Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Winning en cryoconservering van sperma van zeldzame Nederlandse konijnenrassen voor de genenbank
    Hoving-Bolink, A.H. ; Wit, A.A.C. de; Sulkers, H. ; Zuidberg, C.A. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Woelders, H. ; Hiemstra, S.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Wageningen UR (CGN rapport 32) - 37
    rapporten - konijnen - rassen (dieren) - conservering - kunstmatige inseminatie - ingevroren sperma - sperma - genenbanken - zeldzame rassen - reports - rabbits - breeds - conservation - artificial insemination - frozen semen - semen - gene banks - rare breeds
    In dit rapport wordt beschreven welke activiteiten CGN in samenwerking met de SZH, KLN en individuele fokkers hebben ondernomen om genetisch materiaal van konijnenrassen veilig te stellen in de genenbank. Op basis van literatuur en praktijkervaringen is een protocol voor spermawinning en spermaverwerking (cryoconservering) vastgesteld. Een dergelijk protocol was niet beschikbaar in de Nederlandse bedrijfsmatige konijnenhouderij omdat daar uitsluitend met vers sperma gewerkt wordt en niet met ingevroren sperma. Het rapport eindigt met een beschrijving van de resultaten van de spermawinning.
    ‘Speciale technieken alleen voor topfokkerij': Gary Hennip voorspelt het einde van KI als geavanceerde technieken worden gecombineerd
    Hogenkamp, W. ; Veerkamp, R.F. - \ 2014
    Boerderij 99 (2014)27. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 38 - 38.
    veehouderij - dierveredeling - fokwaarde - kunstmatige inseminatie - genetica - genomen - technieken - nieuwe combinatie - toekomst - livestock farming - animal breeding - breeding value - artificial insemination - genetics - genomes - techniques - new combination - future
    Gary Hennip, onderzoeker bij Penn State University (VS), denkt dat ki overbodig is bij slim combineren van technieken als ovum pick-up, ivf, genomics en sperma seksen op het bedrijf. Boerderij legt de stelling voor aan professor generieke genetcia Roel Veerkamp.
    Vier boeren werken samen aan beter melkschaap (interview met H. Sulkers)
    Engelen, J. ; Sulkers, H. - \ 2013
    Het Schaap 22 (2013)10/11. - ISSN 0165-3156 - p. 14 - 16.
    zeeuws melkschaap - fries melkschaap - rammen - kunstmatige inseminatie - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - zeldzame rassen - dierveredeling - zeeland milk sheep - frisian milk sheep - rams - artificial insemination - animal genetic resources - rare breeds - animal breeding
    Het aantal Friese en Zeeuwse melkschapen in ons land is klein. Voor professionele melkers wordt het steeds lastiger om goed verervende rammen te vinden die ook nog eens niet te veel inteelt geven. Vier boeren doen daarom samen een fokkerijproef, ondersteund door het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen en Stichting Zeldzame Huisdierrassen.
    Advies voor genetisch beheer van de Bonte Bentheimen populatie in Nederland
    Windig, J.J. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Centre for genetic resources (CGN) (CGN rapport 28) - 16
    varkens - beren (varkens) - kunstmatige inseminatie - fokkerijmethoden - dierveredeling - populatiegenetica - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - varkensrassen - zeldzame rassen - pigs - boars - artificial insemination - animal breeding methods - animal breeding - population genetics - animal genetic resources - pig breeds - rare breeds
    De Bonte Bentheimer heeft in Nederland een kleine populatieomvang. In kleine rassen kan inteelt voor grote problemen zorgen en dus is een goed fokbeleid nodig om een te sterke inteelttoename te voorkomen.
    Control of Pig Reproduction IX
    Rodriguez-Martinez, H. ; Soede, N.M. ; Flowers, W.L. - \ 2013
    Leicestershire, United Kingdom : Context Products Ltd (Society of Reproduction and Fertility volume 68) - ISBN 9781899043484 - 345
    varkens - geslachtelijke voortplanting - gameten - embryo's - kunstmatige inseminatie - embryotransplantatie - zwangerschap - partus - pasgeborenen - biggen - overleving - biotechnologie - metabolomica - eiwitexpressieanalyse - kunstmatige selectie - pigs - sexual reproduction - gametes - embryos - artificial insemination - embryo transfer - pregnancy - parturition - neonates - piglets - survival - biotechnology - metabolomics - proteomics - artificial selection
    Melkveefokkerij wil robuustere koeien
    Nauta, W.J. - \ 2011
    In: BioKennis innovatie magazine / Wijnands, F.G., van Keulen, H., Dubbeldam, R., - p. 38 - 39.
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - dierveredeling - fokdoelen - biologische landbouw - biologisch-dynamische landbouw - kunstmatige inseminatie - ki stieren - weerstand - dairy cattle - dairy farming - animal breeding - breeding aims - organic farming - biodynamic farming - artificial insemination - ai bulls - resistance
    Robuuste koeien wil de biologische melkveehouderij. Onderzoek en praktijk trekken hierin gezamenlijk op. Steeds meer veehouders zetten eigen fokstieren in en er is een biologisch Bio-KI opgezet.
    The role of reproductive technologies in breeding schemes for livestock populations in developing countries
    Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2011
    Livestock Science 136 (2011)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 29 - 37.
    fokkerijmethoden - dierveredeling - ontwikkelingslanden - vee - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische diversiteit - veredelingsprogramma's - kunstmatige inseminatie - inteelt - genetische verbetering - animal breeding methods - animal breeding - developing countries - livestock - animal genetic resources - genetic diversity - breeding programmes - artificial insemination - inbreeding - genetic improvement - dairy-cattle - genetic-variation - embryo transfer - predefined rate - selection - programs - impact - rates - prediction - sheep
    The world is faced with the challenge to meet the increasing demand for livestock products while conserving animal genetic resource diversity and maintaining environmental integrity. Genetic improvement of local breeds can help to improve the livelihood of the livestock keepers, to increase the production of animal products and to conserve genetic diversity. Implementing breeding schemes in developing countries has proven to be very difficult. The objective of this paper is to discuss the role of reproductive technologies for the creation and dissemination of genetic improvement in livestock populations in developing countries. In the paper opportunities are discussed for implementing breeding schemes which minimize the need for extensive pedigree and performance recording. It is shown that genetic progress can be generated in a small population. Community-based breeding schemes offer a good starting point for involving farmers in improving local breeds. Artificial insemination to exchange genetic material between communities offers an opportunity to increase the rate of genetic improvement while restricting the rate of inbreeding. Furthermore, artificial insemination is a promising technique for dissemination of genetic gain to producers at a relatively low cost. Opportunities to use semen sexing in a crossbreeding scheme are presented. It is concluded that tailor-made solutions and long-term commitment are needed in order to meet the needs of farmers to increase their livelihoods and to meet the needs of the growing population of consumers.
    Het seksen van sperma - Wel of niet gewenst in de biologische melkveehouderij?
    Nauta, W.J. ; Woelders, H. - \ 2010
    Louis Bolk (Rapport / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. LV79) - 16
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - sperma - sorteren - geslachtsbeïnvloeding - fokkerijmethoden - kunstmatige inseminatie - organic farming - dairy farming - semen - sorting - sex control - animal breeding methods - artificial insemination
    Het seksen van stierensperma beleeft in de melkveehouderij een snelle opkomst. Het is echter de vraag of in de biologische sector deze techniek wel toelaatbaar is. Ten behoeve van het creëren van duidelijkheid omtrent het gebruik van deze techniek wordt in deze notitie eerst de techniek van het seksen van sperma beschreven zoals die nu wordt uitgevoerd. Daarna wordt kort uiteengezet wat de voor- en nadelen van deze techniek kunnen zijn en wat op basis hiervan de voor en tegens van het wel of niet gebruiken van het seksen van sperma in de biologische landbouw zijn.
    Stand van zaken biologische fokkerij
    Nauta, W.J. - \ 2010
    BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2010)20. - 4 p.
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - stieren - kunstmatige inseminatie - dierveredeling - natuurlijke paring - inteelt - fokwaarde - organic farming - dairy farming - steers - artificial insemination - animal breeding - natural mating - inbreeding - breeding value
    In Nederland wordt gestaag gebouwd aan het opzetten van een volwaardige biologische melkveefokkerij. Vorig jaar zijn daarvoor weer stappen gezet met onderzoek, simulaties van een fokprogramma en de inzet van de eerste BioKI stier Opneij Wytze P. De kennis en ervaringen van de Praktijknetwerken Bio-KI en Fundamentfokkerij Fries Hollands Vee en het onderzoek van het Louis Bolk Instituut en Livestock Research van Wageningen UR zijn samengebracht in dit BioKennisbericht.
    Cryoconservering van runderrassen in Nederland
    Woelders, H. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Sulkers, H. ; Hoving, A.H. ; Hiemstra, S.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    rundvee - rundveehouderij - rundveerassen - rassen (dieren) - dierveredeling - conservering - kunstmatige inseminatie - zeldzame rassen - cattle - cattle husbandry - cattle breeds - breeds - animal breeding - conservation - artificial insemination - rare breeds
    In deze brochure wordt ingegaan op de rol van cryoconservering (genenbank en routinematige KI) bij de instandhouding van de streekgebonden Nederlandse rassen: Brandrode Rund, Fries Hollands, Fries Roodbont, Groninger Blaarkop, Lakenvelder, Maas-Rijn-IJssel, Verbeterd Roodbont Vleesras en Witrik
    The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies
    Hiemstra, S.J. ; Lende, T. van der; Woelders, H. - \ 2006
    In: The Role of Biotechnology in Exploring and Protecting Agricultural Genetic Resources / Ruane, J., Sonnino, A., Rome : FAO - ISBN 9789251054802 - p. 45 - 60.
    genetische bronnen van diersoorten - cryopreservering - vee - vissen - kunstmatige inseminatie - voortplanting - technologie - conservering - embryo's - embryokloneren - spermaconservering - genetische diversiteit - ex-situ conservering - animal genetic resources - cryopreservation - livestock - fishes - artificial insemination - reproduction - technology - conservation - embryos - embryo cloning - semen preservation - genetic diversity - ex situ conservation
    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fish through cryopreservation is an important strategy to conserve genetic diversity in these species. Conservation strategies benefit from advances in cryopreservation and reproductive technologies. Choice of genetic material type to be preserved for different species depends highly on objectives, technical feasibility (e.g. collection, cryopreservation), costs and practical circumstances
    When to inseminate the cow? Insemination, ovulation and fertilization in dairy cattle
    Roelofs, J.B. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Nicoline Nieuwenhuizen-Soede; F.J.C.M. van Eerdenburg. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085042853 - 152
    melkvee - oestrus - kunstmatige inseminatie - ovulatie - bevruchting - diergedrag - gang - geslachtshormonen - geslachtsverhouding - dairy cattle - oestrus - artificial insemination - ovulation - fertilization - animal behaviour - gait - sex hormones - sex ratio
    Keywords: dairy cattle; oestrus; behaviour; pedometer; reproductive hormones; ovulation time; insemination strategy

    In dairy practice, calving rates after first insemination are often less than 50%. Part of this low percentage might be explained by wrongly timed inseminations. The aim was to establish the relationship between various oestrus characteristics and ovulation time in order to investigate whether these oestrus characteristics could predict ovulation time and to study the consequences of variation in the interval between insemination and ovulation on the success of fertilization and embryonic characteristics. The ultimate goal of the project was to come to an optimal insemination strategy that can be used in practice. The relationship between behavioural oestrous signs, changes in activity (measured by pedometers) and progesterone profiles and time of ovulation were. It was shown that monitoring progesterone profiles was not suitable to predict time of ovulation because of the large variation found in the decrease of progesterone relative to ovulation. Although the prediction of ovation time using behavioural oestrus signs was quite accurate, it seems not suitable for practice because of the high labour requirements. The increase in the number of steps measured by pedometers seems useful to predict time of ovulation accurately and could be easily implemented in practice. Effects of the interval between insemination and ovulation on success of fertilization and embryonic characteristics were also studied. It was shown that the insemination-ovulation interval in which high fertilization rates were observed was quite long (insemination from 36 to 12h before ovulation), while the interval in which the majority of fertilized ovum developed into a good quality embryo was considerably shorter (insemination from 24 to 12h before ovulation); the interval between insemination and ovulation did not affect the sex ratio of the embryos.

    In conclusion, the best chance to increase calving rates seems to be to use the insemination strategy, in which cows are inseminated between 5 to 17h after the first increase in the number of steps.
    Optimaal inseminatiemoment: hoger bevruchtingspercentage en betere embryokwaliteit bij vroeg inseminatietijdstip
    Roelofs, J.B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2005
    Veeteelt 22 (2005)20. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - oestrus - leeftijd bij eerste inseminatie - kunstmatige inseminatie - afkalfpercentage - seksueel gedrag - meting - registreren - onderzoek - dairy farming - dairy cows - oestrus - age at first insemination - artificial insemination - calving rate - sexual behaviour - measurement - recording - research
    Om een koe drachtig te krijgen moet inseminatie op het juiste moment plaatsvinden. In de praktijk is het tijdstip van de eisprong niet bekend en daarom gaat men af op de staande tocht om het inseminatietijdstip te bepalen. Maar uit een promotieonderzoek aan Wageningen UR, naar de relatie tussen een aantal tochtkenmerken en het moment van de eisprong, blijkt dat slechts 58 procent van de tochtige koeien staande tocht toont. Naast het tochtgedrag is ook de activiteit van koeien bestudeerd m.b.v. een stappenteller
    Elk jaar een kalf blijft optimaal
    Hogeveen, H. ; Eerdenburg, F. van; Cocq, P. de - \ 2005
    Veeteelt 22 (2005)21. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - melkproductie - tussenkalftijd - lactatie - lactatieduur - economische analyse - kunstmatige inseminatie - timing - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - dairy farming - dairy cows - milk production - calving interval - lactation - lactation duration - economic analysis - artificial insemination - timing - farm management - farm results
    Met het oog op het vinden van de optimale tussenkalftijd zochten onderzoekers aan de faculteit Diergeneeskunde Utrecht naar het optimale lactatiestadium om koeien te insemineren
    Bull sperm cryopreservation, fundamental and applied aspects
    Chaveiro, A. - \ 2005
    Utrecht University. Promotor(en): B. Colenbrander, co-promotor(en): Henri Woelders. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789039339190 - 128
    stieren (bulls) - spermatozoön - cryopreservering - membraanpermeabiliteit - vriestechnieken - fokkerijmethoden - kunstmatige inseminatie - bulls - spermatozoa - cryopreservation - membrane permeability - freezing techniques - animal breeding methods - artificial insemination
    Insemination strategies in swine: physiological backgrounds and practical consequences
    Soede, N.M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2003
    In: Perspectives in Pig Science / Wiseman, J., Varley, M.A., Kemp, B., Nottingham UK : Nottingham University Press - ISBN 9781897676196 - p. 257 - 278.
    varkens - kunstmatige inseminatie - dierfysiologie - voortplanting - fysiologie - pigs - artificial insemination - animal physiology - reproduction - physiology
    Vruchtbaarheid op het High-techbedrijf redelijk tot goed
    Thomassen, I. ; Kamp, A. van der - \ 2002
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)3. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 26 - 27.
    vruchtbaarheid - tussenkalftijd - zwangerschap - zwangerschapspercentage - bevruchtingspercentage - afkalfpercentage - melkkoeien - melkvee - melkveehouderij - diergezondheid - voortplantingsstoornissen - inseminatie - kunstmatige inseminatie - proefbedrijven - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - fertility - calving interval - pregnancy - pregnancy rate - conception rate - calving rate - dairy cows - dairy cattle - dairy farming - animal health - reproductive disorders - insemination - artificial insemination - pilot farms - demonstration farms
    In een reeks van vier artikelen bespreken we het diermanagement op het High-techbedrijf. Dit artikel gaat in op de vruchtbaarheid.
    Vruchtbaarheid koeien lagekostenbedrijf moet beter
    Smolders, G. - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 12 (1999)5. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 26 - 28.
    melkvee - vruchtbaarheid - kunstmatige inseminatie - statistische gegevens - bedrijfsvoering - dairy cattle - fertility - artificial insemination - statistical data - management
    De eerste resultaten van het lagekostenbedrijf zijn bemoedigend; de kostprijs van de melk is laag, de productie valt mee en het MINAS-stikstofoverschot voldoet al aan de norm voor 2002. De vruchtbaarheid van de koeien op het lagekostenbedrijf liet in 1998 nogal te wensen over. Het drachtigheidspercentage na 1ste inseminatie was laag en ook latere inseminaties leverden geen goed resultaat.
    Turen naar sperma is achterhaald kwaliteitsonderzoek. Nieuwe techniek beoordeelt zaadcellen op hun vermogen om af te rijpen in de zeug
    Bodde, R. ; Woelders, H. - \ 1999
    Boerderij/Varkenshouderij (1999). - ISSN 0169-0167
    zeugen - bevruchting - vruchtbaarheid - spermatozoön - kunstmatige inseminatie - sperma - sows - fertilization - fertility - spermatozoa - artificial insemination - semen
    Bijna praktijkrijp is de techniek die het bevruchtend vermogen van zaad bepaalt met hulp van nagebootste processen in de zeug
    Optimising insemination strategies in pigs
    Steverink, D. - \ 1999
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.P.T.M. Noordhuizen; B. Kemp; N.M. Soede. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058080950 - 147
    zeugen - varkens - kunstmatige inseminatie - voortplanting - voortplantingsefficiëntie - bevruchting - spermatozoön - dosering - sperma - oestrus - ovulatie - tijd - wiskundige modellen - simulatiemodellen - commerciële landbouw - sows - pigs - artificial insemination - reproduction - reproductive efficiency - fertilization - spermatozoa - dosage - semen - oestrus - ovulation - time - mathematical models - simulation models - commercial farming

    INTRODUCTION

    Reproductive efficiency shows large variation between farms. The origin of the variation between farms, with respect to these reproduction results, is very complex. Factors like health status, husbandry system, management and breed can have an influence on reproduction results. One of the management factors is timing of insemination, which influences reproduction results by affecting fertilisation.

    The research described in this thesis deals with the possibility of developing a method to optimise insemination strategies for individual farms. Therefore three objectives were formulated: the first objective is increasing insight in the effects of the interval between insemination and ovulation on fertilisation results. The second objective is increasing knowledge on the possibilities of predicting the moment of ovulation of sows at a farm. The final objective is developing a method which can be used for optimising insemination strategies at commercial farms.

    FERTILISATION IN RELATION TO INSEMINATION AND OVULATION

    In Chapter 2 the sensitivity of the relation of the insemination to ovulation interval (IO) and fertilisation results is studied. Fertilisation results are not very sensitive to variation in the number of inseminated sperm cells in the range of 1 x 10 9 to 6 x 10 9 sperm cells (Chapter 2.1). Sows with more than 4 ml backflow of semen during insemination had reduced fertilisation results when the sows were inseminated with 1 x 10 9 sperm cells, but this was not seen with an insemination dosage of 3 x 10 9 or 6 x 10 9 sperm cells (Chapter 2.2). Backflow of semen after insemination did not affect fertilisation results. It could be concluded that sub-optimal circumstances like a combination of a low dosage and loss of sperm cells due to backflow during insemination, lead to sub-optimal fertilisation results.

    Fertilisation is a complex process, resulting in no, partial or complete fertilisation of the oocytes. The variation in conception (at least one oocyte fertilised) and fertilisation rate between sows is high, but a large part of the variation is related to the interval between insemination and ovulation. A mathematical model for conception and fertilisation is described in Chapter 2.3. The data used for estimating the parameters in the model were derived from multiparous sows that were inseminated once with a commercial sperm dose of 3 x 10 9 sperm cells of proven quality which was stored for less than 48 h and with sperm cells. In the model, the probability of conception is maximal (98%), when insemination is performed between 29 and 3 h before ovulation. The probability of complete fertilisation (all oocytes fertilised) is maximal when insemination was performed at 9.6 h before ovulation. At this optimal fertilisation point, the probability of partial fertilisation is 21% which increases beyond this point.

    PREDICTION OF OVULATION

    Fertilisation results are related to the interval between insemination and ovulation. Therefore, the moment of ovulation is a crucial moment for timing of insemination. Many potential ovulation predictors have been studied, but only oestrus duration is a reasonable estimate (retrospectively) for ovulation. Ovulation takes place at on average twothirds of oestrus. Unfortunately oestrus duration is very variable.

    The average oestrus duration is different between farms ranging between 31 and 64 h (Chapter 3.1). Moreover, oestrus duration is consistent from month to month within a farm with a repeatability of 86%. Furthermore, oestrus duration is negatively related to the weaning to oestrus interval. This relation differs among farms. These specific farm parameters can be used to predict the oestrus duration and from that the ovulation can be predicted. These farm parameters (average oestrus duration and the relation of weaning to oestrus interval and oestrus duration) can be used to define a specific insemination strategy for each farm.

    DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL FOR INSEMINATION STRATEGIES

    There are a variety of factors influencing the reproduction process. The complexity of this reproduction process makes a modelling and simulation approach valuable because effects of the underlying processes can be controlled. A PIG Simulation model for Insemination strategies (PIGSIS) was developed which consists of two parts: (1) the reproduction events from the number of ovulated oocytes until the number of piglets at farrowing and (2) timing of insemination relative to ovulation based on the farm parameters (weaning to oestrus interval, oestrus duration, etc.). PIGSIS simulates the reproduction results at day 1, 5, 10, 15, 35 and 110 of pregnancy. Many physiological processes are included in PIGSIS e.g. fertilisation, embryonic mortality (degeneration, maternal recognition of pregnancy, embryonic uterine capacity) and foetal mortality (foetal uterine capacity). After verification and validation it could be concluded that PIGSIS is a robust model that reasonably simulates reproduction results. Under the basic situation (average oestrus duration of 47 h and average parity of 4.2) and when insemination was applied between 0 and 24 h before ovulation PIGSIS simulates 12.9 total born piglets and a farrowing rate of 94.9%. Under these conditions the average embryonic and foetal mortality of the conceptuses was 34.9% and 3.0%, respectively. The effect of insemination to ovulation interval on fertilisation results is clear, but the effect becomes less clear as gestation proceeds resulting in a more pronounced effect on litter size than on farrowing rate.

    In the General discussion the results of the studies are discussed and an illustration of the usability of PIGSIS is given. Verification and partial validation gave confidence in the model. However, a further validation is required to evaluate the model as a whole. Therefore PIGSIS is still in its developing stage and reservations has to be taken into account at this stage by using PIGSIS for defining optimal insemination strategies on farms

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