated. Initial results indicate that raised water levels have limited short-term impact on reducing CO2 emissions, but could be critical in reducing fire risk. We conclude that successful restoration of degraded peatlands must be grounded in scientific knowledge, relevant to socio-economic circumstances, and should not proceed without the consent and co-operation of local communities
    Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification of Disturbance and Identification of Conservation-Priority Areas in Tropical Forests
    Slik, J.W.F. ; Bernard, C.S. ; Breman, F.C. ; Beek, M. van; Salim, A. ; Sheil, D. - \ 2008
    Conservation Biology 22 (2008)5. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1299 - 1308.
    tree species composition - rain-forest - dipterocarp forests - central-america - el-nino - diversity - borneo - kalimantan - indonesia - fire
    Inventories of tree species are often conducted to guide conservation efforts in tropical forests. Such surveys are time consuming, demanding of expertise, and expensive to perform and interpret. Approaches to make survey efforts simpler or more effective would be valuable. In particular, it would be good to be able to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely linked to its successional status. We used tree inventory data from eastern Borneo to determine whether wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average density of wood in a plot was significantly and negatively related to disturbance levels, with plots with higher wood densities occurring almost exclusively in old-growth forests. Average wood density was unimodally related to the diversity of tree species, indicating that the average wood density in a plot might be a better indicator of old-growth forest than species diversity. In addition, Borneo endemics had significantly heavier wood than species that are common throughout the Malesian region, and they were more common in plots with higher average wood density. We concluded that wood density at the plot level could be a powerful tool for identifying areas of conservation priority in the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia.
    Peat–water interrelationships in a tropical peatland ecosystem in Southeast Asia
    Wösten, J.H.M. ; Clymans, E. ; Page, S.E. ; Rieley, J.O. ; Limin, S.H. - \ 2008
    Catena 73 (2008)2. - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 212 - 224.
    climate-change - kalimantan - indonesia - forests - fires - bog
    Interrelationships between peat and water were studied using a hydropedological modelling approach for adjacent relatively intact and degraded peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The easy to observe degree of peat humification provided good guidance for the assignment of more difficult to measure saturated hydraulic conductivities to the acrotelm¿catotelm hydrological system. Ideally, to prevent subsidence and fire, groundwater levels should be maintained between 40 cm below and 100 cm above the peat surface. Calculated groundwater levels for different years and for different months within a single year showed that these levels can drop deeper than the critical threshold of 40 cm below the peat surface whilst flooding of more than 100 cm above the surface was also observed. In July 1997, a dry El Niño year, areas for which deep groundwater levels were calculated coincided with areas that were on fire as detected from radar images. The relatively intact peatland showed resilience towards disturbance of its hydrological integrity whereas the degraded peatland was susceptible to fire. Hydropedological modelling identified areas with good restoration potential based on predicted flooding depth and duration. Groundwater level prediction maps can be used in fire hazard warning systems as well as in land utilization and restoration planning. These maps are also attractive tools to move from the dominant uni-sectoral approach in peatland resource management toward a much more promising multi-sectoral approach involving various forestry, agriculture and environment agencies. It is demonstrated that the combination of hydrology and pedology is essential for wise use of valuable but threatened tropical peatland ecosystems.
    Spaceborne radar monitoring of forest fires and forest cover change : a case study in Kalimantan
    Sugardiman, R.A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Reinder Feddes, co-promotor(en): Dirk Hoekman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046042 - 190
    tropische regenbossen - regenbossen - bosbranden - kroondak - remote sensing - radar - monitoring - digitaal terreinmodel - kalimantan - tropical rain forests - rain forests - forest fires - canopy - remote sensing - radar - monitoring - digital elevation model - kalimantan
    The devastation of tropical rain forests has been proven to have a significant effect on global climate change. The sustainability of these forests becomes a major concern for the international community. The Indonesian Ministry of Forestry (MOF) is eager to carry on forest inventory activities and to generate forest resources information.Advanced spaceborne radar techniques are a very promising tool to monitor forests. This technique is complementary with the existing spaceborne optical imagery which suffers too much from cloud cover. Radar provide reliable information on a regular basis and has been applied in various types of applications e.g. forest classification.

    The approach presented in this thesis includes. Firstly, multi-temporal classification of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data using Iterated Conditional Modes which is proposed as a fast step of Maximum Likelihood classification in order to circumvent the slow image segmentation step. Secondly, slope correction dealing with steep slopes that considerable has geometric distortion. Thirdly, textural analysis has been applied to derive additional information layers in multi-temporal classification from fine structures in the radar images.

    The study focuses on three test site areas i.e. Sungai Wain test site area, the Gunung Meratustest site area and the NASA AirSAR PacRim-II test site area.This area experienced long drought periods associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)phenomenon. For this study the severe ENSO event of 1997 - 1998 is of particular interest.Forestfires occur almost every year in this test site area, however,each event is specific in intensity and extent. A longer time series ofradar images takes every event observations into account.

    The results show high accuracy ranging from 85.2% to 98.8% for almost all land cover types. Slope correction has positive effect, but in accuracy does not seem to be very high. It is showed that the induced slope correction is around 1 dB while values up to 10 dB were expected. The resolution of the digital elevation model is an important factor for the correction of relief in spaceborne SAR data. When the resolution is too coarse, i.e. spatial features of slope correction are coarser than the actual structures; the pattern of relief will be flattened out. Utilization of textural features yields a significant improvement of overall classification accuracy, which increases from 36.5% to 48.5%.

    The approach developed for the Gunung Meratus has a wide applicability. This approach seemed to be sufficiently mature to apply it for others areas, for example the Mawas and Sebangau peat swamp forest area. This methodology of radar monitoring system may have the potential to become the core system for 'fast illegal logging response' within the Indonesian MOF.

    The implementation of the SAR monitoring for the Indonesian MOF is speeding up the ongoing decentralization policy. Recommendations are offered here to the Indonesian MOF, particularly for local authorities to enhance their capability in providing fast, accurate, and reliable information on forest condition. This capability will ensure the sustainability of the remaining tropical rain forest in the country.
    The complexities of managing forest resources in post-decentralization Indonesia: a case study from Sintang District, West Kalimantan
    Yasmi, Y. ; Anshari, Gusti Z. ; Alqadrie, S. ; Budiarto, T. ; Ngusmanto, ; Abidin, E. ; Komarudin, H. ; McGrath, S. ; Zulkifli, ; Afifudin, - \ 2005
    Bogor, Indonesia : CIFOR (Case studies on decentralization and forests in Indonesia 10) - ISBN 9789793361925 - 29
    bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - hulpbronnenbeheer - bosbeleid - kalimantan - forest resources - forest management - resource management - forest policy - kalimantan
    The study attempted to understand the dynamics and complexities of forest resources management following decentralization, the interactions among stakeholders in forest resources management, and the impacts of the new legislation on local community livelihoods in Sintang District, West Kalimantan. Forestry policies implemented in the district before and after the introduction of legislation granting regional autonomy and the emergence of small-scale timber concessions are described. Qualitative research methodologies, i.e. semi-structured interviews, fi eld observations and workshops, were used. The results show that the decentralization of forest management had not proceeded smoothly because of the lack of regulations governing implementation, and that the decentralized forest policies had had both positive and negative impacts. Focusing on 100-ha forest product harvest concessions (HPHH), the study examined opportunities for local communities and other stakeholders to participate in the management of forest resources, the contributions of the small-scale forest concessions to district development and local community livelihoods, and social conflicts arising from a complex combination of factors.
    Exploring the possibilities of carbon projects in the tropical peat lands of Central Kalimantan
    Meijerink, G.W. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Limin, S. ; Verhagen, J. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI) (Report / Plant Research International 73) - 35
    koolstofcyclus - kooldioxide - landgebruik - klimaatverandering - kalimantan - indonesië - carbon cycle - carbon dioxide - land use - climatic change - kalimantan - indonesia
    Practical use of a hydrological model for peatlands in Borneo; modelling the Sungai Sebangau catchment in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Vries, F.T. de - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 797) - 87
    hydrologie - modellen - veengebieden - borneo - kalimantan - indonesië - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - hydrology - models - peatlands - borneo - kalimantan - indonesia - catchment hydrology
    The value and vulnerability of tropical peatlands is nowadays widely recognised. To increase knowledge of the hydroloy of peat swamp forests and to promote sustainable management model studies can be a useful tool. In this study the Sebangau catchment in Kalimantan, Indonesia, is modelled in SIMGRO. By means of model input geohydrological data for the area were integrated. Model calculations give an impression of the spatial distrubution of groundwater levels and of fluctuations throughout the years. Further refining of the model however is a requisite to make the model suitable for simulation of landuse scenarios.
    Forestland: its dynamics, disorganised uses and planning in South Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Indrabudi, H. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; H. Simon. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087447 - 187
    bossen - landgebruik - bosbouw - ontbossing - plattelandsgemeenschappen - bosbedrijfsvoering - ruimtelijke ordening - kalimantan - indonesië - forests - land use - forestry - deforestation - rural communities - forest management - physical planning - kalimantan - indonesia

    This study was aimed at analysing land cover and land use dynamics, and at identifying and evaluating the driving forces behind deforestation, by relating population dynamics, village distribution patterns and socio-economic indicators with spatial aspects of land cover changes. It also aimed at knowing the conditions of the local people, their opinions and aspirations regarding conservation. A land re-allocation model for agricultural land and protection forest, as an approach to solving the problem was established

    Forestland dynamics and forestland fragmentation, which showed a continuing decrease in forestland, were studied using two land allocation plans. Decreasing role of the Forestry Agency was also described, as one of the main actors involved in the forestland use planning process. Their strategic factors were identified, and a possible strategy to counter the problems currently faced by the Forestry Agency was formulated. It was concluded with a concept for a forestland use classification by proposing more factors to be considered, based on the principles of economic viability, social acceptance and environmental soundness.

    Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula Miq. cuttings, mycorrhizae and nutrients
    Mulyana Omon, R. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; Supriyanto; W.T.M. Smits. - Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051130577 - 144
    shorea leprosula - dipterocarpaceae - stekken - vegetatieve vermeerdering - mycorrhizae - ectomycorrhiza - plantenvoeding - bosecologie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - kunstmeststoffen - toepassing - lichtrelaties - kalimantan - indonesië - bodembiologie - shorea leprosula - dipterocarpaceae - cuttings - vegetative propagation - mycorrhizas - ectomycorrhizas - plant nutrition - forest ecology - soil fertility - fertilizers - application - light relations - kalimantan - indonesia - soil biology
    "Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea leprosula cuttings, mycorrhizace and nutrients" discusses the mycorrhizal development in conditions of different dosage of NPK fertilizer, on different soil substrates and under different environmental conditions (controlled conditions and semicontrolled conditions).

    This research was conducted in a greenhouse at the Research Station Samboja (WANARISET), East Kalimantan Indonesia. The book consists of four chapters.

    Chapter 1, with a general introduction, provides an overview of the literature on Dipterocarpaceae, mycorrhizae, fertilization, and soil substrates with special reference to environmental factors.

    Chapter 2 describes an experiment on the influence of environmental factors, mycorrhizal inoculation, fertilization, soil substrates and their interactions per treatment. The results show that those environmental factors, soil substrates and mycorrhizal inoculation affected both the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. NPK fertilizer did not significantly affect the growth of S. leprosula cuttings. The strongest growth of S. leprosula cuttings was obtained under controlled conditions.

    The environmental factors, especially light intensity, significantly affected both the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. The light intensitymaximizing the growth of S. leprosula cuttings was 12 µmol.m -2 occuring at 9.00 hrs and 16.00 hrs. As confirmed by other studies, photosynthetic activities are more significant at 9.00 hrs and 16.00 hrs, while at 12.00 hrs the photosynthetic activity is lower than those at 9.00 hrs and 16.00 hrs.

    Sandy loam and sandy clay favour the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development as compared with clay. Sandy clay and sandy loam are more aerated than clay. The higher oxygen supply favours the mycorrhizaldevelopment.


    Chapter 3 discusses an experiment on mycorrhizal development and the inoculum potential in various soil substrates, observed by an intrascope in perforons (rootboxes). The results show that an unidentified and unsterilized soil inoculum advances the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. Autoclaving of the soil causes a decrease in nutrient availability in the soil, especially of N, P, K, and Mg, whereas Ca and Fe increase. In sterilized substrates a new mycorrhizal development, either from spores that had survived the beat, or from airborne spores, was found. Sterilization by autoclaving at 121° C for two hoursclearly affected the nutrient availability negatively. The physiological state and age of cuttings also affected the mycorrhizal development.

    Chapter 4 includes the general discussion and conclusion. Aeration or oxygen supply in the soil substrates indeed affects the growth of S. leprosula and the mycorrhizal development. The potential inoculum plays an important role in promoting the growth of S. leprosula cuttings and the mycorrhizal development. Light intensity affected the growth of S. leprosula cuttings. In this Chapter, also the physiological effects of the mycorrhizal development were discussed. The combined effect of all experimental inputs was explained in a sapstream model of the whole cutting. This also highlighted the role played by Amanita sp in mobilizing magnesium, which as the main component of chlorophyll, boosted the photosynthesis.


    Several new facts emerged. When young, Shorea leprosula proves to be shade requiring, not shade-tolerant, because high light intensity damages it. This is a new temperament. If the squash test is right, two distinct morphological types of mycorrhizae are caused by one Amanita species, providing a striking case of dimorphism probably caused by stress. Finally Fe-uptake and processing may well be a parameter for very complex root processes, and should be the subject of through research.


    At the end of the Chapter, the application of knowledge obtained by the implementation in nursery techniques was discussed, especially the use of soil inocula and fertilization aspects for the S. leprosula and the necessity of light management by means of adequate roofing.

    ENVISAT forest monitoring Indonesia
    Hoekman, D.H. ; Vissers, M.A.M. ; Sugardiman, R.A. ; Vargas, J. - \ 2002
    The RADARSAT International (RSI) RADARSAT-2 e-Newsletter 2 (2002)7. - p. 68 - 68.
    remote sensing - radar - tropische regenbossen - geografische informatiesystemen - landclassificatie - vegetatie - bosbranden - monitoring - kalimantan - indonesië - tropical rain forests - geographical information systems - land classification - vegetation - forest fires - indonesia
    To support the introduction of operational radar forest monitoring systems in Indonesian a demonstration is executed at the Tropenbos study area in East-Kalimantan. Interest focuses on fulfilling information needs relating to land cover change, fire risk and fire damage monitoring, with main emphasis on early detection.
    Research on forest rehabilitation; the international MOFEC-Tropenbos Kalimantan project, Indonesia; mission report 11 May - 24 June 2000
    Tolkamp, G.W. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra
    herstel - gedegradeerde bossen - graslanden - afgegraven land - tropische bossen - bosplantages - onderzoeksprojecten - indonesië - kalimantan - rehabilitation - degraded forests - grasslands - mined land - tropical forests - forest plantations - research projects - indonesia
    The effect of shoot length of Gliricidia cuttings on survival rate and rooting ability
    Tolkamp, G.W. ; Saweni, - \ 1997
    Balikpapan : International MOF Tropenbos-Kalimantan Project - 5
    bosbouw - vegetatieve vermeerdering - scheutstekken - bomen - wortels - plantenontwikkeling - groene zones - heggen - kalimantan - borneo - gliricidia sepium - forestry - vegetative propagation - shoot cuttings - trees - roots - plant development - green belts - hedges
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