Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Selection for pure- and crossbred performance in Charolais
    Vallée-Dassonneville, Amélie - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; Henk Bovenhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430180 - 151
    charolais - cattle - animal breeding - crossbreeding - crossbreds - selection - beef cattle - genomes - genetic parameters - charolais - rundvee - dierveredeling - kruisingsfokkerij - kruising - selectie - vleesvee - genomen - genetische parameters

    Two categories of beef production exist; i.e. (i) purebred animals from a beef sire and a beef dam and (ii) crossbred animals from a beef sire and a dairy dam.

    For the purebred beef production, there is a growing interest to include behavior and type traits in the breeding goal. Heritabilities for behavior traits, estimated using subjective data scored by farmers, range from 0.02 to 0.19. Heritabilities for type traits range from 0.02 to 0.35. Results show that there are good opportunities to implement selection for behavior traits using a simple on-farm recording system to allow collection of large data set, and for type traits in Charolais. A genome-wide association study detected 16 genomic regions with small effect on behavior and type traits. This suggests that behavior and type traits are influenced by many genes each explaining a small part of the genetic variance.

    The two main dairy breeds mated to Charolais sires for crossbred beef production in France are Montbéliard and Holstein. The genetic correlation between the same trait measured on Montbéliard x Charolais and on Holstein x Charolais was 0.99 for muscular development, 0.96 for birth weight; and 0.91 for calving difficulty, 0.80 for height, and 0.70 for bone thinness. Thus, for these last three traits, results show evidence for re-ranking of Charolais sires depending on whether they are mated to Montbéliard or Holstein cows. When using genomic prediction, the Montbéliard x Charolais and Holstein x Charolais populations could be combined into a single reference population to increase size and accuracy of genomic prediction. Results indicate that the higher the genetic correlation is between the two crossbred populations, the higher the gain in accuracy is achieved when combining the two populations into a single reference.

    The selection of Charolais sires to produce purebred or crossbred animals is made through distinct breeding programs. An alternative could be to combine selection into one breeding program. Decision for combining or keeping breeding programs separate is determined by the correlation between the breeding objectives, the selection intensity, the difference in level of genetic merit, the accuracy of selection, and the recent implementation of genomic evaluation. Considering all parameters and based on estimations for selection on birth weight, I recommend combining both breeding programs because this will lead to higher genetic gain, and might simplify operating organization and reduce associated costs.

    Mapping the impact of crossbreeding in smallholder cattle systems in Indonesia
    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; Kor Oldenbroek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573246 - 136
    rundvee - rundveeteelt - kleine landbouwbedrijven - kruisingsfokkerij - genetische effecten - milieueffect - gemengde landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - dierlijke productie - indonesië - cattle - cattle farming - small farms - crossbreeding - genetic effects - environmental impact - mixed farming - farming systems - animal production - indonesia

    ABSTRACT

    In response to increasing demand for meat, Indonesia’s government has been implementing crossbreeding with European beef breeds to improve the meat production of local cattle. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the benefits and consequences of crossbreeding in smallholder cattle farming systems in Madura and Central Java. The study used participatory approaches, observations during cultural events in Madura, and measurements of cattle performances, feeding practices and farm inputs and outputs. In Madura, crossbreeding is not a threat to the two cultural events involving cattle, sonok (cow conformation contest) and karapan (bull racing), nor to the sub-populations of Madura cattle in the specific areas where these events are organised. Farmers outside the sonok and karapan areas, prefer Limousin crossbreds (madrasin) to conventional Madura cattle. The current breeding and conservation approaches do not distinguish between different Madura cattle types and do not consider the specific needs of the farmers in the sonok and karapan areas. In Java, farmers perceive that crossbreeding of Simmental with local Ongole cattle is beneficial for them. Crossbreeding was not accompanied with changes in the cattle farming systems. Crossbred cattle reached a higher body weight and therefore had a higher market price, but they also required more feed. This resulted in comparable Gross Margins for farms with crossbred and Ongole stock. Farmers preferred the crossbreds because of their nice appearance, high growth rate and the higher market price for progeny compared to Ongole. Crossbreeding as a tool of intensification did not reduce the carbon footprint and land use per kilogram liveweight produced. The advantage from the faster growth of crossbreds was counteracted by the higher emissions and land use from feed production for crossbreds. The dualism in crossbreeding is that policy makers promote crossbreeding to meet the increasing demand for beef, whereas farmers are concerned with their livelihoods and the multi-functionality of cattle. Crossbreeding contributes to increased meat production at the national level, however, it has limited possibilities to improve cattle production at farm level. Crossbreeding is also not reducing rural poverty. Participatory approaches should ensure that farmers’ views are considered in national crossbreeding policies and practices. In Madura and Central Java, farmers identified economic benefits, feed availability, cattle management, animal performances, additional functions of cattle, and health and fertility as issues to be considered beforehand in a genetic impact assessment of crossbreeding. Other stakeholders mentioned meat production, environmental quality and diversity in farm animal genetic resources as important issues. Crossbreeding will inevitably continue in Java and Madura. Breeding strategies, have to be adjusted, however, as farmers do not want to upgrade their local cattle to Simmental or Limousin. Viable populations of local cattle are needed to ensure sustainable crossbreeding strategies.

    Het schaap in Nederland
    Poel, E.A. ; Visscher, A.H. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN rapport 18) - 47
    schapenrassen - zeldzame rassen - schapenhouderij - texelaar - kruisingsfokkerij - dierveredeling - swifterschaap - sheep breeds - rare breeds - sheep farming - texel - crossbreeding - animal breeding - swifter sheep
    Edgar de Poel heeft een tijdschets van de zeven zeldzame Nederlandse schapenrassen gemaakt waarin het ontstaan en gebruik van deze rassen als heideschaap is beschreven. Albert Visscher heeft het ontstaan en gebruik van de Texelaar beschreven. Daarnaast heeft hij de ontwikkeling van drie recent ontstane rassen vastgelegd: de Boorooa Texelaar, de Flevolander en de Swifter. In dit rapport worden deze twee documenten samen gepubliceerd en zij vormen zo een volledig overzicht van de Nederlandse schapenrassen.
    Farming strategies in organic dairy farming: Effects on breeding goal and choice of breed. An explorative study
    Nauta, W.J. ; Baars, T. ; Saatkamp, H.W. ; Weenink, D. ; Roep, D. - \ 2009
    Livestock Science 121 (2009)2-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 187 - 199.
    biologische landbouw - melkvee - melkveehouderij - bedrijfssystemen - fokdoelen - rassen (dieren) - kruisingsfokkerij - organic farming - dairy cattle - dairy farming - farming systems - breeding aims - breeds - crossbreeding - farmers - welfare - traits
    Organic farming principles give rise to multifunctionality: different activities are combined at farm level to create ecological and economic synergies. These principles do however allow for different operationalisations and different farm development strategies, for example with regard to the use of external inputs or the decision whether or not to use advanced breeding technologies such as artificial insemination. Maintaining and improving diversity are therefore characteristic to organic farming. Since organic farming took off in the early 1990 s, many specialised dairy farms which tend to be more mono-functional in nature, have converted to organic, adding a new farming strategy to the diverse collection of farming strategies in organic dairy farming. All these farming strategies actually create different organic production environments for cows, which might result in different demands on selective breeding and breeding technology. This differential demand was explored in a survey, among 151 organic dairy farmers, on general farm strategy, milk production, breeding goal, choice of breed and approach to reproduction. Farmers were divided into one of two groups on each of three strategic options: a) diversification in farm business¿Specialised Dairy Farming vs. Multifunctional Farming; b) intensity of milk production¿Low Input vs. High Input Farming and c) naturalness of breeding¿Farming with Artificial Insemination vs. Farming with Natural Service
    Biologische koeien diverser van ras
    Smolders, E.A.A. ; Wagenaar, J.P. - \ 2008
    Ekoland 28 (2008)11. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 11 - 13.
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - dierveredeling - rassen (dieren) - kruisingsfokkerij - organic farming - dairy farming - animal breeding - breeds - crossbreeding
    Voor verschillende onderzoeksprojecten zijn van 105 biologische melkveebedrijven de Identificatie- en Registratiegegevens van de laatste zes jaar door de veehouders beschikbaar gesteld. Daar zijn ook de rasgegevens van de dieren bij. Op meerdere fronten wordt er aan fokkerij gewerkt. Men is op zoek naar een koe die beter past bij het eigen bedrijf of een koe die meer weerstand heeft
    Dynamics of livestock development in Gujarat, India: experiences of an Indian NGO
    Patil, B.R. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herman van Keulen, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; J.B. Schiere. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045304 - 158
    veehouderij - india - melkveehouderij - gemengde landbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - kruisingsfokkerij - voedering - diervoedering - modellen - bedrijfssystemenonderzoek - livestock farming - india - dairy farming - mixed farming - agricultural research - agricultural development - field experimentation - crossbreeding - feeding - animal feeding - models - farming systems research
    Keywords:    Agricultural R&D, field experimentation, crossbreeding, dairy, feeding technologies, mixed farming, farming systems research, modelling.

    Smallholder mixed crop livestock systems continue to be a dominant agricultural production system in many developing countries, includingIndia. Dairy farming is part and parcel of many such systems, and it is often seen as an important livelihood option to increase household income and to therefore contribute to poverty alleviation in rural areas. As a result, substantial efforts in agricultural R&D have been directed towards design of new technologies for smallholder dairy farming. Variable success in technology transfer has clearly shown that adoption is context-specific, related to the physical and socio-economic environment, access of farmers to resources, access to information and personal attitudes. A series of concepts and methods were developed to incorporate these considerations, and to replace narrow technology-driven approaches by broader ones such as Farming Systems Research (FSR).

    This thesis describes and analyses experiences of BAIF, an Indian NGO, with the use of FSR methodology in livestock development programmes inGujarat,India. The objectives were to identify criteria and methodologies for selection of appropriate livestock technologies for farm level, and to identify differences in the methods of selection of appropriate technology. Section 1 describes the variation in livestock production systems inIndiain general and in Gujarat-state. Livestock comprises defined and undefined breeds of cattle and buffalo. Total livestock population increased annually by over 1% in the last four decades, with buffalo and goat populations increasing faster than cattle. This section also gives background to the BAIF organization and to FSR methodologies. Section 2 more specifically describes theGujaratresearch area with agro-ecological zone-wise information on animal breeds, herd composition, feed resources, crops, and trends in seasonal availability of feed as derived from transects, Participatory Rural Appraisals, and mapping. Constraint analysis and modelling indicated limited genetic potential of the local breeds and shortage of feed resources, both quantitatively and qualitatively, as major constraints for livestock development. Crossbreeding for breed improvement and use of (improved) local feed resources were identified as suitable technologies to alleviate these constraints.

    Ex-post performance monitoring of some BAIF crossbreeding programmes show that crossbred cattle fitted well in the smallholder mixed farming systems of both tribal and non-tribal farmers in all three selected agro-ecological zones (Section 3). Milk production of crossbreds was substantially higher, as was livestock gross margin and household income. Although quality of the roughages is a major limiting factor, farmers owning crossbreds tried to adjust to the needs of the cows by feeding concentrates. There was no difference in workload and labour division between households with and without crossbreds. Crossbreeding thus proved a techno-economically and socially viable livelihood option for both mixed and landless farming systems inGujarat.

    Various modelling approaches were used in Section 4 to explore,ex ante,the suitability of feeding technologies such as urea supplementation, use of local and commercial concentrates, urea-treated straw with concentrates, and leuceana tree leaves for crop-livestock systems inGujarat,India. Major conclusions were that (i) concentrate feeding is beneficial to farmers with market access and crossbred cows, (ii) crossbreeding interventions are more remunerative for landless and tribal farmers than for non-tribal farmers; feeding interventions are more effective for crossbreds than for local cows, (iii) maximum farm income is achieved at medium milk yields per animal; higher milk yields require use of better feeds, which renders the straws of the grains useless for feeding; at farm level, the (economically) optimum cropping pattern would then shift from grain crops to cotton.This section continues with a narrative on BAIF's experiences with field testing of technologies at animal, at herd, at farm and watershed level, including a shift to crop research when dictated by local needs.Over a period of roughly 30 years, three phases in on-field testing can be distinguished, i.e., starting with a period of predominantly top-down approaches, moving to a phase with emphasis on participatory identification and testing of technologies, and then into a phase with work at community and watershed level. A few cases are discussed for each phase, illustrating the processes, methods and types of technologies involved, and drawing lessons on field experimentation for livestock and rural development in general. The studies brought out, among others, that adoption of technologies is facilitated when these use local (feed) resources, that are readily available, requires only small changes in farm practices, are relatively simple to implement, and yield tangible results in the short term.

    Section 5 analyses the dynamics in methods and approaches of BAIF's work on livestock development, as it grew from Gandhian roots into a large development organization. It emphasises the dynamics in approaches between top-down, objectivist and reductionist approaches on one hand and bottom-up, constructivist, holistic and self-organized approaches on the other hand. These experiences are set against similar developments on the (inter)national scene and in industrialized countries, along with factors that influence the changes, suggesting that agricultural R&D behaves as a complex adaptive system with its own dynamics and associated paradigm shifts. It also discusses a number of cross-cutting issues such as the notion of real versus perceived problems, hierarchy and grid, phases in development and aspects of holism versus reductionism, also reflected in notions of goal and process orientation.Concluding, the thesis considers development as a continuous process, of which the goals change over time-and-space. This reflects a paradigm issue, and if development is indeed a dynamic process it implies that choice of methodology and technology) should go along with changes occurring in that process. Some guidelines regarding the usefulness of approaches and technologies are given. But agricultural R&D is ultimately considered to be a complex adaptive system, also inGujarat, and development organizations such as BAIF have to, therefore, show dynamic behaviour.
    Gebruiksmogelijkheden van GPS voor de vleesveehouderij : resultaten van een voederproef met Belgisch Witblauw kruislingstieren = Usability of WCS in beef farming : results of a feeding trial with Belgian White Blue crosbred bulls
    Sebek, L.B.J. - \ 2004
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (PraktijkRapport / Animal Sciences Group, Praktijkonderzoek : Rundvee ) - 21
    vleesstieren - kruisingsfokkerij - triticale - voeding - kuilvoer van het hele gewas - beef bulls - crossbreeding - triticale - nutrition - whole crop silage
    De gebruikswaarde van Gehele Planten Silage (GPS) van triticale voor de vleesstierenhouderij werd onderzocht. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd op het vleesveebedrijf van de Waiboerhoeve te Lelystad. Daartoe werden 48 kruislingstieren van het type Belgische Witblauwe x zwartbonte HF in groepshuisvesting gehouden. De voeropname werd individueel gemeten met behulp van voerstations
    Kruisen: Hoe verder? Jersey-Holsteinkruislingen concurrerend met zuivere Holsteins
    Rijfkogel, M. ; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2003
    Veeteelt 20 (2003)11. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 15.
    melkveehouderij - melkvee - dierveredeling - kruisingsfokkerij - rundveerassen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dairy farming - dairy cattle - animal breeding - crossbreeding - cattle breeds - farm management
    Hoe verder te gaan als een veehouder één keer heeft gekruist? Voor het antwoord werden verschillende kruisingsstrategieën onderzocht met de consequenties daarvan voor de gemiddelde bedrijfsgrootte
    Kruisling vleesstier heeft weinig eiwit nodig
    Plomp, M. - \ 2000
    Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 13 (2000)5. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 30 - 32.
    vleesvee - stieren (bulls) - kruisingsfokkerij - eiwitbehoefte - voedingsrantsoenen - rundveevoeding - rundveemest - stikstof - beef cattle - bulls - crossbreeding - protein requirement - feed rations - cattle feeding - cattle manure - nitrogen
    Kruisling vleesstieren hebben een relatief lage eiwitbehoefte. Wanneer DVE volgens de norm wordt gevoerd is een OEB van 0 of iets daarboven voldoende. Met name aan het eind van de afmestperiode draagt beperken van de eiwitgift bij aan een lager stikstofoverschot.
    Kruisbare verwanten van Brassica napus L. en methoden van vrijhouden van isolatiezones
    Visser, A.J.C. de; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : AB-DLO (Nota / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 175) - 18
    brassica napus - kruisingsfokkerij - brassica napus - crossbreeding
    Groei-, slacht en vleeskwaliteitsresultaten bij nakomelingen van twee verschillende eindberen
    Huiskes, J.H. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Hoofs, A.I.J. ; Theissen, M. - \ 1997
    Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P1.189) - 36
    kruisingsfokkerij - varkens - beren (varkens) - groei - ontwikkeling - karkassamenstelling - varkensvlees - crossbreeding - pigs - boars - growth - development - carcass composition - pigmeat
    Invloed van Krusta- en GY-s-eindbeer op groei-, slacht- en vleeskwaliteitsresultaten
    Huiskes, J. ; Binnendijk, G. ; Hoofs, A. - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 13 - 15.
    kruisingsfokkerij - beren (varkens) - varkens - groei - ontwikkeling - karkassamenstelling - varkensvlees - dierlijke producten - kwaliteit - crossbreeding - boars - pigs - growth - development - carcass composition - pigmeat - animal products - quality
    In een kruisingsproef zijn nakomelingen van Krusta-eindberen (Duroc x Groot-Yorkshire berenlijn) en nakomelingen van GY-s-eindberen (Groot-Yorkshire berenlijn) met elkaar vergeleken.De groeiresultaten van de beide groepen vleesvarkens zijn goed en vaneen vergelijkbaar niveau. In slachtkwaliteit tonen de Krusta-nakomelingen een lager vleespercentage en lagere typeclassering. Er is door beide groepen een hoog intramusculair vetgehalte in het vlees behaald.
    Aanfok versus aankoop van opfokzeugen
    Kuunders, L. ; Backus, G. - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)3. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 13 - 15.
    dierveredeling - zeugen - selectie - vrouwelijke dieren - kruisingsfokkerij - inkopen - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rentabiliteit - animal breeding - sows - selection - female animals - crossbreeding - purchasing - farm results - profitability
    Hoe meer een vermeerderaar zelf doet aan de opfok en aanfok van opfokzeugen, des te hoger is het ondernemersoverschot.
    Meishan: Schatkamer voor de fokker. Chinees varkensras helpt bij het ontrafelen van erfelijk materiaal.
    Lende, T. van der; Groot, P.N. de; Elst-Wahle, L. ter - \ 1997
    Boerderij/Varkenshouderij 82 (1997)10. - ISSN 0169-0167 - p. 28VA - 31VA..
    kruisingsfokkerij - varkensrassen - onderzoek - china - nederland - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschap - crossbreeding - pig breeds - research - china - netherlands - scientific research - science
    De stand van zaken van het onderzoeksproject met Meishan-kruisingen van de Vakgroep Veefokkerij van de LU, dat in 1989 is gestart in samenwerking met 5 Nederlandse fokkerij-instellingen. Doel is het leveren van een bijdrage aan het in kaart brengen van het erfelijk materiaal van het varken
    Rotatiekruising in de Nederlandse varkenshouderij = Rotational crossing in Dutch pig husbandry: Vleesvarkenshouderij = Slaughter pig production
    Huiskes, J.H. ; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 1996
    Rosmalen : Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij nr. P 1.163) - 28
    kruisingsfokkerij - zeugen - varkens - crossbreeding - sows - pigs
    Op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij wordt al sinds 1987 gebruik gemaakt van rotatiekruising in de zeugenhouderij. De doelen van het in dit artikel beschreven onderzoek zijn nagaan of er verschillen bestaan in mesterijresultaten en slacht- en vleeskwaliteit en in de variabiliteit van deze kenmerken tussen vleesvarkens uit de rotatiekruising en de driewegkruising, en het bepalen van de variabiliteit in mesterijeigenschappen en slacht- en vleeskwaliteit tussen vleesvarkens uit drie typen rotatiezeugen
    Rotatiekruising in de Nederlandse varkenshouderij. Deel 1:zeugenhouderij
    Broeders, F.C.A.M. ; Vesseur, P.C. ; Kanis, E. ; Vonk, M.C. - \ 1996
    Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P1.162) - 48
    kruisingsfokkerij - zeugen - varkens - crossbreeding - sows - pigs
    Goede vleesvarkens uit rotatiekruisingszeugen
    Huiskes, J. ; Binnendijk, G. - \ 1996
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 10 (1996)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 22 - 24.
    kruisingsfokkerij - ontwikkeling - groei - varkens - slachtgewicht - zeugen - crossbreeding - development - growth - pigs - slaughter weight - sows
    In een onderzoek op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij te Rosmalen zijn vleesvarkens, afkomstig uit rotatiekruisingszeugen (R) van de drie Stamboekrassen Nederlands Landvarken (N), Groot Yorkshire-zeugenlijn (Y) en Fins Landvarken (F) en vleesvarkens uit YNF1-zeugen met elkaar vergeleken
    Kiezen voor rotatiekruising
    Vonk, M. - \ 1996
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 10 (1996)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 20 - 21.
    kruisingsfokkerij - heterosis - zeugen - crossbreeding - heterosis - sows
    Varkenshouders die rotatiekruising toepassen, hebben hier meestal voor gekozen om het risico van ziekte-insleep op het bedrijf te verkleinen door een gesloten bedrijfsvoering. Eventuele nadelen, zoals de extra eisen aan registratie en planning, nemen ze daarbij voor lief
    Rotatiekruising, een aantrekkelijk systeem om insleep van ziekten te voorkomen.
    Kanis, E. ; Vesseur, P. - \ 1996
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 121 (1996). - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 284 - 287.
    kruisingsfokkerij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - heterosis - varkens - diergeneeskunde - crossbreeding - farm management - heterosis - pigs - veterinary science
    Uitleg van de voordelen van rotatiekruising in de varkensfokkerij, de verschillende mogelijkheden hierbij, de management-aspecten en de fokkerij-aspecten
    Toetsen van merkprodukten vermeerderingszeugen op praktijkbedrijven
    Swinkels, J.W.G.M. ; Giesen, G.W.J. ; Riel, J.W. van; Backus, G.B.C. - \ 1995
    Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P4.13) - 8
    automatisering - beren (varkens) - karakteristieken - kruisingsfokkerij - ontwikkeling - groei - informatiesystemen - bedrijfsvoering - zeugen - automation - boars - characteristics - crossbreeding - development - growth - information systems - management - sows
    In de tweede helft van 1992 is door het onderzoeksteam 'Studie Elektronische Merkentoets (StEM)' een projectplan opgesteld voor het ontwikkelen van een methode voor een periodieke toets van merkprodukten varkens met behulp van gegevens afkomstig uit management-informatiesystemen (MIS). Een merkprodukt is gedefinieerd als de combinatie van een vermeerderingszeug en een eindbeer van één fokkerijorganisatie.
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