Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Estimation of soil water storage change from clay shrinkage using satellite radar interferometry
    Brake, Bram te - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.E.A.T.M. van der Zee; R.F. Hanssen, co-promotor(en): M.J. van der Ploeg; G.H. de Rooij. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431637 - 123
    soil water - water storage - satellite imagery - satellites - interferometry - shrinkage - clay - water management - water policy - bodemwater - wateropslag - satellietbeelden - satellieten - interferometrie - krimp - klei - waterbeheer - waterbeleid

    Measurements of soil water storage are hard to obtain on scales relevant for water management and policy making. Therefore, this research develops a new measurement methodology for soil water storage estimation in clay containing soils. The proposed methodology relies on the specific property of clay soils to shrink when drying and to swell when (re-)wetted, and the capabilities of a remote sensing technique called satellite based radar interferometry (InSAR) to measure centimetre to millimetre scale displacements of the soil surface. The objective of this thesis was to develop the application of InSAR for soil water storage change estimation on the field scale to regional scale. Two relations are investigated: 1) the relation between water storage change and surface elevation change as a result of swelling and shrinkage of a clayey soil; and 2) the relation between these surface elevation changes and InSAR phase observations.

    The shrinkage potential of the soil is very important for successful application of radar interferometry to measure vertical deformation as a result of swelling and shrinkage of clay. Therefore, the shrinkage potential and the water storage change-volume change relation (called the soil shrinkage characteristic, SSC) have been quantified in the laboratory for clay aggregates from the study area in the Purmer, the Netherlands. The clay content of the sampled soil ranged from 3.4 to 23.6%. The aggregates had moderate shrinkage potential over the soil moisture content range from saturation to air-dryness. Shrinkage phases were distinguished based on the portion of water content change that was compensated by volume change. Approximately 40-50% of water was released in the normal shrinkage phase, where loss of water is fully compensated by volume change. However, the residual shrinkage phase, where volume change is smaller than water content change, started at approx. 50% normalized soil moisture content (actual moisture content with respect to the moisture content at saturation).

    In case of normal shrinkage, soil water storage change can be directly derived from soil volume change. If additionally, clay shrinkage is isotropic, the soil water storage change can be derived from vertical shrinkage measurements. The range of normal and isotropic shrinkage has been assessed in a drying field soil in the study area. To do so, soil water storage change was derived from soil moisture content sensors and groundwater level, and volume change estimates were obtained from soil layer thickness change measurements by ground anchors. Unlike for the aggregates, normal shrinkage was not observed for the field soil, but rather a large degree of linear (basic) shrinkage was observed. In the upper soil layers in the field, normalized soil moisture content below 50% has been observed when drying out. Based on the aggregate SSC, this indicates the occurrence of residual and zero shrinkage in this situation, resulting in less than normal shrinkage when the total unsaturated zone is considered. The water content change-volume change relation thus depends on the scale considered. It was also found that the relation depends on drying intensity, from comparison between shrinkage in a period with prolonged drying and shrinkage in a period with alternating drying end re-wetting.

    For the field soil, volume change larger than soil water storage change was observed when assuming isotropic shrinkage. This unrealistic result made clear that the assumption of isotropic shrinkage is invalid. Therefore a correction of the shrinkage geometry factor rs, including dependence of shrinkage geometry on soil moisture content, has been proposed. This correction yielded rs-values between 1.38 and 3. Dynamics of subsidence porosity (i.e. vertical shrinkage) calculated from the aggregate SSC, and comparison with surface elevation change data from the field study also indicated rs-values smaller than 3. Values of rs below 3, indicate that vertical shrinkage (subsidence) is dominant over horizontal shrinkage (cracking).

    Satellite based radar interferometry was applied to measure vertical deformation resulting from clay shrinkage, and evaluate the potential for soil water storage change estimation on the field scale to regional scale. Phase differences between adjacent fields were observed in interferograms over the Purmer area which were hypothesised to be caused by relative motion of the surface level. The combination of a sequence of interferograms covering short time intervals and measurements of soil surface elevation changes in time from ground anchors, indeed revealed similar dynamics in both data. Relative changes between fields in winter were explained by a different effect of frost heave in a bare soil and in a soil permanently covered by grass. Noise in interferograms over agricultural fields was successfully reduced, by multilooking over entire fields. The effect of soil type and land use on phase observation was qualitatively assessed, indicating that agricultural crop fields offer the best phase estimates in winter, while grass fields are more coherent in summer. The results underline the need for careful selection of agricultural fields or areas to base InSAR analysis on.

    The differential analysis between fields was extended to time series analysis of phase, to obtain deformation estimates with respect to a stable reference, including correction for unwanted phase contributions and temporal phase unwrapping. The correction of unwanted phase contributions specifically included the soil moisture dielectric effect. This effect was considered by predicting interferometric phase based on in situ measured soil moisture contents. The soil moisture dielectric effect was shown to be much smaller than shrinkage phase in our case study. A simple model was developed to estimate vertical shrinkage, using assumption on shrinkage behaviour (normal and isotropic shrinkage) and an approximation of water storage change from precipitation and evapotranspiration data. Using this model, temporal phase unwrapping results were corrected. The corrections for soil moisture dielectric phase and the correction of phase unwrapping both improved vertical shrinkage measurements from InSAR.

    The results in this thesis make clear that vertical clay shrinkage can be estimated from InSAR. At the same time, these results show that clay shrinkage is a considerable phase contribution to interferometric phase and can therefore cause unwrapping and interpretation errors when not accounted for. To estimate vertical clay shrinkage from InSAR, a shrinkage model including assumptions of normal and isotropic shrinkage, proved useful in the phase unwrapping procedure in this case study. However, using the same assumptions to compute water storage change from these InSAR estimates, will in many cases produce inaccurate results. Therefore, in order to use InSAR for estimating soil water storage change in clay soils, the soil shrinkage characteristic, soil moisture dependency of the shrinkage geometry factor, and the effect of variable drying and wetting conditions, need to be considered.

    Sociale innovatie als veelbelovend concept in krimpregio's
    During, R. - \ 2013
    Syscope Magazine 2013 (2013)31. - p. 27 - 30.
    regionale ontwikkeling - bevolkingsafname - krimp - levensomstandigheden - kwaliteit van het leven - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - sociale interactie - participatie - regional development - population decrease - shrinkage - living conditions - quality of life - community development - social interaction - participation
    Steeds vaker nemen burgers en ondernemers het heft in eigen handen voor de leefbaarheid van hun regio. Ze pakken kansen op, gaan nieuwe verantwoordelijkheden aan en doorbreken daarmee de traditionele maatschappijstructuren. Sociale innovatie noemen we dat. Sociale innovaties kunnen krimpregio’s nieuwe perspectieven geven. Deze nieuwe perspectieven gaan dan niet uit van groei, maar van het collectief overeind houden van de leefbaarheid.
    De meerwaarde van multifunctionele landbouw in krimpgebied Noordoost-Groningen
    Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Engelsma, K.A. ; Migchels, G. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 566) - 24
    multifunctionele landbouw - krimp - bevolkingsafname - gebiedsontwikkeling - regionale planning - regionale ontwikkeling - duurzame landbouw - groningen - multifunctional agriculture - shrinkage - population decrease - area development - regional planning - regional development - sustainable agriculture - groningen
    Uit dit onderzoek naar de meerwaarde van multifunctionele landbouw in het krimpgebied Noordoost-Groningen en de daarbij gevolgde redeneerlijnen, blijkt dat: De agrarische sector niet of nauwelijks betrokken wordt bij de plannen rondom krimp en niet in beeld is als verbindingspartner. De agrarische sector die rol zelf niet oppakt, omdat ze zich onvoldoende realiseert dat het bijdragen aan oplossingen voor het krimpvraagstuk kan worden gezien als een verduurzamingsstap van de landbouw Een belangrijke randvoorwaarde is dat bij zowel de agrarische sector als de andere partijen gewerkt wordt aan bewustwording.
    Verdrogend veen en de stabiliteit van veenkades
    Dekker, L.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Oostindie, K. ; Akker, J.J.H. van den; Hemert, H. - \ 2003
    Het Waterschap 88 (2003)special. - p. 12 - 14.
    dijken - veengronden - krimp - veengebieden - vochtgehalte - nederland - dykes - peat soils - shrinkage - peatlands - moisture content - netherlands
    Overzicht en verspreiding van waterafstotende (moeilijk te bevochtigen) veengronden in Nederland. Achtergrond hiervan en relatie met veendijken
    Directzaai van mais biedt perspectief
    Pol-van Dasselaar, A. van den; Everts, H. - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 12 (1999)6. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 22 - 24.
    maïs - erosiegevoeligheid - precisiezaaimachines - teelt - cultuurmethoden zonder grondbewerking - zware kleigronden - veengronden - löss - krimp - zaaien - maize - erodibility - precision drills - cultivation - no-tillage - clay soils - peat soils - loess - shrinkage - sowing
    Maos wordt meestal met een precisiezaaimachine in een goed bewerkt zaaibed gezaaid. Het is echter ook mogelijk om maos zonder een grondbewerking direct in gras of een wintergewas te zaaien. Hiermee wordt bespaard op de grondbewerkingskosten, maar het brengt wel extra teeltrisico met zich mee. In Nederland is directzaai voor bepaalde gebieden mogelijk interessant.
    Vijfentwintig jaar peilverlaging versus polderpeil. Maaivelddaling van veengrasland bij twee slootpeilen in de polder Zegvelderbroek
    Akker, J.J.H. van den; Beuving, J. - \ 1997
    Landinrichting 37 (1997)3. - ISSN 0922-6419 - p. 15 - 20.
    veengronden - graslanden - grondwaterstand - regulatie - scheurvorming - bodem - krimp - peilbeheer - veenweiden - utrecht - peat soils - grasslands - groundwater level - regulation - cracking - soil - shrinkage - water level management - peat grasslands - utrecht
    Effects of crust and cracks on simulated catchment discharge and soil loss
    Stolte, J. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Roo, A.P.J. de - \ 1997
    Journal of Hydrology 195 (1997)1/4. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 279 - 290.
    bodem - korsten - scheurvorming - opzwellen - krimp - soil - crusts - cracking - swelling - shrinkage
    Sealing, crusting and cracking of crusts of the soil surface has been observed in many parts of the world in areas with sandy, silty and loamy soils. Sealing and crust formation occurs under the influence of rain storm and drying weather. With prolonged drying, surface crusts might crack, leading to complex situations with respect to infiltration and runoff generation. Cracking of crusted loamy soils appears to be a general process. This study aims to measure the hydraulic properties of fully crusted and cracked-crusted areas and to evaluate the effects of these measurements on catchment discharge and soil loss in a loess region of the Netherlands, using the LISEM soil erosion model. Samples with minimum infiltration rates (fully crusted) and with maximum infiltration rates (cracked-crusted surfaces) were taken from fields with bare soil or winter wheat and their soil hydraulic functions were measured. The results of these measurements were used as input in the LISEM soil erosion model. Simulations of discharge and soil loss were done for each of these two land-uses and for two rain events. Additionally, simulated discharge and soil loss under actual recorded land-use were calculated. In all cases, soils with no surface cracks produced higher figures for discharge and soil loss than those where 10% of the surface crust was cracked. For a good interpretation of the results for soil loss, the spatial distribution of cracked-crusted areas and fully crusted areas has to be investigated in detail. To deal with cracked-crusted and fully crusted areas in simulation modelling, care has to be taken to accurately measure the soil physical functions representing the maximum and minimum infiltration rates. An assignment of these functions to calculation grids has to be made. As the LISEM model is capable of assigning different soil physical functions to each calculation grid, an improved prediction of the soil physical behaviour of the catchment can be simulated.
    Emission of solutes in cracked clay soils.
    Groen, K.P. ; Feddes, R.A. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Schultz, E. ; Koopmans, R. ; Dam, J.C. van - \ 1996
    In: Crop - water - environment models : selected papers to the workshop at the occasion of the 16th congress of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage at Cairo, Egypt, 17 September 1996 : [47th International executive council meeting]. - - p. 29 - 41.
    zware kleigronden - scheurvorming - uitspoelen - modellen - persistentie - pesticidenresiduen - pesticiden - gewasbescherming - onderzoek - krimp - bodem - opzwellen - clay soils - cracking - leaching - models - persistence - pesticide residues - pesticides - plant protection - research - shrinkage - soil - swelling
    Water and bromide transport in cracking clay soils
    Hamminga, W. ; Hendriks, R.F.A. ; Oostindie, K. ; Bronswijk, J.J.B. - \ 1995
    In: Samenvatting van de voordrachten en posters bodem breed '95 : aktief bodembeheer : noodzaak voor beleid, uitdaging voor de wetenschap : nationaal symposium bodemonderzoek, 18 en 19 december 1995, De Blije Werelt, Lunteren / Lexmond, M.J., - p. 158 - 159.
    zware kleigronden - infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - bodem - scheurvorming - opzwellen - krimp - clay soils - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - soil - cracking - swelling - shrinkage
    Magnitude, modeling and significance of swelling and shrinkage processes in clay soils
    Bronswijk, J.J.B. - \ 1991
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; A.L.M. van Wijk. - S.l. : Bronswijk - 145
    zware kleigronden - bodem - scheurvorming - opzwellen - krimp - clay soils - soil - cracking - swelling - shrinkage

    The dynamic process of swelling and shrinkage in clay soils has significant practical consequences, such as the rapid transport of water and solutes via shrinkage cracks to the subsoil, and the destruction of buildings and roads on clay soils. In order to develop measuring methods and computer simulation models to take swelling and shrinkage processes into account in agricultural and environmental studies, experiments were conducted on soil aggregates, small soil cores, with a lysimeter, and in the field.

    Determination of shrinkage characteristics of soil aggregates revealed some clay soils from the Netherlands to be among the strongest swelling and shrinking soils of the world with a maximum volume decreases upon drying of 49 %. Normal shrinkage and residual shrinkage are significant within pressure head ranges occurring in field conditions. Shrinkage was isotropic for all horizons of a heavy clay soil, at overburden pressures corresponding to field loads.

    The shrinkage behaviour of a clay soil in a lysimeter may be explained by the occurrence of structural shrinkage, normal isotropic shrinkage and residual isotropic shrinkage. Field experiments confirmed this picture. A newly developed equation to relate vertical soil movements to water content changes during structural, normal, residual and zero shrinkage, for any shrinkage geometry, was successfully applied in the field.

    The obtained knowledge about the swelling and shrinkage process was used to develop a computer simulation model, FLOCR, to calculate the water balance of a clay soil, including preferential flow through shrinkage cracks, on a daily basis. Besides, crack volume and surface subsidence are computed. Model calculations for a heavy clay soil during 1985 were in good agreement with field observations. Comparing FLOCR with a rigid-soil model showed a considerable influence of shrinkage cracks on the soil water balance, on the groundwater level and on the topsoil bearing capacity. The simulation model was also applied to predict the effect of drainage on actual swelling and shrinkage processes in a heavy clay soil profile.

    Finally, the principles of incorporating evaporation from shrinkage cracks, oxygen diffusion in cracking clay soils, and lateral infiltration during preferential flow into the present model approach are presented.

    Bodemfysische karakterisering van potgrond voor teelt op eb- en vloedsysteem
    Bakker, J.A. ; Kabat, P. - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Staring Centrum (Rapport / Staring Centrum 71) - 59
    groeimedia - bodemwater - bodemkarteringen - kaarten - bodem - scheurvorming - opzwellen - krimp - growing media - soil water - soil surveys - maps - soil - cracking - swelling - shrinkage
    Water and salt transport in irrigated cracking clay soils of the Kachhi plaines, Pakistan. Part II. Horizontal transport.
    Kamphorst, A. - \ 1989
    Soil Technology 2 (1989). - ISSN 0933-3630 - p. 101 - 107.
    zware kleigronden - scheurvorming - verbetering - irrigatie - uitspoelen - verzilting - krimp - natrium - bodem - opzwellen - clay soils - cracking - improvement - irrigation - leaching - salinization - shrinkage - sodium - soil - swelling
    Effect of swelling and shrinkage on the calculation of water balance and water transport in clay soils
    Bronswijk, J.J.B. - \ 1988
    Agricultural Water Management 14 (1988)1/4. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 185 - 193.
    zware kleigronden - scheurvorming - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - infiltratie - kwel - krimp - bodem - bodemwaterbalans - opzwellen - clay soils - cracking - hydraulic conductivity - infiltration - seepage - shrinkage - soil - soil water balance - swelling
    Using morphological data for the simulation of water regimes in clay soils.
    Bouma, J. - \ 1988
    In: Selected papers of the Dakar symposium on acid sulphate soils : Dakar, Senegal, January 1986 / Dost, H., - p. 97 - 105.
    scheurvorming - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - infiltratie - kwel - krimp - bodem - opzwellen - cracking - hydraulic conductivity - infiltration - seepage - shrinkage - soil - swelling
    Krimpkarakteristieken van kleigronden in Nederland
    Bronswijk, J.J.B. ; Evers - Vermeer, J.J. - \ 1987
    Wageningen : ICW (Rapporten / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding ) - 54
    zware kleigronden - scheurvorming - nederland - permeabiliteit - krimp - bodem - bodemwatergehalte - opzwellen - graphics - tabellen - clay soils - cracking - netherlands - permeability - shrinkage - soil - soil water content - swelling - graphics - tables
    Aanpassingen aan het model SWATRE t.b.v. de simulatie van het gedrag van zwellende en krimpende kleigronden
    Peerboom, J. - \ 1987
    Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1807 (1987). - p. 104 - 104.
    zware kleigronden - computersimulatie - scheurvorming - modellen - onderzoek - krimp - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - bodem - bodemwaterbalans - opzwellen - clay soils - computer simulation - cracking - models - research - shrinkage - simulation - simulation models - soil - soil water balance - swelling
    Alhoewel kleigronden vaak gunstige chemische eigenschappen bezitten, geven de fysische eigenschappen vaak aanleiding tot problemen. Met name de lage doorlatendheden en daardoor de lage infiltratiecapaciteit vooral in natte perioden zorgen ervoor dat de gronden vaak moeilijk en laat bewerkbaar zijn, dat er veelvuldig plasvorming optreedt en dat vaak versmering van de zode plaatsvindt. In hellende gebieden treedt gemakkelijk bodemerosie op, hetgeen echter in Nederland niet of nauwelijks voorkomt. Teneinde inzicht te krijgen in de bodemfysische en hydrologische processen met als doel oplossingen te ereeren voor de genoemde problemen, is het noodzakelijk om naast de uitvoering van veldonderzoek tevens het gedrag van de bodem te simuleren met behulp van modellen. Door middel van simulaties kan niet alleen het gedrag van de grond beter verklaard worden, het gedrag kan binnen zekere grenzen ook voorspeld worden.
    The effect of subsoil cracking on moisture deficits of Pleistocene fluvial clay soils in The Netherlands
    Kooistra, M.J. ; Miedema, R. ; Wosten, J.H.M. ; Versluis, J. ; Bouma, J. - \ 1987
    Journal of soil science 38 (1987)4. - ISSN 0022-4588 - p. 553 - 563.
    zware kleigronden - scheurvorming - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - infiltratie - modellen - onderzoek - kwel - krimp - bodem - bodemwaterbalans - bodemwatergehalte - opzwellen - clay soils - cracking - hydraulic conductivity - infiltration - models - research - seepage - shrinkage - soil - soil water balance - soil water content - swelling
    Soil morphology and soil water movement.
    Bouma, J. ; Kooistra, M.J. - \ 1987
    In: Soil Micromorphology: Proceedings of the Seventh International Working-Meeting on Soil Micromorphology, Paris, 1985 - p. 507 - 511.
    pedologie - bodemmicromorfologie - infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - bodem - scheurvorming - opzwellen - krimp - pedology - soil micromorphology - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - soil - cracking - swelling - shrinkage
    Evaporation and cracking of a heavy clay soil
    Bronswijk, J.J.B. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : ICW (Report / Institute for Land and Water Management Research no. 14) - 15
    bodem - evaporatie - scheurvorming - opzwellen - krimp - zware kleigronden - soil - evaporation - cracking - swelling - shrinkage - clay soils
    Handleiding voor het bepalen van het zwel- en krimpvermogen van een bodem
    Bronswijk, J.J.B. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1719)
    scheurvorming - penetrometers - krimp - bodemfysica - bodemdichtheid - opzwellen - bodemmorfologische kenmerken - monitoring - cracking - penetrometers - shrinkage - soil physics - soil density - swelling - soil morphological features - monitoring
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