Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Recyclebaarheid van verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt : Huishoudelijke kunststof verpakkingen in sorteerproducten onderzocht op recyclebaarheid en hoeveelheid
    Brouwer, M.T. ; Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1782) - ISBN 9789463438261 - 45
    recycling - kunststoffen - containers - afvalverwerking - gedrag van huishoudens - sorteren - recycling - plastics - containers - waste treatment - household behaviour - sorting
    describes the recyclability of Dutch post-consumer plastic packages. It focusses on the recyclability of the packages at the Dutch households and those present in the sorting products (mainly Mix and Sorting Residue). The objective of this study was to comprehend which packages are currently not being recycled in the Dutch recycling system of plastic packaging waste. The research question answered in this report is:What is the recyclability of the post-consumer plastic packages on the Dutch market, especially the plastic packages at the households and in the sorting residue and Mix sorting product?This study has been performed in the period of June until September 2017 by researchers of Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) and is commissioned and financed by the Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afval- en Reinigingsmanagement (NVRD). Other participants in the study were Midwaste, HVC and Omrin by delivering samples and additional information. The research has concisely been performed, making maximally use of an existing model of WFBR. The research was done objectively and independently.The main conclusion is that 56% of the packages on the Dutch market are recyclable. 6% of the packages can be recycled into utensils, but are not ideal as they disturb the recycling of other packages in more circular applications, such as coloured PET bottles and PP film. PET trays are not recyclable at the moment, but are potentially recyclable in the future. These packages are now being sorted in a separate sorting product and stored until a recycling process is available. The PET trays amount to 10% of the plastic packages. 28% of the packages on the Dutch market are not recyclable, these are mainly PS and PVC packages, laminated packages and blisters.There are still significant amounts of potentially well recyclable plastic packages present in the Mix sorting product, which would rather belong to the PE and PP sorting product. The sorting residue still contains some well recyclable packages, which gets lost via this route. Additionally, the sorting residue consist of large amounts of non-recyclable packaging, non-packages and residual waste, which are intentionally added to of the sorting residue.The Dutch recycling system for post-consumer plastic packages and their recyclability can be improved in three ways:- Better sorting; produce less Mix sorting product and sort more packages in the intended sorting category.- Design for recycling; packages that are non-recyclable can be changed or replaced by packages that are recyclable. For instance PS and PVC flasks can be replaced by PE or PP flasks. Design from recycling; packages that cannot be changed or replaced should be recycled by new or adjusted recycling technologies. For instance a part of the laminates and blisters.---Dit rapport is het resultaat van een studie naar de recyclebaarheid van kunststofverpakkingen, in het bijzonder de huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen. Hierbij is gekeken naar de recyclebaarheid van de verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt en in de sorteerproducten (specifiek de Mix en sorteerrest). Het doel van deze studie is inzicht krijgen welke verpakkingen nu nog niet worden gerecycleerd in het huidige recyclingsysteem in Nederland.De onderzoeksvraag die in dit rapport beantwoord is:Wat is de recyclebaarheid van huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt, in het bijzonder de kunststofverpakkingen aanwezig bij de huishoudens en in de sorteerrest en de mengkunststoffen (Mix)?Deze studie is uitgevoerd in de periode van juni tot en met september 2017 door onderzoekers van Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) in opdracht van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afval- en Reinigingsmanagement (NVRD), die tevens deze studie heeft gefinancierd. Daarnaast zijn Midwaste, HVC en Omrin participant geweest in de studie door het leveren van monsters en informatie. Het onderzoek is kort en krachtig uitgevoerd, waarbij gebruik is gemaakt van een bestaand basismodel ontwikkeld door WFBR. De onderzoekers hebben een objectief en onafhankelijk onderzoek uitgevoerd om deze vraag te beantwoorden.Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat 56% van de verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt goed recyclebaar zijn. 6% van de verpakkingen is in principe goed recyclebaar naar toepassingen als gebruiksartikelen, maar niet ideaal omdat deze verpakkingen de recycling van andere verpakkingen richting meer circulaire toepassingen kunnen verstoren, zoals gekleurde PET flessen en PP folie. PET trays zijn nu nog niet recyclebaar, maar mogelijk wel recyclebaar in de toekomst. Deze verpakkingen worden nu wel in een aparte categorie gesorteerd, maar er moet nog een recyclingroute voor deze verpakkingen worden ontwikkeld. De PET trays bedragen 10% van de kunststofverpakkingen. 28% van de verpakkingen zijn slecht recyclebaar, dit zijn voornamelijk PS en PVC verpakkingen, laminaten en doordrukstrips.In het Mix sorteerproduct is nog een hoog aandeel goed recyclebare verpakkingen aanwezig, dit betreft voornamelijk verpakkingen die eigenlijk in het PE of PP sorteerproduct thuishoren. De sorteerrest bevat nog een deel goed recyclebare verpakkingen, die via deze route verloren gaan. Daarnaast bevat de sorteerrest een groot aandeel slecht recyclebare verpakkingen, niet-verpakkingen en restafval, zoals de bedoeling is voor de sorteerrest.Het Nederlandse recyclingsysteem kan op het gebied van recyclebaarheid van verpakkingen op een drietal punten verbeterd worden: - Beter sorteren; minder Mix produceren en meer verpakkingen in de gewenste sorteercategorie sorteren.- Design for recycling; slecht recyclebare verpakkingen die goed vervangen of verbeterd kunnen worden voor een recyclebare verpakkingen. Bijvoorbeeld PS en PVC flacons vervangen voor een PE of PP flacon.- Design from recycling; voor verpakkingen die niet vervangen of verbeterd kunnen worden, bijvoorbeeld een deel van de laminaten en doordrukstrips, nieuwe of aangepaste recycling technologieën ontwikkelen
    Recyclingopties voor PET schalen
    Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research rapport 1761) - 19
    recycling - verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalverwijdering - platte bakken - huisvuilverwijdering - recycling - packaging materials - plastics - waste disposal - trays - municipal refuse disposal
    Impact of marine debris on Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Cape Shirreff: diet dependent ingestion and entanglement : Preliminary results
    Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
    Den Helder : IMARES - 7
    seals - plastics - ingestion - animal welfare - microplastics - water pollution - animal health - feeding - zeehonden - kunststoffen - inname - dierenwelzijn - microplastics - waterverontreiniging - diergezondheid - voedering
    For several decades it has been known that plastics in the marine environment can harm marine organisms, most visibly birds, turtles and mammals (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985). These animals can become entangled in this synthetic debris and can ingest macro- and micro-plastics. Recently, increased awareness of plastic fragmentation into small persistent particles (‘plastic soup’) and the potential chemical hazards from ingestion have heightened the concern regarding the chemical impact on the marine food chains and ultimately the consequences for humans as end consumers (UNEP, 2011). UNEP listed plastic debris in the oceans as one of the three main emerging issues of concern for the global environment. Within the framework of the Commission for the Convention of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) there has been attention to beached litter and seal entanglements, but little systematic work on the ingestion of plastic materials has been done.
    Handbook for sorting of plastic packaging waste concentrates : separation efficiencies of common plastic packaging objects in widely used separaion machines at existing sorting facilities with mixed postconsumer plastic packaging waste as input
    Jansen, M. ; Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Pretz, Th. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Reports of Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1604) - ISBN 9789462575295 - 30
    recycling - packaging materials - plastics - waste management - waste treatment - sorting - sorters - recycling - verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalbeheer - afvalverwerking - sorteren - sorteermachines
    Hergebruik van huishoudelijk kunststofverpakkingsafval is een ingewikkelde keten die in het algemeen uit drie stappen bestaat; gescheiden inzameling bij de burgers of nascheiding uit het huisvuil, sorteren en opwerken tot gewassen maalgoed. Dit onderzoek analyseert de tweede stap, waarin of gescheiden ingezameld kunststofverpakkingsafval of nagescheiden kunststofconcentraat wordt gesorteerd in materiaalfracties die verhandeld kunnen worden met recyclingbedrijven.
    Primeur op congres: onderzoeksresultaten urban heat effect door kunstgras : WUR-onderzoeker bestudeert op verzoek van vakblad Fieldmanager
    Theeuwes, N.E. - \ 2015
    Fieldmanager 11 (2015)6. - ISSN 2212-4314 - p. 70 - 71.
    sportterreinen - grasveld - kunststoffen - natuurlijke graslanden - voetballen - omgevingstemperatuur - bodemtemperatuur - schaduw - sports grounds - grass sward - plastics - natural grasslands - soccer - environmental temperature - soil temperature - shade
    Er bestaat vermoedelijk een groot verschil tussen de temperatuur van kunstgras en die van natuurgras bij hitte. Als kunstgrasvelden hitte-eilandjes vormen, zou dit een groot effect hebben op het stadsklimaat. Natalie Theeuwes van de Wageningen Universiteit deed op verzoek van vakblad Fieldmanager wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar het urban heat effect door kunstgras en geeft de bezoekers van het Nationaal Sportvelden Congres de primeur van haar meetresultaten. Ook geeft zij advies over het minimaliseren van hittestress rónd de velden.
    Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste
    Bing, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst; Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570870 - 205
    logistiek - huishoudens - afval - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - modelleren - transport - kosten - logistics - households - wastes - sustainability - plastics - modeling - transport - costs

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and processed for recycling.

    Plastic waste has a complex composition and is polluted, thus requires a substantial technical effort to separate the plastics from the waste and to sort these into recyclable materials. There are several alternatives in the existing collection methods (curb-side and drop-off) and separation methods (source separation and post-separation). It is challenging to select a suitable combination of these methods and to design a network that is efficient and sustainable. It is necessary to build a suitable, efficient and sustainable recycling network from collection to the final processor in order to provide solutions for different future scenarios of plastics household waste recycling. Decision support is needed in order to redesign the plastic waste reverse logistics so that the plastic waste recycling supply chain can be improved towards a more sustainable direction. To improve the efficiency in the recycling of plastic packaging waste, insights are required into this complex system. Insights solely on a municipal level are not sufficient, as the processing and end market are important for a complete network configuration. Therefore, we have investigated the problem at three levels: municipal, regional, and global. Decision support systems are developed based on optimization techniques to explore the power of mathematical modelling to assist in the decision-making process.

    This thesis investigates plastic waste recycling from a sustainable reverse logistics angle. The aim is to analyse the collection, separation and treatments systems of plastic waste and to propose redesigns for the recycling system using quantitative decision support models.

    We started this research project by identifying research opportunities. This was done through a practical approach that aimed to find future research opportunities to solve existing problems (Chapter 2). We started from a review of current municipal solid waste recycling practices in various EU countries and identified the characteristics and key issues of waste recycling from waste management and reverse logistics point of view. This is followed by a literature review regarding the applications of operations research. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem and that research opportunities can be found by considering different decision levels simultaneously. While analyzing a reverse supply chain for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) recycling, a holistic view and considering characteristics of different waste types are necessary.

    Municipal Level

    In Chapter 3, we aim to redesign the collection routes of household plastic waste and compare the collection options at the municipal level using eco-efficiency as a performance indicator. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency, and collection points, etc. The results show that the source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection, assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner.

    In Chapter 4, we develop a comprehensive cost estimation model to further analyze the impacts of various taxation alternatives on the collection cost and environmental impact. This model is based on such variables as fixed and variable costs per vehicle, personnel cost, container or bag costs, as well as emission costs (using imaginary carbon taxes). The model can be used for decision support when strategic changes to the collection scheme of municipalities are considered. The model, which considers the characteristics of municipalities, including degree of urbanization and taxation schemes for household waste management, was applied to the Dutch case of post-consumer plastic packaging waste. The results showed that post-separation collection generally has the lowest costs. Curb-side collection in urban municipalities without residual waste collection taxing schemes has the highest cost. These results were supported by the conducted sensitivity analysis, which showed that higher source-separation responses are negatively related to curb-side collection costs.

    Regional Level

    Chapter 5 provides decision support for choosing the most suitable combination of separation methods in the Netherlands. Decision support is provided through an optimized reverse logistics network design that makes the overall recycling system more efficient and sustainable, while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders (municipalities, households, etc.). A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which minimizes both transportation cost and environmental impact, is used to design this network. The research follows the approach of a scenario study; the baseline scenario is the current situation and other scenarios are designed with various strategic alternatives. Comparing these scenarios, the results show that the current network settings of the baseline situation is efficient in terms of logistics, but has the potential to adapt to strategic changes, depending on the assumptions regarding availability of the required processing facilities to treat plastic waste. In some of the tested scenarios, a separate collection channel for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is cost-efficient and saves carbon emission. Although the figures differ depending on the choices in separation method made by municipalities, our modeling results of all the tested scenarios show a reduction in carbon emissions of more than 25 percent compared to the current network.

    Chapter 6 studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. The aim was to quantify the impact of multimodality in the network in order to provide decision support for the design of more sustainable plastic recycling networks in the future. A MILP model is developed in order to assess different plastic waste collection, treatment, and transportation scenarios. A baseline scenario represents the optimized current situation, while other scenarios allow multimodality options (barge and train) to be applied. With our input parameter settings, results show that transportation costs contribute to approximately 7 percent of the total costs, and multimodality can help reduce transportation costs by almost 20 percent (CO_2-eq emissions included). In our illustrative case with two plastic separation methods, the post-separation channel benefits more from a multimodality strategy than the source-separation channel. This relates to the locations and availability of intermediate facilities and the quantity of waste transported on each route.

    Global Level

    After the regional network redesign, Chapter 7 shows a global network redesign. The aim of this chapter was to redesign a reverse supply chain from a global angle based on a case study conducted on household plastic waste distributed from Europe to China. Emissions trading restrictions are set on processing plants in both Europe and China. We used a mixed-integer programming model in the network optimization to decide on location reallocation of intermediate processing plants under such restrictions, with the objective of maximizing total profit under Emission Trading Schemes (ETS). Re-locating facilities globally can help reduce the total cost. Once carefully set, ETS can function well as incentive to control emissions in re-processors. Optimization results show that relocating re-processing centers to China reduces total costs and total transportation emissions. ETS applied to re-processors further helps to reduce emissions from both re-processors and the transportation sector. Carbon caps should be set carefully in order to be effective. These results give an insight in the feasibility of building a global reverse supply chain for household plastic waste recycling and demonstrate the impact of ETS on network design. The results also provide decision support for increasing the synergy between the policy for global shipping of waste material and the demand of recycled material.

    Conclusions

    Chapter 8 summarizes the findings from chapters 2 to 7 and provides brief answers to the research questions. Beyond that, the integrated findings combine the results from different decision levels and elaborate the impacts of various system characteristics and external factors on the decision making in order to achieve an improved sustainable performance. Main findings are:

    Regarding the impact of carbon cost, the results from different chapters are consistent in terms that emission cost is only a small part of the total cost, even when carbon cost is set at its historically highest figure. When carbon price is set to a different value, impact of carbon cost on the change of optimization results is higher on the upstream of the reverse supply chain for plastic waste than the downstream.In Emission Trading scheme (ETS), carbon cap has a larger impact on eco-efficiency performance of the global network than carbon price.On one decision level, models can help to find the ``best option". For example, in the collection phase, the average total collection costs per ton of plastic waste collected for source-separation municipalities are more than twice of the post-separation municipalities' collection costs due to the frequent stops made and idling time at each stop. From the regional network perspective, post-separation scenarios have higher costs and environmental impact than source separation due to the limited number of separation centers compared to the numerous cross-docking sites for source-separation. When combining decision levels, however, it is difficult to find one ``best option" that fits all, as there are contradictory results when looking at the same factor from different decision levels. Through decision support models, we provided clear insights into the trade-offs and helped to quantify the differences and identify key factors to determine the differences.Population density differences in various municipalities influence the performance of curbside collection more than drop-off collection.

    This information is valuable for decision makers to consider in the decision making process. Finally, managerial insights derived from sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste are summarized in conclusion section.

    Technisch haalbare sorteerrendementen met gescheiden ingezamelde kunststofverpakkingen van Nederlandse huishoudens
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1495) - 24
    kunststoffen - verpakkingsmaterialen - sorteren - afvalhergebruik - recycling - afvalverwerking - nederland - plastics - packaging materials - sorting - waste utilization - recycling - waste treatment - netherlands
    De sorteerresultaten van een fictieve, ideale sorteerinstallatie en bestaande sorteerinstallaties zijn ingeschat met een berekeningsmodel. Dit model wordt gevoed door de gemiddelde samenstelling van Nederlands gescheiden ingezamelde kunststofverpakkingen en de verdelingen van verpakkingsvormen over de sorteerproducten van verschillende sorteerinstallaties. Deze laatste verdelingen zijn weer afgeleid van de samenstellingsanalyses van de gesorteerde producten van deze sorteerinstallaties. Dit model werkt goed voor de waarde-kunststoffen, leidt tot een geringe overschatting van de hoeveelheid mengkunststof en een geringe onderschatting van de hoeveelheid sorteerrest. Sorteerresultaten worden uitgedrukt in een R-verhouding, wat de verhouding is van de waarde-kunststoffen over alle kunststofproducten. Voor een fictieve, ideale sorteerinstallatie is de R-factor begrenst tot zo’n 59%. Deze R-factor is afhankelijk van de herkomst van het kunststofverpakkingsafval en varieert tussen de 46 en de 65% voor ideale sortering van materiaal van verschillende inzamelgebieden. De samenstelling van het Nederlandse kunststofverpakkingsafval is dusdanig dat hogere R-verhoudingen niet mogelijk zijn. R-verhoudingen van bestaande sorteerbedrijven komen op zo’n 45- 50%. In het geval het ingaande materiaal niet optimaal is, kan deze verhouding dalen naar zo’n 30%.
    Samenstelling van gescheiden ingezamelde kunststof-verpakkingen
    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1487) - ISBN 9789462570559 - 18
    verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalverwerking - afvalverwijdering - afvalhergebruik - gemeenten - huisvuilverwijdering - nederland - packaging materials - plastics - waste treatment - waste disposal - waste utilization - municipalities - municipal refuse disposal - netherlands
    The composition of Dutch separately collected post-consumer plastic packaging waste has been determined for 23 different municipalities during the time period of 2010-2013. In this report weighted averages are presented based on the previously analysed samples. The most important packaging types present are in order of relevance: PE film, PET rigid packages (mostly trays and thermoformed trays), PP rigid packages (mostly butter tubs, yoghurt pots), PE flasks and PET bottles. The variance in the presented data is, however, large due to regional variance and seasonal influences. The reported weight-average compositional values should therefore only be used as indicate values.
    Haalbaarheidsstudie bio-afbreekbare plastic draagtasjes : technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties
    Oever, M.J.A. van den; Bolck, C.H. ; Bos, H.L. ; Molenveld, K. ; Zee, M. van der; Schennink, G.G.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1465) - 38
    bioplastics - kunststoffen - wegwerpmateriaal - haalbaarheidsstudies - polyethyleen - zakken - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - economische haalbaarheid - economische aspecten - bioplastics - plastics - disposables - feasibility studies - polyethylene - bags - biobased materials - biobased economy - economic viability - economic aspects
    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een haalbaarheidsstudie naar de technische en economische haalbaarheid en implicaties van een verbod op dunne plastic draagtasjes in Nederland, met een eventuele uitzondering voor bioplastic draagtassen. In deze korte studie staan bioplastic draagtassen centraal. Het gaat hierbij om alle bioplastics, dus om zowel de biologisch afbreekbare plastics als om niet-biologisch afbreekbaar bioplastic zoals biobased polyetheen (bio-PE). Het is technisch haalbaar om conventioneel fossiele PE plastic draagtassen te vervangen door bioplastic draagtassen. Bio-PE heeft dezelfde eigenschappen als fossiel PE en kan derhalve 1 op 1 als vervanging dienen. Biologisch afbreekbare plastic draagtassen voldoen eveneens; ze zijn vooralsnog dikker en zwaarder dan PE draagtassen om aan de gebruikerseisen te voldoen. Een specifieke antwoord op de economische en technische effecten is niet te geven omdat de exacte beleidsmaatregel en met name daaraan ten grondslag liggende beoogde effecten nog niet duidelijk is. In dit rapport worden daarom verschillende elementen besproken die onderdeel kunnen worden van een eventuele beleidsmaatregel.
    Eerste inschatting van vrijkomen van plastics als gevolg van slijtage van Mosselzaad-Invangsystemen (MZI's)
    Hartog, E. ; Brink, A.M. van den; Kamermans, P. - \ 2014
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C188/13) - 23
    ecotoxicologie - kunststoffen - mariene gebieden - mosselteelt - aquatische ecologie - inventarisaties - oosterschelde - voordelta - waddenzee - ecotoxicology - plastics - marine areas - mussel culture - aquatic ecology - inventories - eastern scheldt - voordelta - wadden sea
    IMARES heeft onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het ontstaan en de aanwezigheid van microplastic zwerfvuil afkomstig van mosselzaad invangsystemen (hierna MZI’s genoemd). Deze studie is onderdeel van een opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I, om de ecologische effecten van opschaling van MZI’s in de Oosterschelde en Westelijke Waddenzee te onderzoeken. De MZI’s, die gebruikt worden in de Oosterschelde, Voordelta en Waddenzee, bestaan onder andere uit Polypropyleen touw en Nylon netwerk. Deze touwen en netten worden tijdens de oogst geborsteld waardoor plastic deeltjes in het water terecht kunnen komen. Deeltjes kleiner dan 5 mm zijn daarbij gedefinieerd als microplastics. Over de aanwezigheid van microplastics afkomstig van MZI’s en uit andere bronnen is nog weinig bekend.
    Plastic zonder olie : lesmodule voor nieuwe scheikunde
    Langejan, B. ; Klein Douwel, C. ; Horst, J.J. ter; Tijdink, K. ; Marle, N. van; Klaasen, P. ; Coolen, R. ; Assenbergh, P. van; Sijbers, J.P.J. ; Mast, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 66
    lesmaterialen - bioplastics - biopolymeren - voortgezet onderwijs - kunststoffen - polymerisatie - biobased economy - cradle to cradle - natuur- en milieueducatie - teaching materials - bioplastics - biopolymers - secondary education - plastics - polymerization - biobased economy - cradle to cradle - nature and environmental education
    Lesmodule voor nieuwe scheikunde voor leerlingen uit 5 en 6 vwo. Bioplastics worden gemaakt uit natuurlijke grondstoffen. Als ze de synthetische plastics vervangen kan de voorraad aardolie ontzien worden. Omdat veel bioplastics afbreekbaar zijn, kan ook de berg plastic afval krimpen. Maar zijn bioplastics in staat om ons de reguliere plastics te doen vergeten? Hoe maken we bioplastics met dezelfde veelzijdige eigenschappen als plastic? Waar komen de uiteenlopende eigenschappen van plastics eigenlijk vandaan? De lesmodule ‘Plastic zonder Olie’ gaat op deze en meerdere vragen in. Naast de practica waarin de leerlingen bioplastics gaan maken ligt het zwaartepunt van de module bij een multidisciplinaire slotopdracht.
    Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. ; Groot, J.J. ; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun ; Jansen, M. ; Luijsterburg, B. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1408) - 118
    kunststoffen - afval - afvalbeheer - verpakkingsmaterialen - milieueffect - degradatie - recycling - plastics - wastes - waste management - packaging materials - environmental impact - degradation - recycling
    We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts, whereas the correct use of these packages will reduce product losses and hence reduce the much more negative environmental impacts associated with product losses. Wrongly discarded plastic objects have a negative impact on the environment, as these materials degrade only very slowly, creating problems such as the infamous ‘plastic islands’ in our oceans. Fortunately, recycling technologies are now emerging for plastic waste, enabling the reuse of these materials in a second life as a package or a utensil. Plastic packaging waste (PPW) is complex in many ways. First of all, there are many different types of plastics, all with their own characteristics and compositions. To enable the re-use of PPW, it has to be sorted into separate fractions. Each type of plastic can then be dealt with in an appropriate way. Second, the collection of PPW is also very complex. In the Netherlands there are many different PPW flows, from industry, offices and households for example. Each has its own collection system and household collection systems differ from one municipality to the next. To add to this complexity there is also the deposit refund system for large PET bottles, run by the soda producers via the supermarkets. Everybody deals with PPW on a daily basis. Most of us think recycling is a good idea. But when we want to decide what the best and most efficient method of recycling is, we are all impaired by a lack of data. A clear view of our best options is inhibited by the existing infrastructure and ‘the way it has always been done’. Also, the subject of recycling touches on our moral opinions about ‘doing the right thing’ and assumptions about the ‘correct’ way of dealing with our plastic waste. And politics also play a role. To unravel the complexity of plastic packaging waste recycling and figure out the best way(s) to improve our recycling system we need science. We need technological, economical, logistical and environmental data to gain insight into recycling systems. By describing the system in detail we can learn how to optimise it. An improved recycling system will provide us with an easier and more efficient re-use of our plastic waste.
    Biobakkie koffie?
    Potting, J.M.B. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : S.n. - 30
    materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bekers - kunststoffen - bioplastics - recycling - wegwerpmateriaal - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobased economy - projecten - biobased materials - cups - plastics - bioplastics - recycling - disposables - sustainability - biobased economy - projects
    Dit document bevat een populaire samenvatting van de resultaten van het project “Duurzame verbekering”. Het project heeft gelopen van najaar 2010 tot juni 2013, en is in gang gezet naar aanleiding van de wens van het Facilitair Bedrijf van Wageningen UR om het gebruik van wegwerpbekers door de eigen organisatie te verduurzamen.
    Kunststofverpakkingsafval : van inzamelen naar spontaan hergebruik
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Groot, J.J. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 14
    afvalbeheer - afvalhergebruik - kunststoffen - verpakkingen - verpakkingsmaterialen - kosten - waste management - waste utilization - plastics - wrappings - packaging materials - costs
    Het hergebruikssysteem voor kunststofverpakkingsafval staat momenteel vol in de aandacht. Deze korte bijdrage aan het publieke debat beoogt geïnteresseerde lezers inzicht te geven in hoe het kunststofverpakkingsafval momenteel wordt ingezameld, hoeveel het kost en hoe het beter zou kunnen. Het uiteindelijke doel is kunststofhergebruik een wezenlijk onderdeel te laten worden van de in de toekomst noodzakelijk geachte hergebruikseconomie. Kostenneutraliteit is hierbij een belangrijk middel om dit te bereiken. De kunststofverpakkingsafvalketen moet echter nog bij alle ketenpartners worden verbeterd om kostenneutraliteit mogelijk te maken. Een gezamenlijke keten brede aanpak van alle partijen is hierbij noodzakelijk
    Weinig plastic in vissenmaag
    Foekema, E.M. - \ 2012
    Kennis Online 9 (2012)juni. - p. 11 - 11.
    ecotoxicologie - microplastics - kunststoffen - vissen - mariene gebieden - ecotoxicology - microplastics - plastics - fishes - marine areas
    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.
    Enzyme-catalyzed modification of poly(ethersulfone) membranes
    Nady, N. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom; Han Zuilhof, co-promotor(en): Karin Schroen; Maurice Franssen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731456 - 172
    membranen - oppervlakteverandering - laccase - enzymen - kunststoffen - membranes - surface modification - laccase - enzymes - plastics

    The robustness of a membrane is determined by the properties of the base polymer and the functionality of its surface. One of the most popular polymers used for membrane preparation is polyethersulfone (PES), which has excellent thermo-physical properties, but the surface properties are in need of improvement to reduce membrane fouling by adsorption of e.g. protein and live cells, which cause sever flux decline during filtration. Therefore, it is not strange that a wide range of modification methods has been published to reduce surface hydrophobicity of PES membranes. However, the methods that are currently suggested are all rather offer random control over the resulting surface structure and may be environmentally adverse

    This study presents enzyme-initiated grafting of PES membranes as the first successful example of an environmentally friendly modification of PES membranes. Various phenolic acids, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), were coupled to the membrane in aqueous medium at room temperature using laccase from Trametes versicolor as catalyst. This enzyme is able to oxidize phenolic compounds to their corresponding free radicals that are subsequently grafted onto PES membranes, introducing polar groups (OH, COOH) on the membrane surface by formation of a covalent C-O linkage as was proven by spin density calculations and IRRAS.

    We succeed in altering the surface properties of PES membranes using laccase-catalyzed modification method. It was found that the surface structure or shape that can be tuned through both the modification conditions and the modifier structure, has a significant role in prevention of adsorption rather than surface hydrophilicity as is often assumed. Membrane flux is hardly influenced (10% reduction), and foulant (e.g., bovine serum albumin, dextrin, tannin, and pathogenic bacterium Listeriamonocytogenes) repellence is greatly increased.

    In conclusion, the enzyme-catalyzed modification method shows a remarkable flexibility, and allows careful tuning of the membrane properties in such a way that membrane fouling can be suppressed. Besides, the modification method does not influence the bulk properties of the membrane adversely, the modification layer is resistant to a wide range of pH, and the costs of this modification on industrial scale are reasonable, which makes this modification method an interesting eco-friendly alternative to currently used methods.

    Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis for the MSFD
    Reinhard, A.J. ; Blaeij, A.T. de; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Gaaff, A. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Scholl, M.M. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Strietman, W.J. ; Wielen, P. van der - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI, Wageningen UR : Research area Regional economy & land use ) - ISBN 9789086155651 - 143
    mariene gebieden - afvalverwijdering - kunststoffen - waterverontreiniging - kostenanalyse - kosten-batenanalyse - marine areas - waste disposal - plastics - water pollution - cost analysis - cost benefit analysis
    Binnen de maatregelen die in dit rapport worden overwogen, zijn de grootste baten van de kaderrichtlijn mariene strategie gerelateerd aan zwerfafval op zee. De grootste financiële voordelen zijn gerelateerd aan het reduceren van grotere stukken zwerfafval op zee. Het doel dat is gesteld om een goede milieustatus te bereiken voor biota, zal echter pas worden bereikt als de hoeveelheid kleine plastic deeltjes in de zee wordt verminderd, aangezien dit de grootste drukfactor is. Maatregelen om het aantal verloren netten en delen van netten tot een minimum te beperken, zijn potentieel kosteneffectief. Mensen bewust maken van hun eigen bijdrage aan het zwerfafval probleem op zee zal een belangrijke rol spelen bij het beperken van zwerfafval, zowel van toeristen op het strand als van zeevaarders en vissers op zee.
    Biobased Plastics 2012
    Bolck, C.H. ; Ravenstijn, J. ; Molenveld, K. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen [13]) - ISBN 9789461730817 - 65
    materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - biobased economy - biopolymeren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kunststoffen - biobased materials - bioplastics - biobased economy - biopolymers - sustainability - plastics
    Dit boek geeft inzicht in de huidige op de markt verkrijgbare biobased plastics en de te verwachten ontwikkelingen. Er wordt gekeken naar zowel thermoplastische als thermohardende materialen. Het boek biedt inzicht in de productie, verwerking en eigenschappen van de verschillende types. Daarnaast worden mogelijke toepassingen, afvalbeheer en technische-, economische- en milieu-uitdagingen verder toegelicht.
    Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1261) - ISBN 9789461730640 - 16
    verpakkingsmaterialen - afval - afvalhergebruik - kunststoffen - extractie - oplosmiddelen - recycling - packaging materials - wastes - waste utilization - plastics - extraction - solvents - recycling
    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was to study the technical feasibility of using this extraction technology and to study the quality of the produced cleaned plastic flakes. Two types of dirty plastic flakes from household waste were used; transparent to white flexible film flakes and PET-bottle flakes.
    Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Durch and North Sea coasts
    Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2011
    Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C037/11) - 51
    waterverontreiniging - schepen - afval - kunststoffen - milieumonitoring - fulmarus - marien milieu - mariene ecologie - aquatische ecologie - zeevogels - noordzee - ecotoxicologie - water pollution - ships - wastes - plastics - environmental monitoring - fulmarus - marine environment - marine ecology - aquatic ecology - sea birds - north sea - ecotoxicology
    Wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the Southern North Sea and cause serious economic and ecological damage. Inadequacies in the ship to shore waste delivery procedures are considered a major factor in illegal discharges. The European Union addressed the problem with the Directive on Port Reception Facilities. Monitoring the effect of this EU Directive is required. A long term marine litter monitoring program based on plastic abundance in stomachs of a seabird, the Northern Fulmar, exists in the Netherlands. The Dutch monitoring approach using fulmars was further developed for international implementation by OSPAR as one of its 'Ecological Quality Objectives' (EcoQO's) for the North Sea. This report, in addition to Dutch monitoring data, also provides a North Sea wide EcoQO update to 2009.
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