Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Kansen voor regionale innovatieprojecten, verkenning voor de vollegrondsgroentesector in Zuidoost Nederland
    Haan, J.J. de; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Stichting DLO (PPO/PRI-rapport 3750302800 ) - 26
    akkerbouw - groenteteelt - groenten - kleine landbouwbedrijven - limburg - ondernemerschap - innovaties - kennisoverdracht - kennissystemen - kennis van boeren - kennis - subsidies - arable farming - vegetable growing - vegetables - small farms - limburg - entrepreneurship - innovations - knowledge transfer - knowledge systems - farmers' knowledge - knowledge - subsidies
    The Dutch province of Limburg has asked Wageningen UR to develop an initial knowledge- and innovation agenda for the outdoor vegetable production sector, including three concrete project ideas for the POP3 framework. Besides this, Wageningen UR was asked to evaluate three innovation projects with farmers and SMEs to make recommendations to optimise the POP3 framework. Recommendations for POP3 Based on experiences in three different subsidy projects, recommendations are formulated for POP3. The main conclusion is that subsidy schemes do not match with the situation of agricultural businesses and small SMEs, although the schemes aim to support such companies with innovation. It is recommended to leave the ownership of the innovation with the companies, but without the full project management responsibility. Moreover, it is important to make the conditions more suitable for small enterprises, e.g. the minimum subsidy sum and the required contribution in cash. Second problem is the inflexibility of subsidy schemes, limiting the dynamics of innovation projects or forcing them to start procedures for acceptance of changes in the plan and budgeting. It is recommended to make schemes more flexible, e.g. asking less detailed plans and creating more room for changes in partners, activities and budgets. Third problem is the limitation for consortium partners to get their full costs paid, affecting research and advisory partners. This is often solved through very complicated constructions (outsourcing, secondary partnership), causing inequalities in the project (some partners are fully paid, others are not). Recommendation: allow projects to involve the right partners for the project, with the possibility to pay real costs and without complicated constructions. Last common problem is the artificial distinction between knowledge development and knowledge use/uptake, causing problems within projects when necessary research activities are not accepted by the subsidy scheme. Recommendation: allow projects to do all activities they believe are necessary for the innovation process.
    Co-creation in the practice, science and movement of agroecology
    Milgroom, J. ; Bruil, Janneke ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2016
    Farming Matters 32 (2016)1. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 6 - 9.
    agroecosystems - sustainability - family farms - farmers' knowledge - knowledge transfer - agricultural production systems - food production - lifelong learning - agro-ecosystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - familiebedrijven, landbouw - kennis van boeren - kennisoverdracht - agrarische productiesystemen - voedselproductie - levenslang leren
    Knowledge building is central to agroecology rooted in family farming. But why?
    What type of knowledge, and whose knowledge is mobilised? This issue of
    Farming Matters explores what we really mean by co-creation of knowledge in
    agroecology, why it is so essential for today’s challenges, and how it takes place
    around the world.
    Barsten in het ammoniakbastion
    Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2015
    Huib Schoonhoven produkties
    landbouw - ammoniakemissie - landbouw en milieu - bodembiologie - mestbeleid - emissiereductie - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - kennis van boeren - agriculture - ammonia emission - agriculture and environment - soil biology - manure policy - emission reduction - scientific research - farmers' knowledge
    In deze korte film spreken Jan Douwe van der Ploeg en Jaap Hanekamp over het ammoniakbeleid. Jan Douwe van der Ploeg (WUR): "Het is echt een bastion geworden wat zich afkeert van de wereld, maar het wordt steeds duidelijker dat er enorme gaten en barsten zitten in hun redenering en bewijsvoering." Jaap Hanekamp: "Tot op heden hebben we nog geen gegevens gezien die ons inzicht kunnen geven in hoe nou de verhouding is tussen de emissiefactoren die voor de wetgever gelden en de fundamentele data die daaraan ten grondslag liggen."
    Van aanvankelijk scepsis naar gewoon dóen
    PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2015
    Akker magazine 11 (2015)3. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 8 - 11.
    akkerbouw - grondanalyse - bodemweerbaarheid - kennis van boeren - organische meststoffen - groenbemesters - duurzame landbouw - arable farming - soil analysis - soil suppressiveness - farmers' knowledge - organic fertilizers - green manures - sustainable agriculture
    Binnen het project ‘Bodem in Balans?’ begon een groep telers uit het noorden van het land met de methode Albrecht voor bodemanalyse. De studieclubleden wilden weten wat ze konden bereiken met Albrecht als uitgangspunt. Lopende het project werd het accent verschoven naar een compleet weerbaarder teeltsysteem.
    Het bodemschimmelschema
    Lamers, J.G. ; Rozen, K. van - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit PPO-agv - 70
    akkerbouw - tuinbouw - vollegrondsgroenten - kennis van boeren - kennisoverdracht - internet - waardplanten - gewasbescherming - plagenbestrijding - bodemschimmels - arable farming - horticulture - field vegetables - farmers' knowledge - knowledge transfer - internet - host plants - plant protection - pest control - soil fungi
    Dit project betreft het ontsluiten van kennis via een internetapplicatie over de invloed van waardplant, plantgevoeligheid en bodemtype op bodemgerelateerde plagen en schimmels. Het schema bevat vijftien belangrijke bodemschimmels in zowel akkerbouw- als vollegrondsgroentegewassen, beschreven in aparte hoofdstukken. Elk hoofdstuk bestaat uit een algemene beschrijving, de levenscyclus, waardplanten en vermeerdering en de schade van de plaag. Voor iedere plaag is een bodemplagenschema gemaakt met een semi-kwantitatieve beschrijving van de schade en vermeerdering van de plaag op 40 landbouwgewassen, zoveel mogelijk gevolgd door een referentie.
    Updating cocoa stories
    Witteveen, L.M. ; Rijn, A. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    cacao - cacaobonen - ghana - nederland - gewasbescherming - schimmelbestrijding - bestrijdingsmethoden - gewasproductie - verwerkingskwaliteit - kennis van boeren - geschiedenis - cocoa - cocoa beans - ghana - netherlands - plant protection - fungus control - control methods - crop production - processing quality - farmers' knowledge - history
    The history of cocoa production and the current cocoa story. It's a story about commercial interest, pest control, cocoa products and the importance of education of farmers to make the cocoa chain more sustainable
    Met bomen op landbouwgrond opbrengsten verhogen
    Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    agroforestry - agroforestrysystemen - ontwikkelingslanden - kennis van boeren - ontwikkelingsstudies - kennisoverdracht - landbouw - agrosilviculturele systemen - duurzame landbouw - agroforestry systems - developing countries - farmers' knowledge - development studies - knowledge transfer - agriculture - agrosilvicultural systems - sustainable agriculture
    Filmpje over agroforestry. Aan het woord is prof.dr. Meine van Noordwijk, buitengewoon hoogleraar Agroforestry aan Wageningen University. “We moeten ons realiseren dat op 43% van het landbouwareaal in de wereld bomen staan die voor minstens 10% de bodem bedekken. Het gaat dus om een landbouwareaal ter grootte van een continent".
    IOB Review - Riding the wave of sustainable commodity sourcing. Review of the Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH 2008-2013
    Omta, S.W.F. ; Elzakker, B. van; Schoenmakers, W.W.M.E. - \ 2014
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs (IOB review, [ISSN 1566-7391] no. 397) - ISBN 9789053284643 - 120
    duurzame ontwikkeling - internationale handel - goederenmarkten - publiek-private samenwerking - particuliere ondernemingen - certificering - kennis van boeren - agrarische handel - sustainable development - international trade - commodity markets - public-private cooperation - private firms - certification - farmers' knowledge - agricultural trade
    The Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH (Initiatief Duurzame Handel) was set up in 2008 as a multi-stakeholder initiative of private companies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions and the Dutch government with the aim of improving smallholder production systems, market integration and enhancing sustainable sourcing from developing countries. The activities undertaken by IDH focused on improving and transforming the supply chain performance of internationally traded commodities (such as coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, timber, palm oil and fish). They rely on promoting good agricultural practice, farmers’ training and certification as key activities.
    Kennis als gereedschap om schade te beperken
    Raaijmakers, E. ; Rozen, K. van; Everaarts, T. - \ 2014
    Akker magazine 10 (2014)5. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 18 - 19.
    akkerbouw - gewasbescherming - deroceras reticulatum - plantenplagen - naaktslakken - tipulidae - elateridae - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - plagenbestrijding - kennis van boeren - dieridentificatie - bodempathogenen - suikerbieten - arable farming - plant protection - deroceras reticulatum - plant pests - slugs - tipulidae - elateridae - cultural control - pest control - farmers' knowledge - animal identification - soilborne pathogens - sugarbeet
    Slakken, emelten en ritnaalden zijn al op veel percelen suikerbieten waargenomen. Ze veroorzaken plantwegval. Hierdoor moesten enkele telers hun percelen zelfs overzaaien. Ieder jaar zorgen bodemplagen voor schade. Met meer kennis hierover heeft een teler meer gereedschappen in handen om schade te beperken en de opbrengst te verhogen.
    Leren in een praktijknetwerk : Evaluatie regeling Praktijknetwerken
    Blokland, P.W. ; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Ham, A. van den; Prins, H. - \ 2013
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - 33
    plattelandsontwikkeling - ondernemerschap - boeren - kennis van boeren - kennisoverdracht - netwerken (activiteit) - veehouderij - rural development - entrepreneurship - farmers - farmers' knowledge - knowledge transfer - networking - livestock farming
    In het kader van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid (GLB) wordt sinds een aantal jaren ondersteuning gegeven aan Praktijknetwerken. Dit vormt een onderdeel van het Plattelandsontwikkelingsbeleid, de 2e pijler van het GLB. De regeling Praktijknetwerken is een van de maatregelen met als doel het versterken van het concurrentievermogen van de landbouw- en de bosbouwsector, de as 1 van het Plattelandsontwikkelingsbeleid. De regeling Praktijknetwerken valt met de regelingen 'Demonstratienetwerken' en 'Beroepsopleiding en voorlichting' onder maatregelfiche 111 van het 2e Plattelandsontwikkelingsprogramma van Nederland (POP II). Het POP II loopt van 2007 tot en met 2013. Deze evaluatie heeft LEI Wageningen UR op verzoek van het ministerie van EZ opgesteld. De evaluatie richt zich alleen op de kleine praktijknetwerken. Hierbij betreft het de toepassing van deze regeling in de jaren 2008-2010 in de veehouderij. Hierdoor blijven, in overleg met de opdrachtgever, de grote praktijknetwerken en ook de toepassing van de regeling Praktijknetwerken in de plantaardige sectoren buiten beschouwing. Deze laatste regeling is in 2010 van start gegaan.
    Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 2: Using free-lists to explore farmers’ knowledge about herbs and cows health
    Laldi, S. - \ 2012
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 6 p.
    kennis van boeren - medicinale planten - weideplanten - diergezondheid - melkvee - biologische landbouw - farmers' knowledge - medicinal plants - pasture plants - animal health - dairy cattle - organic farming
    In the period April - October 2011 the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’ was carried out by the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pasture herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms. Participating farmers expressed a special interest in the inclusion of pasture herbs in the cows’ diet to promote the health of their dairy cattle. This study explored the existing knowledge of farmers on herbs used for animal health using the free-lists method.
    Kruiden in grasland en de gezondheid van melkvee : Deel 2: Kennis van veehouders over kruiden en diergezondheid
    Laldi, S. ; Wagenaar, J.P. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2012
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 6
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - weideplanten - weiden - graslanden - diergezondheid - melkveevoeding - biologische landbouw - kennis van boeren - kennis - dairy cattle - dairy farming - pasture plants - pastures - grasslands - animal health - dairy cattle nutrition - organic farming - farmers' knowledge - knowledge
    In de periode april - oktober 2011 heeft het Louis Bolk Instituut het onderzoeksproject 'Kruiden in grasland en de gezondheid van melkvee' uitgevoerd op 22 melkveebedrijven. Alle bedrijven hadden interesse in de relatie tussen weidekruiden in het rantsoen van hun melkvee en een betere diergezondheid.
    Grip op Mycosphaerella in komkommer : beknopte weergave van beschikbare kennis
    Genuchten, L. van; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Dik, A.J. - \ 2011
    Zoetermeer : Productschap Tuinbouw - 92
    glastuinbouw - komkommers - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - gewasbescherming - mycosphaerella - literatuuroverzichten - kennis van boeren - greenhouse horticulture - cucumbers - plant pathogenic fungi - plant protection - mycosphaerella - literature reviews - farmers' knowledge
    Mycosphaerella is de afgelopen jaren een toenemend probleem geworden en komt breed voor bij alle telers met verschillende teeltsystemen. De schade ten gevolge van Mycosphaerella verschilt per bedrijf, maar kan bij ernstige aantastingen oplopen naar € 1,10 per m2. Chemische bestrijding is lastig door het slinkende middelenpakket en het optreden van resistentieontwikkeling. Sturen op teelt- en klimaatmaatregelen is eveneens beperkt in perioden met een hoge infectiedruk. In opdracht van de landelijke commissie komkommer hebben Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Adviesbureau Aleid Dik en DLV Plant in de zomermaanden een kennisinventarisatie uitgevoerd over Mycosphaerella in de teelt van komkommer. Dit project had tevens tot doel om de witte vlekken in kennis op dit gebied aan te geven om hieruit suggesties te formuleren voor vervolgonderzoek. Via een brochure is de verzamelde kennis toegankelijk gemaakt voor telers en adviseurs. Brochure In de brochure zijn de uitkomsten van het onderzoek kort weergegeven met duidelijke en praktische tips om de kans op infectie van Mycosphaerella zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen. Daarin wordt ook antwoord gegeven op de meest actuele vragen die naar voren zijn gekomen uit de gesprekken met telers en adviseurs. Inhoud rapport Dit rapport geeft een compleet en actueel overzicht van alle beschikbare informatie uit de vakbladen en (inter)nationale literatuur. Daarnaast is deze kennis aangevuld met kennis vanuit de praktijk. Hiervoor zijn telefonische interviews gehouden met telers, adviseurs, fabrikanten en veredelaars. In het discussiehoofdstuk wordt afgewogen hoeveel van de beschikbare kennis uiteindelijk wordt gebruikt door telers en adviseurs en waar kansen om infectie te voorkomen nog onbenut blijven. Witte vlekken & vervolgonderzoek Opvallend zijn het grote aantal witte vlekken met betrekking tot factoren die het infectieproces van inwendig vruchtrot beïnvloeden en de tegenstrijdige resultaten tussen onderzoeken. Sturing met klimaatfactoren geeft tussen onderzoekers onderling tegenstrijdige resultaten (bijv. verband tussen plantbelasting en inwendig vruchtrot). Een grote onbekende is verder de invloed van worteldruk, omdat dit tot dusver nooit goed direct te meten was. Vanuit de praktijk leven er vragen als: Wat is de invloed van overgangsmomenten in plantbelasting? Wat is de effectiviteit van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen specifiek tegen Mycosphaerella ? Wat is het juiste klimaat en watergeefstrategie om aantasting te voorkomen? Adviezen voor vervolgonderzoeken zijn ondermeer om te investeren in een waarschuwingssysteem (zodat tijdig bijgestuurd kan worden op teelt- en klimaatfactoren) en om gewasbeschermingsmiddelen gericht te testen op hun effectiviteit tegen Mycosphaerella. Conclusies Op korte termijn zijn er nieuwe middelen ter verwachten tegen Mycosphaerella die weinig gevoelig zijn voor resistentieontwikkeling. Toch blijft het zaak om nog meer aandacht te besteden aan preventie van Mycosphaerella door bijvoorbeeld te kiezen voor een cultivar met kleine bloemen en te letten op een nog effectievere sturing van teelt- en klimaatfactoren.
    Studentenonderzoek inspireert : samen werken, samen zoeken, samen leren
    Balen, D.J.M. van; Slot, M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 16
    ketenmanagement - kennisoverdracht - landbouw - agrarisch onderwijs - kennis van boeren - toegepast onderzoek - supply chain management - knowledge transfer - agriculture - agricultural education - farmers' knowledge - applied research
    Netwerk van onderzoekers, studenten, ondernemers en docenten biedt meerwaarde voor het verspreiden, delen en toepassen van opgedane kennis.
    Udder health and communication : proceedings of the international conference 25-27 October 2011, Utrecht, the Netherlands
    Hogeveen, H. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861859
    melkvee - boeren - uiers - diergezondheid - rundermastitis - ziektebestrijding - dierziektepreventie - motivatie - communicatie - houding van boeren - kennis van boeren - dierenartsen - agrarische economie - diagnostiek - therapie - dairy cattle - farmers - udders - animal health - bovine mastitis - disease control - animal disease prevention - motivation - communication - farmers' attitudes - farmers' knowledge - veterinarians - agricultural economics - diagnostics - therapy
    In dairy industries throughout the world there is a desire to optimize udder health. An improved udder health will lead to improved animal welfare, improved production efficiency and a reduction of the use of antibiotics. To improve udder health, first of all, technical knowledge on issues such as treatment, milking, infectious pressure and host resistance is important. However, over the years we learned that knowledge alone is not enough: knowledge has to be used. And for knowledge to be used, farmers have to be motivated. This requires knowledge about motivation and communication. In this book, recent knowledge on technical udder health issues is combined with knowledge on motivation and communication. A large number of descriptions of mastitis control programs that are being carried out worldwide is combined with more specific studies. These are aimed at effective advising, motivation and communication strategies, economics, and technical studies on mastitis control and prevention. Therefore, this book provides an applied source of information for all that are willing to improve udder health.
    Dynamiek en robuustheid van multifunctionele landbouw : rapportage onderzoeksfase 3: leren en competentieontwikkeling
    Seuneke, P.L.M. ; Lans, T. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Rurale Sociologie, Wageningen University - 27
    multifunctionele landbouw - diversificatie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - kennis van boeren - inventarisaties - multifunctional agriculture - diversification - farm management - farm income - farmers' knowledge - inventories
    Het onderzoek geeft inzicht in de dynamiek van het leren en competentieontwikkeling binnen de multifunctionele landbouw. Naarmate het multifunctionele karakter sterker wordt doet zich een duidelijke verandering voor in zowel het leergedrag als de leerinhoud. Daarmee wordt op dit vlak ook de waarde en het belang van multifunctionele landbouw zichtbaar: het is geen afbouwstrategie maar juist een bedrijfsontwikkelingstraject dat een sterk beroep doet op de competenties van de ondernemers en vraagt om de ontwikkeling van andere kennis, houdingen en competenties dan bij gangbare landbouw het geval is
    Extra aandacht voor mijten op Kennismiddag PPO
    Dwarswaard, A. ; PPO Bomen-bollen, - \ 2011
    BloembollenVisie 2011 (2011)211. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 21.
    mijten - kennis van boeren - gewasbescherming - kennisoverdracht - bloembollen - bloementeelt - mites - farmers' knowledge - plant protection - knowledge transfer - ornamental bulbs - floriculture
    Veel excuses om de Kennismiddag van PPO niet te bezoeken zijn er niet. Voor elke bloembollenteler, exporteur of bolbloementeler is er wel iets dat de moeite waard is om kennis van te nemen. Vrijdag 11 februari 2011 bieden onderzoekers en toeleveranciers een schat aan kennis aan tijdens de Kennismiddag
    Drivers of successful transitions to new activities by farmers
    Verhees, F.J.H.M. - \ 2010
    TransForum (Final report WPO78) - 17
    boeren - houding van boeren - kennis van boeren - innovaties - ondernemerschap - landbouw - farmers - farmers' attitudes - farmers' knowledge - innovations - entrepreneurship - agriculture
    Farmers and horticulturalists need to change their production methods to achieve a more sustainable agricultural production system. The goal of this project is to understand which farmers successfully adapt their product and/ or production methods. This project diverts from adoption and transition models that are common in agricultural literature and explores and contributes to the growing body of literature on entrepreneurship.
    Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin
    Fagbemissi, R.C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): L.L.M. Price; Rico Lie. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856092 - 241
    kennis - landbouw - kinderen - wezen - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - landbouwhuishoudens - etnobotanie - inheemse kennis - plagen - benin - west-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - generaties - kennis van boeren - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - knowledge - agriculture - children - orphans - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - agricultural households - ethnobotany - indigenous knowledge - pests - benin - west africa - least developed countries - generations - farmers' knowledge - livelihood strategies
    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests
    the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’
    agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to
    mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand
    agricultural knowledge and practices among children orphaned by AIDS,
    consecutive to widespread interest in and concern about erosion of agricultural
    knowledge in AIDS-affected communities. Such a possible loss of knowledge
    could be detrimental for the children of farm households. Therefore, the focus
    is on studying possible intergenerational differences in knowledge between
    categories of child farmers and those of adult farmers, and analyze various
    causes that could explain these differences. The study is situated in the Couffo
    region, in south-west Benin. This region has a relatively high HIV prevalence
    rate. Chapter 2 presents the conceptual framework for the study, and introduces
    the main concepts, namely agricultural knowledge, problem-solving processes
    and the linkages between social networks, resources and agricultural practices.
    The design of the study is articulated around the concepts of ‘knowledge in
    stock’ and ‘knowledge in action.’ Knowledge as a stock represents the contents
    of people’s minds while knowledge as action makes refers to the way knowledge
    is applied in solving agricultural problems. This is reflected in how people
    understand a problem and develop practices to solve it. The chapter highlights
    that the way people solve a problem depends on their stocks of knowledge
    and on their capacity to develop different kind of strategies to effectively solve
    that problem. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the study design and the
    methodology used in the research process. The overall methodology, which
    was used is a mixed model approach. This approach combines qualitative and
    quantitative methods for data collection and analyses. It draws upon methods
    and techniques in ethnobiology and ethnoecology.
    Chapter 4 examines the magnitude of AIDS-related orphanhood in the Couffo
    by focusing on the demographic and livelihood characteristics of households
    containing children orphaned by AIDS. The aim is to understand orphans’
    everyday life situations and to provide insights into the diversity of orphans
    and the way this diversity affects various responses to mitigating the impact of
    AIDS. Basic typologies, which are used by the care organizations, formed the
    entry point for conducting a household census. The result of the census shows
    the diversity among the children orphaned by AIDS. Particularly, it is shown
    that the majority of the orphans live in small households, which comprise
    of four or fewer members, and that most of these households are headed by female adults who are often the main care providers to the orphans. The main
    livelihood activities of the orphaned households consist of farming (mainly
    maize, cowpea and cassava) or small business, and in very few cases, livestock
    raising and off-farm labor. The census found a total of 322 AIDS-related
    orphans, aged from 0 to 14 years, and living within 88 households. Seventyone
    percent of them are under the care of their mothers and grandmothers,
    68% are paternal orphans, 58% are between the ages of 7 and 12, and 68% are
    in primary school. These households are, to a large extent registered within
    local platforms for that offer direct or indirect access to formal care services
    implemented by national and international institutions. Support from the
    extended family includes more affective components such as frequent visits,
    or providing help during an intensive farm activity period or offering moral
    caution to borrow money. During the study of orphans’ typologies, it was noted
    that an important part of the children that had been counted were no longer
    living in their initial households. The investigation of these movements of
    the children shows that orphan mobility is rooted in various factors among
    which are the main livelihood activity of the household, the gender of the
    orphan’s main care giver, the amount of the household’s farm land, the age of
    the orphan and his/her contribution to farming activities. These parameters
    play an important role within the phenomena of orphans’ mobility and must
    be taken into consideration when designing appropriate care for rural orphans
    and their households. It is also found that some specific services are needed
    for the community members, with respect to managing conflict and tensions
    that could arise with the management of orphanhood, and that female caregivers
    deserve special attention and protection with respect to their access to
    land and other productive resources.
    Chapter 5 and 6 report on the differences in stocks of pests knowledge among
    maize and cowpea child and adult farmers. The ethnoecological perspective
    is used to uncover and explain child and adult farmers’ ability to name
    maize pests, through the analysis of their cognitive salience index (Sutrop’s
    CSI). Farmers’ perceptions and experiences of maize and cowpea pests are
    also investigated through the analysis of their life words. The intention is to
    systematically check the assumption of intergenerational loss of traditional
    agricultural knowledge linked to the impact of AIDS on farming communities.
    The results of the CSI analysis in Chapter 5 indicate that children orphaned
    by AIDS are more knowledgeable than non-orphaned. One-parent orphans
    residing with the surviving parent are more knowledgeable than double
    orphans farming on their own. Non-affected adults and their children are the
    ones with the lowest CSI scores compared to affected adults and orphans.
    These are rather positive findings in opposition to what was assumed. Results
    in Chapter 6 show that Adja farmers use various descriptors to reflect on
    their perceptions and experiences about pests in maize and cowpea farms.
    Precisely, eight types of descriptors are extracted from pile sort exercises and
    the consecutive follow-up conversations with farmers according to the groups
    they belong to (AIDS affection status and generations, that is, affected/nonaffected
    and child/adult). These descriptors are constructed from a rich and
    diverse body of semantics, that proves to be related to AIDS affection status,
    especially among the children. Further analysis shows that these descriptors
    are generally based on the form and/or function associated to the pests, and
    reflect individual farmer’s expertise about their agroecology. In fact, not only
    do these descriptors reveal farmers’ knowledge of pests, but they also enlighten
    us on farmers’ day-to-day relations with those pests while struggling to protect
    their harvest. One of the findings is the importance of the proximity of at
    least one biological parent and the quality of the relationship adult-child in
    the formation of child expertise. The disaggregated analysis of the domains of
    child expertise given their use of descriptors shows that double orphans are
    less expert compared to non-orphans with respect to pest damages on maize
    (p < 0.05), and compared to one-parent orphans for aspects linked to pest
    control (p < 0.05). In all, non-orphans seem to have similarities with affected
    adults, and use more functional items in their perceptions of pests, while
    orphans, especially one-parent orphans seem to have commonalities with
    non-affected adults with an equal use of form and function. This last point
    suggests that there could be an alternative route of expertise building among
    the one-parent orphans. Meanwhile, double orphans, making more use of
    form descriptors, seem to build their expertise from the observation of the
    natural order.
    Chapter 7 uncovers differential strategies used by farmers, especially the
    orphans, to access and use agricultural knowledge and their pest control
    practices. The aim is to examine the process through which farmers of various
    AIDS-affection statuses solve pest problems. In this process, the emphasis is
    put on how they identify the pest problem, diagnose its cause, choose among
    available solutions, and on the actions they eventually take to solve the pest
    problem. The study shows significant differences between affected and nonaffected
    adults, between orphans and non-orphans, and between adults and
    children in many aspects. The results show that individual farmers are more
    competent in identifying a pest problem than understanding the causes of
    that problem. With respect to causes identification, there are differences
    between orphans and non-orphans, between affected and non-affected adults,
    and between adults and children. Farmers’ choices of solutions are based
    on their perceptions of the causes, and their expectations (motivations for
    226 growing cowpea). They, therefore, use criteria accordingly to choose among
    the available options. Although Adja cowpea farmers often rely on, and have
    confidence in the use of existing homogenous technological packages to deal
    with pest infestation, it is important to note that the solutions basket of the
    affected adults has a more diverse content. The study also found differences
    in the types of material resources and equipment of farmers given their AIDS
    status and generation. While the orphans predominantly report the possession
    of small sprayers, some of the non-orphans simply use domestic containers
    such as basins together with branches of palm trees to spray insecticide on
    their cowpea farms. Non-affected adults have bigger sprayers (sprayers with
    a pump) at their disposal, compared to affected adults. Farmers use several
    ways to get knowledge and information. The important role of cowpea for
    farm households justifies farmers’ strategies to mobilize knowledge and non
    knowledge resources for managing cowpea pests. However, it is important
    to signal that non-affected households mostly cultivate cowpea for market
    purposes, while affected households give this crop an important weight in
    household’s food stocks, in addition to the possible sale of surplus on the market.
    This apparent single versus dual purpose is to be linked to the combination
    of poverty and AIDS. Hence, affected and non-affected farmers’ strategies to
    solve cowpea pest problem is linked to the importance they confer to it as either
    means of generating income or that of diversifying household food resources.
    For instance, the fact that affected farmers give an important weight to cowpea
    in household food security architecture obliges them to be cautious with the
    use of harmful solutions such as spraying cotton insecticide on cowpea plants.
    In this line, it is found that one fifth of the AIDS- affected adult farmers only
    report the use of insecticides that are specifically recommended to be applied
    on cowpea plants. Further results show that farmers of different AIDS statuses
    use diverse connections to mobilize resources to address pest problems. This
    eventually evolves into differential perceptions and abilities in understanding
    the kind of pests in the farms, identifying the causes, and addressing pest
    problems based on their differential social realities and agency.
    Chapter 8 reflects on the most important findings and presents some
    general implications of the study for scholars, rural development agents and
    care providing institutions. The overall conclusion from the thesis is that
    there is little evidence to confirm the hypothesis of knowledge decline and/or
    a break in inter-generational knowledge transfer. In fact, the pattern suggested
    by this study is that orphans in Couffo tend to be more knowledgeable in
    the domain of pest management than both their non-orphan peers and
    adults. This conclusion is more pronounced for single orphans, especially for
    paternal orphans, than for double orphans, who seem to be in a relatively
    more vulnerable position with respect to the acquisition of agroecological
    knowledge. The need and necessity of being engaged in agricultural practices,
    and the quality of interactions with an adult teacher, are important explanations
    for this.
    The chapter further elaborates on the need to redefine childhood and to
    consider orphans in the 10 to 14 years age range as pre-adults given that they
    have specific needs and are drawn into adult responsibilities. The existence of
    AIDS is also analyzed as a possible door of opportunities for improving rural
    livelihoods. Analyzing vulnerability can also consist of examining what works
    and how to strengthen those existing local responses, with a special attention
    to the orphans and their guardians. This leads to examining innovative
    approaches that could help to effectively mainstream children orphaned by
    AIDS within rural development policies and agendas.
    Water en landbouw ; visie op agrarisch waterbeheer van het netwerk WaterWerken
    Buck, A.J. de - \ 2010
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 36
    landbouw - waterbeheer - kennis van boeren - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - kringlopen - netwerken - agriculture - water management - farmers' knowledge - farm management - entrepreneurship - cycling - networks
    Medio 2008 is begonnen met de start van WaterWerken; een netwerk van boeren die vinden dat de landbouw een verantwoordelijkheid heeft in de waterkringloop en ook mogelijkheden heeft om daar actief beheer op te voeren. Deze boeren nemen zelf het initiatief met waterbeheer op hun agrarische bedrijven. In dit netwerk van in totaal 21 deelnemers helpen deze pioniers elkaar met visievorming en het benoemen van activiteiten om agrarisch waterbeheer verder te ontwikkelen.
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