|Ecology of lianas
Schnitzer, S.A. ; Bongers, F. ; Burnham, R.J. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2015
Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118392492 - 504
klimplanten - plantenecologie - plantenanatomie - plantenfysiologie - evolutie - tropische bossen - bossen - climbing plants - plant ecology - plant anatomy - plant physiology - evolution - tropical forests - forests
A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a forum to summarize and synthesize the most recent research in liana ecology and to address how this research fits into the broader field of ecology.
The Liana assemblage of a Congolian rainforest : diversity, structure and dynamics
Ewango Ekokinya, Corneille - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Marc Sosef; Lourens Poorter. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858133 - 161
climbing plants - rain forests - species diversity - species richness - forest ecology - congo - forest structure - klimplanten - regenbossen - soortendiversiteit - soortenrijkdom - bosecologie - congo - bosstructuur
Key words: Liana assemblage, species composition, community, dynamics, canopy openness, Manniophyton fulvum, functional traits, population density, pervasive change.
This study analyzes the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the liana assemblage of the Ituri rain forest in northeastern DR Congo. I used data from two 10-ha plots of the Ituri Forest Dynamics Plots, in which all liana stems ≥2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were marked, mapped, measured and identified in 1994, 2001 and 2007. In addition, the plot topography and canopy structure were measured.
Chapter 2 analyzes the liana assemblage (in terms of species richness, abundance and diversity), characterizes liana functional traits and determines effects of forest structure, topography and edaphic variation on liana species composition. In 20 ha, 15008 liana individuals were found, representing 195 species, 83 genera and 34 plant families. Per hectare species number averaged 64, basal area was 0.71 m2 and Fisher alpha, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were 17.9, 3.1 and 11.4, respectively. There was oligarchic dominance of 10 plant families that represented 69% of total species richness, 92% of liana abundance and 92% of basal area, while ten dominant species accounted for 63% of abundance and 59% of basal area. Forty-one species (21%) were represented by one individual only. Most lianas were light-demanding, climbed their hosts by twining, and had conspicuous flowers, medium-sized leaves and animal-dispersed propagules. Liana abundance increased with abundance of medium-sized and large trees but was, surprisingly, independent of small-tree abundance. Canopy openness, soil moisture, and tree size were the most important environmental factors influencing abundance and distribution of lianas.
In Chapter 3 I investigate changes in structural characteristics, diversity, recruitment, mortality and growth of the liana community over the thirteen years (1994 ¬- 2007). Liana density decreased from 750 (1994) through 547 (2001) to 499 (2007) stems ha-1, with concomitant declines in basal area and above-ground biomass. Despite lower stem densities the species richness remained constant over time. Total liana recruitment rates decreased slightly from 8.6% per year in the first period to 6.6% in the second, but this decrease was not significant. Liana mortality rates decreased significantly from 7.2% to 4.4% per year over the two census intervals. Diameter growth rates and survival increased with liana stem diameter. Surprisingly, liana abundance in Ituri showed recent declines, rather than recent increases, as has been reported for tropical and temperate forests in the Americas. Interestingly, changes in overall liana community structure and composition were mostly driven by one species only: the dramatic collapse of superabundant Manniophyton fulvum between the first and the second census.
In chapter 4 I investigated species-specific dynamics of the 79 most abundant liana species, representing 13,156 of the stems (97% of total) in two 10-ha plots. I evaluated their demographic performance and the relation if the vital rates (growth, mortality, recruitment) to the species abundance and four functional traits (climbing strategy, dispersal syndrome, leaf size and light requirements) to determine across species variations and major strategies characterizing species. Vital rates shared a wide interspecific variation; species-specific recruitment rates varied from 0.0-10.9%, mortality rates from 0.43-7.89% over 13-year, and growth rates from -0.03-3.51 mm y-1. Most species had low to moderate rates. Species that grew fast tended also to recruit and die fast, but recruitment and mortality rates were not directly related, suggesting that species shift in absolute abundance over the 13 year period. However, with the exception of the collapsing Manniophyton fulvum population, species maintained their rank-dominance over time. Species growth declined with abundance, but recruitment and mortality rates were not related to abundance. The demographic performance of liana species varied weakly with their climbing strategy and dispersal mode but was, surprisingly, not related to their lifetime light requirements. A principle components analysis of liana strategies in terms of functional traits and vital rates showed that light demand, and dispersal syndrome were the most determining traits. Based on the PCA three functional guilds were distinguished. I conclude that old-growth forest liana species show a large variation in abundance and vital rates, and that density-dependent mechanisms are insufficient to explain the species abundance patterns over time.
Lianas are thought to globally increase in density, but we have limited knowledge about the taxonomic patterns of change in liana abundance, and the underlying vital rates that explain changes in liana density. In chapter 5 the changes in abundance of 79 relatively abundant liana species are evaluated. The Ituri forest showed a pervasive change in liana population density in the last decade. 37 species changed significantly in their abundance over time: 12 (15% of total) species increased, and 25 (32%) species decreased. 42 (53%) species did not change. Of the 48 genera, 40% decreased and 52% stayed the same. Five of the 12 increasing species belonged to the Celastraceae, which also was the only significantly increasing family. Surprisingly, none of the four functional traits (lifetime light requirements, climbing mechanism, dispersal mechanism, and leaf size) was significantly associated with species change in population density. Many decreasing species, however, are associated with disturbed habitats and are short-lived. Many increasing species are late successional and longer-lived. Increasing species have a slightly higher recruitment, decreasing species a higher mortality. This study suggests that changes in the liana community result from forest recovery from past disturbances. Rising atmospheric CO2 level was not a likely explanation for liana change: more species declined than increased, and increasing species did not have higher growth rates. In the Ituri Forest local stand dynamics override more global drivers of liana change.
Klimplanten - sierlijk en functioneel
Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2009
Dendroflora 46 (2009). - ISSN 0374-7247 - p. 4 - 24.
klimplanten - sierplanten - soortendiversiteit - rassen (planten) - cultivars - groene gevels - gebruikswaarde - climbing plants - ornamental plants - species diversity - varieties - cultivars - green walls - use value
Het laten begroeien van gevels is op dit moment een populaire methode om gebouwen aan te kleden. In navolging van de Franse pionier Patrick Blanc worden vaak systemen gekozen die los staan van de grond. De planten vinden houvast aan een lichtgewicht substraat en worden met druppelslangen van water voorzien. Hoewel dit systeem prachtige wandbegroeiingen kan opleveren, is het nogal onderhoudsintensief. Van oudsher kennen we echter ook de onderhoudsvriendelijke variant hiervan: het laten begroeien van wanden met klimplanten die wortelen in de grond. Hierover valt nog veel interessants te vertellen.
Klimop 1, Nut en schadelijkheid : je bent onvoorwaardelijk vóór of faliekant tegen
Kopinga, J. - \ 2008
Bomen, het vakblad voor de boomverzorging 2008 (2008)6. - p. 12 - 15.
hedera - klimplanten - plantenontwikkeling - ranken - openbare parken - bomen - openbare mening - bosschade - waardplanten - risicofactoren - openbaar groen - groenbeheer - boomverzorging - hedera - climbing plants - plant development - tendrils - public parks - trees - public opinion - forest damage - host plants - risk factors - public green areas - management of urban green areas - tree care
Dit artikel is het eerste in een serie van drie over de toepassing en het beheer van klimop. Het is gebaseerd op het rapport Klimop in het stedelijk groen, dat schrijver dezes opstelde op verzoek van stadsdeel Amsterdam-Noord. Dit eerste deel gaat over het nut en de schadelijkheid van klimop en de biologische kenmerken.
Lianas and trees in tropical forests in south China
Cai, Z.Q. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): K.F. Cao. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046530 - 162
klimplanten - bosbomen - bomen - tropische bossen - biodiversiteit - plantenecologie - plantenmorfologie - china - ecofysiologie - climbing plants - forest trees - trees - tropical forests - biodiversity - plant ecology - plant morphology - china - ecophysiology
Lianas (woody climbers) and trees are the most important life-forms in most tropical forests. In many of these forests lianas are abundant and diverse and their presence is often a key physiognomic feature. Lianas contribute substantially to the floristic, structural and functional diversity of tropical forests, and have both positive (providing valuable food resources, habitat, and connections among tree canopies that are used as pathways by arboreal animals) and negative (reducing tree growth, fecundity and survivorship) effects on forests.Lianas are increasingly well studied in many areas around the world, but in southeast Asia they are relatively unknown. This PhD dissertation describes liana communities in selected but well distributed tropical forests in Xhishuangbanna, southwest China. In addition the question what makes lianas functionally different from trees is addressed. A number of structural-functional characteristics of lianas are analysed, comparative to trees. Special attention is put to growth performance and ecophysiological leaf and plant characters in a framework of adaptive ecology. The last part of the dissertation addresses adaptive behavior, both within one liana species as across a number of species differing in adult stature.
Liana communities in different forestsThe liana communities of three common forest types are analysed: seasonally wet. montane forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest. In each forest five 0.1 ha (20 x 50 m) plots were established. The density of lianas varied significantly among the three forests, with on average 445, 276 and 301 individuals per plot in the seasonally wet, montane, and evergreen forests,respectively. All three forests combined consisted of a total of 147 liana species, representing 48 families and 75 genera. A plot had on average 40, 26, and 21 species in the seasonally wet, montane, and evergreen forest, respectively. The forests were rather different as similarity between their liana assemblages was low. In all three forests, most lianas were stem twiners and scramblers, with relatively few hook, tendril and root climbers. Liana species were mostly wind dispersed in the evergreen forest, but animal and gravity dispersed in the other two forests.The higher liana abundance in the seasonal forest is consistent with the documented pattern that lianas peak in abundance with increasing seasonality. Compared to other tropical Asian tropical forests, the diversity and abundance of lianas is relatively high in Xishuangbanna, which may be due to the relatively warm climate, as well as its high seasonal rainfall and its high rates of disturbance and forest fragmentation.
How different are lianas from trees?In two studies a large number of liana and tree species were compared for selected leaf structural and physiological characteritics. Chapter 3 focusses on differences in adaptation to climate seasonality. Most organisms decrease in abundance with decreasing annual precipitation and increasing seasonality. However, lianas are an exception to this general rule: they increase in abundance with increasing seasonality (Schnitzer 2005). In this chapter the hypothesis is tested that lianas are physiologically more robust than trees during the dry season, thus contributing to an explanation of their relatively high abundance in seasonal forests. We compared a range of leaf-level physiological attributes of 18 co-occurring liana and 16 tree species during the wet and dry seasons in a tropical seasonal rainforest in Xishuangbanna. During the wet season, lianas (liana leaves) had significantly higher nitrogen concentrations ( Nmass ), δ
Seasonal acclimation of a lianaUnder natural conditions, photosynthesis is biochemically regulated to maintain a balance between the rates of its component processes and the concentrations of metabolites, and is affected by continuously changing environmental variables, such as light, water availability, and temperature. Xishuangbanna, biogeographically located in the transitional zone between tropical Southeast Asia and subtropical East Asia, has a rich tropical flora and typical tropical rain forests in the lowland area. It has been hypothesized that the vegetation there is likely to be affected by the seasonal drought and chilling because it is far from the Equator and at a relatively high altitude. To test this hypothesis, Chapter 6 addresses the photosynthetic adaptation and growth responses in seedlings of a local liana species (Zizyphus attopensis Pierre) in three contrasting natural microhabitats: understory, a small gap and a large gap. Photosynthetic capacity(light-saturated photosynthetic rate, Amax ), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport ( Jmax ), and partitioning of leaf nitrogen into carboxylation ( Pc ) and electron light transport ( Pb ) differed significantly between seasons and microhabitats. Specific leaf area (SLA) did not change seasonally, but was different between plants grown in each of the three microhabitats and was negatively linear related to the daily integrated photon flux density (PPFD i ). In contrast, nitrogen content per unit area (Na ) changed seasonally but did not differ among microhabitats. Measurements of maximum photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency showed that no chronic photoinhibition occurred for all microhabitats throughout the experimental period. Photosynthetic capacity was greatest in the wet season and lowest in the cool season. During the cool and dry seasons, the reduction in Amax was greater in seedlings grown in the large gap than in those grown in understory and small gap. Close logarithmic relationships were detected between PPFD, leaf Na and photosynthetic capacity. Stem mass ratio decreased and root mass ratio increased in the dry season. These results show that seasonal acclimation in growth and photosynthesis of the seedlings was due to changes in biochemical features (particularly Na and partitioning of total leaf nitrogen between the different photosynthetic pools) and biomass allocation, rather than to changes in leaf morphological features (such as
Light acclimation, adult stature and shade toleranceFinally, Chapter 7 addresses light acclimation of seedlings of six late-successional common woody species differing in adult stature and shade tolerance. Especially morphological and physiological leaf and whole-plant features are analysed. After 1 year of growth in low light (4.5% full sun), seedlings were transferred to high light (24.5% full sun) to investigate acclimation responses of existing leaves to forest gap opening and to determine whether seedling capacity for acclimation is a limiting factor in its natural regeneration. Leaves of the small shrub species are shade-adapted, as indicated by their low photosynthetic capacity, efficiency in using sunflecks, low stomatal density, low Chl a/b ratio and high spongy/palisade mesophyll ratio. The shrub species utilized sunflecks efficiently because of a short photosynthetic induction time and low induction loss. In all species, transfer of seedlings to high light resulted in a substantial initial reduction in the dark-adapted quantum yield of photosystem II ( Fv / Fm ) at. Predawn Fv / Fm of the taller species did not change greatly, but predawn Fv / Fm of the short species (shrubs) decreased significantly without complete recovery within 25 days of transfer to high light, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to the previously shade-adapted leaves. Maximum net photosynthetic rate and dark respiration of the four taller species increased considerably after transfer to high light, but not in the shrub species. Similar trends were observed for the number of newly formed leaves and relative height growth rate. We conclude that the short species have limited potential for developmental and physiological acclimation to high light, which explains their absence from forest gaps. Compared with shrub species, the taller tree species, which are more likely to experience high light during their life span, showed a greater potential for light acclimation. Physiological differences among the four tree species were not consistent with differences in adult stature.
Lianas versus trees: are differences adaptive?Phenotypic changes that we see over evolutionary time, across diverse environments and among taxa, often reflect adaptive evolution. In the broad sense adaptations are phenotypic traits that have been favored by natural selection, and can be identified by being variable, heritable and responsible for variation in fitness. The evolution of growth forms since the early terrestrial radiations is a complex history of innovation, complexification, simplification, conservatism, radiation and extinction (Rowe and Speck 2003, 2005). Trees and lianas have different ecological preferences and different attributes, but we are far from being able to link this directly to evolutionary differences. In more general terms we are confronted with questions like: are certain types of growth form highly constrained and immovable in evolutionary terms? Are some plant groups more 'flexible' in their capacity to evolve widely differing growth forms and is this capacity related to the evolutionary age or complexity of the group? What are the ecological factors that coerce to either canalise or facilitate growth form variation and evolution? Much more work is needed to be able to answer these questions. It is clear that lianas have growth strategies different from trees, as shown for some aspects in this thesis, but lianas do not always follow expected patterns. Additionally, for some characteristics lianas are far less different from trees than expected, as has been showed by a number of recent studies (Gilbert et al. 2006, Santiago and Wright 2007, Selaya 2007, this thesis). These new results shed new light on patterns of adaptive ecology of lianas versus trees in tropical forests. Together, these results force us to re-evaluate the broad generalizations that we sometimes use. This warrants further studies on the ecological differences between lianas and trees, including variations therein among forest types in different climates.
|Woody plants of Western African forests, A guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana
Hawthorne, W.D. ; Jongkind, C.C.H. - \ 2006
Richmond, Surrey UK : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - ISBN 9781842460894 - 1023
houtachtige planten - bomen - struiken - bosbomen - klimplanten - identificatie - determinatietabellen - taxonomie - soorten - klassen - tropische bossen - foto's - illustraties - west-afrika - woody plants - trees - shrubs - forest trees - climbing plants - identification - keys - taxonomy - species - genera - tropical forests - photographs - illustrations - west africa
A guide to the identification of all the woody plants (c. 2,250 species in 740 genera) of the forest region of West Africa called 'Upper Guinea', between Togo and Senegal. Upper Guinea is one of the world's most important centres of biodiversity, from the mountain forests of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, to the lowland evergreen, and semideciduous forests widespread also in Ghana and Ivory Coast.
|Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management
Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Parren, M.P.E. ; Traoré, D. - \ 2005
Wallingford (UK) : CAB International - ISBN 9780851999142 - 273
klimplanten - bossen - plantenecologie - bosecologie - biodiversiteit - taxonomie - plantengeografie - etnobotanie - bosbouw - west-afrika - climbing plants - forests - plant ecology - forest ecology - biodiversity - taxonomy - phytogeography - ethnobotany - forestry - west africa
Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several levels of integration), ecology (distribution, characteristics in relation to environment, their role in forest ecosystems) and ethnobotany. Forestry aspects, such as their impact on tree growth and development, and the effects of forestry interventions on climbers are also covered
Klimplanten op geluidsschermen
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Aendekerk, T.G.L. ; Hoffman, M.H.A. ; Langedijk, R.P.J. - \ 2004
Boskoop : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Bomen - 100
wegen - lawaaibestrijding - wegbeplantingen - soortenkeuze - klimplanten - bouwtechnologie - onderzoek - roads - noise abatement - roadside plantations - choice of species - climbing plants - construction technology - research
De Nederlandse bevolking ondervindt door de toenemende drukte op de rijkswegen steeds meer overlast van het verkeerslawaai. Uit onderzoek is gebleken dat bewoners overwegend de voorkeur hebben voor begroeide schermen. Door wildgroei van verschillende typen geluidsschermen werd het totaalbeeld rommelig en chaotisch. Dit was voor Rijkswaterstaat de aanleiding geweest om het project Modulaire geluidsschermen in het leven te roepen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om meer inzicht in de factoren te krijgen, die bepalen of de begroeiing van een scherm wel of niet zal slagen. Tevens worden praktische adviezen gegeven die in de ontwerpfase, de realisatiefase of beheerfase van een scherm toegepast kunnen worden.
Lianas and logging in West Africa
Parren, M.P.E. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Frits Mohren. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789058088710 - 168
klimplanten - houtkap - snijden - gaten in het kroondak - houtteelt - tropische bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosecologie - west-afrika - climbing plants - logging - cutting - canopy gaps - silviculture - tropical forests - forest management - forest ecology - west africa
The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in forest management practices. Pre-harvest liana cutting is aimed at a reduction of logging damage, an improved precision of felling, an enhancement of the development of the growing tree stock and a reduction of the regrowth capacity of lianas. Lianas were very abundant: on average nearly 5000 individuals per ha of which over 100 large ones (³ 5 cm dbh). Felling gap sizes, tree mortality and damage were not significantly affected by pre-harvest liana cutting. However, this intervention significantly reduced the number of lianas and also the number of liana-infested trees in logging gaps. Cut lianas were monitored and proved that certain species were extremely vulnerable while others hardly. To avoid problems related to the negative impacts that both liana cutting and fire can have on liana species, which are vulnerable to these interventions, it is recommended to apply this treatment only selectively. Spatially, treatments should be limited to zones where lianas are heavily interfering with trees to be felled. Treatments also should be species-specific, by limiting liana cutting to those species, which cause most of the damage.
Vervroegen en verlaten van clematis, skimmia en spiraea
Verhoeven, E.J.M. - \ 1995
Boskoop : Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek (Rapport / Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek 37) - 30
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - groeistadia - gewassen, groeifasen - rutaceae - spiraea - klimplanten - ranunculaceae - nederland - ornamental woody plants - growth stages - crop growth stage - rutaceae - spiraea - climbing plants - ranunculaceae - netherlands
Exploitation, natural regeneration and increment
Jonkers, W.B.J. - \ 1984
[Paramaribo] : Universiteit van Suriname - 17
klimplanten - snijden - bosbouw - ringen van bomen (girdling) - natuurlijke verjonging - vergiftiging - selectiesysteem - selectiekap - grondvoorbereiding - suriname - bomen - climbing plants - cutting - forestry - girdling - natural regeneration - poisoning - selection system - selective felling - site preparation - suriname - trees
Successie op ontbost terrein : terreinvoorbereiding en boomopname ten behoeve van inrichting proefperken Saraweg (Mapanegebied); Lianenpopulatie in ongerept drooglandbos en daarvan afgeleide vegetaties : het inzamelen van herbariummateriaal aan de Saraweg; Successie op ontbost terrein : inrichten en eerste en tweede opname proefperk Blakawatra
Consen, J.R. ; Lavieren, L.P. van; Boerboom, J.H.A. - \ 1968
Paramaribo : [s.n.] (CELOS rapporten no. 8) - 47
klimplanten - bosbouw - periodiciteit - plantensuccessie - secundaire bossen - suriname - vegetatie - climbing plants - forestry - periodicity - plant succession - secondary forests - suriname - vegetation
Chemische bestrijding van enkele grassen en houtige gewassen in de bosbouw
Goor, C.P. van; Zonderwijk, P. ; Drift, J. van der - \ 1957
Wageningen : Stichting Bosbouwproefstation "De Dorschkamp" (Uivoerige verslagen van de Stichting Bosbouwproefstation "De Dorschkamp" Bd. 3, nr. 2, p. 21-59)
chemische bestrijding - schoonmaken - klimplanten - epifyten - bosbouw - maretakken - nederland - parasitaire planten - pesticiden - wieden - onkruiden - bosopstanden - chemical control - cleaning - climbing plants - epiphytes - forestry - mistletoes - netherlands - parasitic plants - pesticides - weeding - weeds - forest stands