Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Financiering van bestaande natuur : praktijkcasus ‘Weerribben-Wieden’
Heide, C.M. van der; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Borgstein, M.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-056) - ISBN 9789462578111 - 43 p.
natuurbeheer - natuur - kapitaal - natuurbescherming - nationale parken - financieren - landschapsbeheer - landschapsbescherming - natuurlandschap - noordwest-overijssel - nederland - ecosysteemdiensten - biomassa productie - nature management - nature - capital - nature conservation - national parks - financing - landscape management - landscape conservation - natural landscape - netherlands - ecosystem services - biomass production
Nature organisations possess a large amount of natural capital thanks to their nature sites. The value of this capital is extremely important for the organisations themselves and in particular for society as a whole. Natural capital provides numerous ecosystem services from which people benefit, such as water purification, carbon storage, pollination and biomass. The question in this instance is how nature organisations can generate more financial resources from their nature sites in order to maintain and protect their natural capital. After all, although these services are very valuable, most of these benefits are free and do not produce any income. A case study in De Weerribben-Wieden National Park in the north of the Netherlands clearly demonstrates how an area-oriented approach involving innovative revenue models is required if nature sites are to produce sufficient income. That said, without the commitment and a shared sense of urgency from stakeholders in the area, new finance mechanisms that are intended to conserve and the characteristic landscape have little chance of success. In light of this, the challenge for this region is to build a perspective that has the stakeholders’ confidence and that encourages them to cooperate in order to benefit from the opportunities that monetisation offers.
Handbook of Land and Water Grabs in Africa; Foreign direct investment and food and water security
Allan, T. ; Keulertz, M. ; Sojamo, S. ; Warner, J.F. - \ 2012
London, New York : Routledge (Routledge international handbooks ) - ISBN 9781857436693 - 488
voedselzekerheid - waterzekerheid - pachtstelsel - landgebruik - kapitaal - activa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - afrika - food security - water security - tenure systems - land use - capital - assets - natural resources - africa
According to estimates by the International Land Coalition based at the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 57 million hectares of land have been leased to foreign investors since 2007. Current research has focused on human rights issues related to inward investment in land but has been ignorant of water resource issues and the challenges of managing scarce water. The geographical scope of this book will be the African continent, where land has attracted the attention of risk-taking investors because much land is under-utilised marginalized land, with associated water resources and rapidly growing domestic food markets. The successful implementation of investment strategies in African agriculture could determine the future of more than one billion people. An important factor to note is that sub-Saharan Africa will, of all the continents, be hit hardest by climate change, population growth and food insecurity. Sensible investment in agriculture is therefore needed, however, at what costs and at whose expense? The book will also address the livelihoods theme and provide a holistic analysis of land and water grabbing in sub-Saharan Africa. Four other themes will addressed: politics, economics, the environment and the history of land investments in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ontwikkelingen rond de financiering van agrarische bedrijven
Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Venema, G.S. - \ 2005
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9052429715 - 92
agrarische economie - financiën - landbouwbedrijven - kapitaal - investering - overheidsbeleid - banken - ondernemerschap - nederland - europese unie - financieren - agricultural economics - finance - farms - capital - investment - government policy - banks - entrepreneurship - netherlands - european union - financing
Dit onderzoek beschrijft recente ontwikkelingen in de financiering van agrarische bedrijven. De beschrijving is gebaseerd op gegevens uit het Bedrijven-Informatienet van het LEI en interviews met deskundigen uit de accountancy en bancaire praktijk. This research report describes recent developments in the financing of agricultural holdings. The description is based on data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network and interviews with experts in accountancy offices and banks.
Bedrijfsovername bij hoge grondprijzen
Luijt, J. ; Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2003
De Landeigenaar 49 (2003)Spec maart. - ISSN 0166-5839 - p. 3 - 5.
landbouwbedrijven - eigendomsoverdrachten - grondprijzen - kapitaal - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - nederland - melkveebedrijven - financieren - dairy farms - farms - property transfers - land prices - capital - farm income - netherlands - financing
Zowel bij noodzakelijke areaaluitbreiding als bij bedrijfsovername spelen de hoe grondprijs een negatieve rol. De "denktank melkveehouderij" zocht naar oplossingen. Verkorte weergave van het LEI rapport "Ontvlechting van de productiewaarde en optiewaarde van landbouwgronden" (2003)
Grond: een vreemd productiemiddel
Haan, M. de; Vries, C. de - \ 2002
Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)1. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 22 - 23.
landbouwgrond - landgebruik - grondproductiviteit - land - grondeigendom - grondbeheer - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - gewasproductie - voedergewassen - kapitaal - bedrijfskapitaal - investering - extensieve landbouw - extensieve veehouderij - intensieve landbouw - intensieve veehouderij - melkveehouderij - productiefactoren - input van landbouwbedrijf - grondwaarde - agricultural land - land use - land productivity - land ownership - land management - farm management - crop production - fodder crops - capital - working capital - investment - extensive farming - extensive livestock farming - intensive farming - intensive livestock farming - dairy farming - factors of production - farm inputs - land value
Door verschillen in ondernemers en omstandigheden, is grondgebruik, grondgebondenheid en grondproductie specifiek voor elke situatie.
Minder schilvlekjes en betere kwaliteit door DCS-bewaring
Verschoor, J. ; Veltman, R. ; Geijn, F. van de - \ 2002
De Fruitteelt (2002). - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 8 - 9.
appels - opslag - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedselbewaring - zuurstof - technieken - gasbewaring - investering - kapitaal - financiën - apples - storage - keeping quality - food preservation - oxygen - techniques - controlled atmosphere storage - investment - capital - finance
Effect van Dynamic Control System (DCS) op de hardheid, grondkleur, bewaarduur en reductie van schilvlekjes van Elstar. De investeringskosten van DCS per kilogram bewaard product worden in een kader aangegeven. Gegevens in bijgaande figuren: 1) Hardheid Elstar na ULO- en DCS-bewaring; 2) Percentage schilvlekjes na DCS-bewaring in vergelijking met ULO-bewaring (maart 2002)
Micro-econometric models for analysing capital adjustment on Dutch pig farms
Gardebroek, C. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.J. Oskam; A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; J.H.M. Peerlings. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084477 - 113
varkenshouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - productiefactoren - kapitaal - investering - nederland - econometrische modellen - varkens - pig farming - pigs - farm management - factors of production - capital - investment - econometric models - netherlands

Farmers operate their business in a dynamic environment. Fluctuating prices, evolving agricultural and environmental policies, technological change and increasing consumer demands for product quality (e.g. with respect to environmental friendly production methods, animal welfare and food safety) frequently require adjustment of production and input levels on individual farms. Quantities of variable production factors like animal feed or pesticides can usually be adjusted easily together with changing production levels. Quantities of labour, capital and land however, are less easy to adjust. Instantaneous adjustment may be impossible or imply (high) costs of adjustment. In the long run, quantities of these quasi-fixed factors can be adjusted at lower costs of adjustment.

The Dutch pig sector is an interesting case for studying adjustment of quasi-fixed factors. Increases in the average farm size, accompanied by an ongoing specialisation, implied considerable adjustments for individual farms. Moreover, environmental legislation has had a significant impact on pig production, providing another reason to study adjustment behaviour of Dutch pig farms.

Understanding the process of adjustment of quasi-fixed factors is important for a number of reasons. First, it shows how farmers reorganise their production in the long run as a reaction to changes in the economic environment, e.g. a decrease in output prices. Second, understanding adjustment of quasi-fixed factors may explain farmers' entry and exit decisions. Third, knowledge about long run adjustment processes at the farm level can be used in economic models to simulate long-term effects of agricultural and environmental policies on individual farms.

The objective of this thesis is to study capital adjustment at individual pig farms in the Netherlands, taking farm-specific characteristics into account. In order to study this process, micro-economic models are constructed and estimated. From this broad objective, four specific objectives are defined and worked out in individual chapters.

In chapter two the relation between unobserved farm-specific effects, accounting for differences in management, and quasi-fixed factors (e.g. capital) is investigated for specialised pig breeding farms for the period 1980-1996. Managerial ability is often seen as a major determinant in pig production and as an important source of farm heterogeneity. Technical skills and skills in organising the production process, which are both considered to be elements of an aggregate management variable, not only have a direct impact on production and profits, but also interact with other production factors. In order to investigate the relation between the farm-specific effects and quasi-fixed factors, a system of output supply and input demand equations is estimated using the Hausman-Taylor panel data estimator. This estimator has a number of advantages over other estimation methods and allows for performing tests on correlation of different sets of explanatory variables with the farm-specific effects, thereby yielding insight in the unobserved management variable and its relation to quasi-fixed factors in pig production. Testing indicates that farm-specific effects in a system of output supply and input demand equations for Dutch pig breeding farms are correlated with buildings and machinery and installations. Therefore, it can be concluded that differences in management are related to different quantities of these capital goods. Results indicate that pig farms with good management have more buildings and machinery than pig farms with poor management. Although the correlation between management and the quantity of capital does not imply a direct causal relationship, it can be inferred that either good management is a major determinant in capital investment or that a large capital base enables a pig farmer to improve upon its management skills.

Although farmers cannot adjust the quantities of the quasi-fixed factors in the short run, sometimes they utilise only part of the available quantities. For example when supply quotas are introduced and the restricted quota quantities are well below the optimal production levels, farmers may be forced to reduce the utilisation of the available quasi-fixed factors in the short run. Chapter three develops a theoretical model to analyse the short-run effects of factor under-utilisation on the shadow price of production and the shadow price of supply quotas. In the theoretical model it is shown that ignoring under-utilisation leads to overestimation of the shadow prices of quota rights. The model is used to simulate prices of pig rights for pig breeding farms introduced by the 1998 pig sector restructuring law with and without taking factor under-utilisation into account. Simulation results show that ignoring factor under-utilisation in this case overestimates quota prices on average by approximately 24%. For the Dutch government buying out pig production rights, overestimation of the price of pig production rights leads to budget costs that are too high. Taking under-utilisation into account implies that compensation for bought out production rights should be lower. With tradable quotas, factor under-utilisation implies that farmers are less willing to buy additional pig production rights.

Where chapter three considers the utilisation of available quasi-fixed factors in the short-run, chapter four explicitly looks at adjustment of quantities of buildings and machinery. An investment model for Dutch pig farmers is specified and estimated for buildings and machinery. This investment model integrates two existing investment theories, i.e. fixed asset theory and adjustment cost theory, in one coherent framework. Fixed asset theory states that thresholds exists for investment, thus providing a theoretical motivation for observed zero investments. Adjustment cost theory motivates spreading of investments over time by posing that farms incur increasing costs in adjusting their capital stocks. In the model it is assumed that farmers have different thresholds for investment. Alternative specifications for the adjustment cost functions of buildings and machinery are tested for. Writing the investment problem as a long-run optimisation problem, optimality conditions are derived and estimated for different investment regimes. Estimation and testing results indicate that adjustment costs are important determinants in investment for buildings but not for machinery. This implies that when farmers adjust the stock of machinery, this adjustment is instantaneous. Furthermore, testing indicates that joint farm-specific parameters, which include farm-specific thresholds for investment and other farm-specific effects, are present in the optimality conditions for investment. However, these farm-specific investment thresholds cannot be calculated since they cannot be separated from other elements in the joint farm-specific parameters.

Quantitative restrictions on production may not only lead to lower utilisation of capital in the short run as discussed before, they may also reduce investment in the long run. Consequences of lower investments are that innovation is reduced, deteriorating the long-run productivity of the sector and that investments contributing to the solution of the manure problem are lower. Using the investment model developed in chapter four, chapter five tests for the impact of manure production rights on capital investment of Dutch pig farms for the period 1987-1996. Manure production rights were introduced in 1987. Given the close relationship between pig production and manure production, a system of manure production rights also implies a constraint on pig production. However, thus far it is not well understood whether investments were reduced by this implicit output constraint or not. In the theoretical model it is shown that a constraint on production implies a reduction in investment. A testing procedure, based on a GMM structural break test, is developed and implemented. The results provide evidence for a negative impact of manure production rights on investment after 1987. Lower investments in the period after 1987 may have weakened the future viability of the pig sector.

Chapter six summarises the main conclusions and discusses two main aspects of this thesis, i.e. theories of long-run adjustment of quasi-fixed factors and taking farm heterogeneity into account using panel data techniques. This chapter ends with suggestions for future research.

Monoloog of dialoog? : advies bij het verdelen van inkomen en vermogen voor zelfstandigen met een persoonlijke relatie in de landbouw en verblijfsrecreatie
Overbeek, G. ; Hoek, J. van den; Venema, G. - \ 2000
Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052426266 - 66
inkomen - inkomensverdeling - activa - kapitaal - income - income distribution - assets - capital
The economics of nature : managing biological assets
Kooten, G.C. van; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2000
Malden, Mass. [etc.] : Blackwell Publishers - ISBN 9780631218944 - 512
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - economie - investering - kapitaal - milieubeheer - welvaartseconomie - taxatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurbescherming - bedreigde soorten - biodiversiteit - bosbedrijfsvoering - ontbossing - natural resources - resource management - economics - investment - capital - environmental management - welfare economics - valuation - sustainability - nature conservation - endangered species - biodiversity - forest management - deforestation
The Economics of Nature Management takes a portfolio management perspective on the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment. For many emerging countries, nature conservation boils down to the purely economic decision of "investing" limited funds in nature potentially at the expense of investing in other necessary imperatives such as education or infrastructure. As a result, the authors see the function of the book as twofold. First, to measure environmental services and biological assets and second it demonstrates how it applies the economic theory of nature management through case studies.
Return on capital in the European fishery industry
Davidse, W.P. ; Boude, J.P. ; Daures, F. ; leFloc'h, P. ; Oakeshott, E. ; Duran, M. ; Jensen, C.L. ; Smit, M.H. ; Taal, C. ; Wijk, M.O. van - \ 1997
The Hague : LEI-DLO - ISBN 9789052424095 - 126
vis vangen - visserij - kapitaal - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rentabiliteit - economische situatie - ondernemingen - winsten - verliezen - schuld - europa - economische productie - fishing - fisheries - capital - farm results - profitability - economic situation - enterprises - profits - losses - debt - europe - economic production
Participatie in cooperatie
Dijk, G. van; Poppe, K.J. - \ 1992
Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Interne nota / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 405) - 61
kapitaal - kapitaalrekeningen - nederland - landbouwcoöperaties - plattelandscoöperaties - capital - capital accounts - netherlands - agricultural cooperatives - rural cooperatives
De vermogensbehoefte in de tuinbouw
Zeeuw, A. de - \ 1960
's-Gravenhage : Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (Reeks korte publikaties / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut nr. 13)
kapitaal - financiën - tuinbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - financieel beheer - akkerbouw- en tuinbouwbedrijven - nederland - capital - finance - horticulture - farm management - financial management - crop enterprises - netherlands
Over de rol die vermogen op verschillende manieren in een tuinbouwbedrijf speelt.
Onderzoek naar de kapitaalbehoefte van de toekomstige pachters in de Noord-Oostpolder
Anonymous, - \ 1947
's-Gravenhage : Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (Rapport / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut no. 60) - 15
kapitaal - kapitaalvorming - bedrijfskapitaal - landbouwsituatie - pachtovereenkomsten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - financiën - akkerbouw- en tuinbouwbedrijven - flevoland - nederland - capital - capital formation - working capital - agricultural situation - farm leases - farm management - finance - crop enterprises - netherlands
In de Noord-Oostpolder zullen verschillende bedrijfstypen worden gestioht, waarvan de voornaamste zijn: a. Akkerbouwbedrijven van resps 48, 36, 24 en 12 ha; b. Gemengde bedrijven van 24 ha met 2/3 deel bouwland en l/3 deel grasland ; c. Gemengde bedrijven van 24 ha met 2/3 deel grasland en l/3 deel bouwland. Dit rapport beperkt zich tot de akkerbouwbedrijven van 48 ha en 24 ha. Over de akkerbouwbedrijven van 36 ha en 12 ha worden slechts enkele opmerkingen gemaakt. De gemengde bedrijven met overwegend bouwland zijn niet nader in ogenschouw genomen, omdat de kapitaalbehoefte van dit type bedrijven min of meer zal tenderen naar die van de akkerbouwbedrijven. De gemengde bedrijven met overwegend grasland zijn niet in studie genomen, aangezien deze bedrijven in het najaar van 1947 nog niet zullen worden uigegeven. Wij kunnen de kapitaalbehoefte van de toekomstige bedrijven voor ons doel het best onder vier hoofden brengen: 1. De pachters moeten voorzien in de aanschaf van de grote inventaris alsmede van het grote vee. 2. Evenzo in de aanschaf van het noodzakelijke klein materiaal en enig klein vee 3. Daarnaast zullen de pachters over middelen moeten beschikken om het productieproces van het eerste jaar te kunnen financieren. 4. Tenslotte moet er rekening mee worden gehouden, dat de pachters middelen hebben om het eerste jaar in het levensonderhoud van hun gezin te kunnen voorzien. In het volgende is niet getracht de totale kapitaalbehoefte zowel als die per ha voor de genoemde bedrijven tot in de finesses te berekenen. Er is slechts gepoogd met behulp van de beschikbare gegevens zo nauwkeurig mogelijk de orde van grootte vast te stellen, waarin deze kapitaalbehoefte zal liggen
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