Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Dutch Divergence? : Women’s work, structural change, and household living standards in the Netherlands, 1830-1914
    Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431835 - 254
    women - work - household budgets - living standards - gender - cultural history - case studies - netherlands - labour market - macroeconomics - microeconomics - western europe - work sharing - participation - vrouwen - werk - huishoudbudgetten - levensstandaarden - geslacht (gender) - cultuurgeschiedenis - gevalsanalyse - nederland - arbeidsmarkt - macro-economie - micro-economie - west-europa - verdeling van werk - participatie

    Women’s work has never been a linear process of extending participation. Instead, female labour force participation (FLFP) has extended and curtailed throughout time. This dissertation studies a period of contraction: the nineteenth-century Netherlands. This country makes an important case study to explore the factors influencing the trajectory of women’s work. First, FLFP rates as recorded in occupational censuses were low compared with surrounding countries. Second, Dutch industrialization took off relatively late and until well into the twentieth century a significant part of the labour force worked in agriculture, in contrast to neighbouring countries such as Britain and Belgium.

    This dissertation contributes to answering the following question: Why were Dutch female labour force participation rates lower than in surrounding countries during the period 1830-1914? I consider the following explanatory factors: social norms, the opportunity costs of women’s labour, and structural change. My conclusions about the relative weight of each factor are as follows. First, social norms regarding women’s role within the household following from the growing desire for domesticity have affected the trajectory of women’s labour. I show that married women withdrew from the registered labour force and instead, performed work that could be combined with domestic chores and that remained invisible in most statistical sources. However, these social norms were likewise strong in other western European countries, such as Britain, where FLFP was higher. Furthermore, Dutch FLFP was already low around 1850 when the transition to the male breadwinner society in western Europe started. Thus, it is no conclusive explanation for the aberrant Dutch trend in FLFP.

    Second, men’s real industrial wages started to rise after 1880 and became increasingly able to take care of a family of four. However, this was not true for men’s agricultural wages. Women’s wages in both sectors hardly increased at all during the nineteenth century in both sectors. I therefore conclude that industrial households were already able to realize a breadwinner-homemaker type of labour division from the 1880s, whereas agricultural households still relied for an important part on other sources of income besides the husband’s wage labour by 1910. Thus, men’s wages profoundly influenced household labour division. However, in Britain, men’s real wages were even higher, but so were FLFP rates in the censuses. Thus, if the extent of men’s real wages was indeed the most important explanatory factor, we would have expected even lower participation rates in Britain than in the Netherlands.

    Third, the impact of economic structure and the changing demand for labour on FLFP has been a pivotal factor of influence. I show that the structure of the local economy had a statistically significant effect on the chance that a bride stated an occupation in her marriage record. Furthermore, in agriculture women increasingly performed work in a private business which was usually not registered in the censuses. Moreover, technological change in the textile industry and the transition to the factory system negatively impacted women’s position in the labour market because married women could no longer combine domestic chores with wage labour. Finally, many parts of the production process that had traditionally been women’s work were taken over by men when mechanization progressed.

    Considering all my research results, I conclude that the structure of the Dutch economy is the most important explanation for the exceptionally low Dutch FLFP rates during the long nineteenth century.

    Een groene generatie met energie voor de toekomst
    Wijffels, Rene - \ 2013
    biobased economy - education - educational policy - labour market
    Anticiperen op de biobased economy : sluit groen onderwijs aan op de toekomstige praktijk?
    Bakker, T. ; Broens, D.F. ; Georgiev, E.S. ; Noordman, T. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Markt & ketens ) - 26
    agrarisch onderwijs - biobased economy - arbeidsmarkt - onderwijsplanning - vaardigheidsonderwijs - beroepsopleiding - agricultural education - biobased economy - labour market - educational planning - competency based education - vocational training
    Er is grote vraag bij bedrijven naar afgestudeerden mbo en hbo die zijn voorbereid op een biobased economy. Uit deze arbeidsmarktverkenning blijkt dat het bedrijfsleven geen behoefte heeft aan 'biobased specialisten', maar aan vakmensen die in staat zijn om samen te werken met andere specialisten. Opleidingen worden 'biobased proof' door competentieontwikkeling centraal te stellen.
    Regionale verschillen in werkgelegenheid en inkomen
    Heijman, W.J.M. ; Kroes, R.G. - \ 2012
    ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 97 (2012)4626. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 13 - 14.
    arbeidsmarkt - werkgelegenheid - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - regio's - arbeidseconomie - labour market - employment - labour - income - regions - labour economics
    De regionale groei van inkomen en werkgelegenheid wijkt sterk af van het landelijk gemiddelde. Het grootste deel van dit verschil kan worden verklaard door regionaal-specifieke omstandigheden.
    Wageningse kennis(sen): Wat doen we er mee in het groene onderwijs?
    Goud, Jan-Kees - \ 2011
    agricultural education - labour market - knowledge - knowledge transfer - networks - cooperation - networking
    Groen mbo niet nodig voor groene carrière : onderzoekers in kritisch essay (interview met W. de Jong)
    Boetzkes, P. ; Jong, L.W. de - \ 2011
    Vakblad Groen Onderwijs 53 (2011)11. - ISSN 1568-8704 - p. 24 - 26.
    agrarisch onderwijs - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - arbeidsmarkt - beroepskeuze - beroepsvaardigheden - particuliere sector - samenwerking - agricultural education - intermediate vocational training - labour market - career choice - job skills - private sector - cooperation
    Het groen mbo heeft in zijn huidige vorm onvoldoende meerwaarde voor de arbeidsmarkt in de tuinbouw, agro & food. Vooral waar het uitvoerend werk betreft. Daarom kan de overheid het extra geld dat ze erin steekt beter anders investeren. Dat stelt onderzoeker Wim de Jong.
    Met nieuwe technieken inspelen op krimpende arbeidsmarkt : inventarisatie van arbeidsbesparende technieken in de sectoren glastuinbouw, melkveehouderij en fruitteelt
    Heijerman-Peppelman, G. ; Knijff, A. van der; Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Zijlstra, J. - \ 2010
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit (Rapport / Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving Bloembollen Boomkwekerij en Fruit 2010-05) - 123
    landbouwsector - fruitteelt - glastuinbouw - melkveehouderij - arbeidsmarkt - personeel - werkorganisatie - arbeidsproductiviteit - automatisering - efficiëntie - mobiele toepassingen - agricultural sector - fruit growing - greenhouse horticulture - dairy farming - labour market - personnel - organization of work - labour productivity - automation - efficiency - mobile applications
    In opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I is geïnventariseerd hoe de agrarische sectoren kunnen omgaan met de toekomstige krappe(re) arbeidsmarkt door gebruik te maken van arbeidsbesparende technieken. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in de sectoren fruitteelt, glastuinbouw, en melkveehouderij.
    What do we know about our graduates? Graduate analysis for forest sciences and related curricula
    Schmidt, P. ; Lewark, S. ; Strange, N. - \ 2010
    Joensuu : University Press (Silva Publications 6) - ISBN 9789526101484
    doctoraalonderwijs - afgestudeerden - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - carrièreontwikkeling - bosbouw - kansen op werk - arbeidsmarkt - europa - graduate study - graduates - professional education - career development - forestry - employment opportunities - labour market - europe
    Forestry as such is an old trade; already the ancient Romans did it. Its education is less old, about two centuries. Apparently, as Lewark remarked in his introduction, in general foresters educated at universities matched the need of the forestry sector.. Only about 40 years ago, the need to know more about how good this match is and how good universities serve the societies became stronger (see also Kennedy and Koch). Nowadays, surveying alumni about their situation is normal practice and the need for methodical standards is growing. Time, says Lewark in his opening statement, for an overview. Before that, a short description of forestry education, which changed through the years in forest education, is given. Koch – in the paper he wrote together with Kennedy – identifies and analyses three stages during the last half century in Western-world natural resources management: • Traditional stage: natural resources first, foremost and forever; • Transitional stage: natural resource management, for better or worse, involves people; • Relationship stage: managing natural resources for valued people and ecosystem relationships. Koch sees as the driving forces behind these changes, the increasing diversity, complexity and dynamics of ecosystem values and uses over the last 50 years, requiring new ways for natural resource managers (foresters, wildlife biologists, etc.) to understand and relate to their professional roles and responsibilities - in accommodating urban and rural ecosystem users, and managing the complementary and conflicting interactions between them. Moreover he states that the impacts of these three perspectives on how natural resource managers view ecosystems and react to ecosystems, people and other life-forms is basic and can be profound. Implicitly, he assumes that changes in society like these had and will have their impact on universities and thus also on forest education. In this interface, graduate surveys have their role.
    Are farm households' renting and migration decisions inter-related in rural China?
    Feng, S. ; Heerink, N. - \ 2008
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 345 - 362.
    probit-analyse - grondmarkten - arbeidsmarkt - migratie - rurale migratie - china - probit analysis - land markets - labour market - migration - rural rural migration - china - nonfarm employment - labor migration - rental markets - rights - determinants - education - incomes
    Economic reforms in rural China have stimulated the development of land and labour markets. The increasing importance of these two markets suggests that they might be closely inter-related, but proper statistical tests are lacking. This paper examines the factors that determine the participation of farm households in land renting and migration, and investigates whether participation in land renting and migration influence each other, using a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit regression. Data from a household survey held in 2000 in three villages in the north-east of the Jiangxi Province were used to estimate the land renting and migration equations. Household characteristics, fixed factors, household land and labour endowments, institutional factors, and land and labour prices were used as explanatory variables in both equations. We found that the error terms of the land renting equation and the migration equation were strongly correlated, confirming that there is a negative relationship between land renting and migration
    Verschillen tussen stad en platteland in arbeidsparticipatie van vrouwen : een analyse van ondernemerschap en werken in loondienst
    Polman, N.B.P. ; Elst-van der Lans, M.W.M. van der - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 4, Ruimte en economie ) - ISBN 9789086152063 - 43
    platteland - stedelijke gebieden - arbeid (werk) - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - participatie - vrouwen - arbeidsmarkt - beroepsbevolking - culturele verandering - sociale economie - nederland - rural areas - urban areas - labour - female labour - participation - women - labour market - working population - cultural change - socioeconomics - netherlands
    Voor vrouwen ligt de nettoarbeidsparticipatie (werkzame vrouwelijke beroepsbevolking gedeeld door totale vrouwelijke beroepsbevolking) op het platteland enkele procentpunten lager dan in verstedelijkte gebieden. De verschillen worden voor een belangrijk deel veroorzaakt door cultuurverschillen of verschillen in de sociaaleconomische structuur. Veranderingen hierin gaan over het algemeen langzaam. Bij beleid gericht op de bevordering van arbeidsparticipatie door vrouwen op het platteland moet rekening worden gehouden met de cultuurverschillen en verschillen in sociaaleconomische structuur.
    Sociaaleconomische indicatoren van de Nederlandse vissector
    Smit, J.G.P. ; Taal, C. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9789086151707 - 33
    agrarische economie - landbouwsector - vis vangen - visverwerkende industrie - visverwerking - arbeid (werk) - arbeidsmarkt - sociale economie - nederland - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - fishing - fish industry - fish processing - labour - labour market - socioeconomics - netherlands
    Cijfermatig overzicht van werkgelegenheid en inkomen van de totale Nederlandse vissec-tor in 2006. In de Nederlandse vissector werken ruim 20.000 mensen. Vooral in de visver-werking en de visdetailhandel werken veel personen met een flexibele arbeidsrelatie. Het totale aantal fte's bedraagt ruim 15.000. Bijna een derde van de medewerkers in de vissec-tor bestaat uit vrouwen. Het totale inkomen in de vissector is geschat op 644 miljoen euro. A figures-based overview of employment and income of the total Dutch fish sector in 2006. Over 20,000 people are employed within the Dutch fish sector. Within the fish pro-cessing and fish retail sections, there are particularly large numbers of people working on the basis of a flexible employment relationship. The total number of fte's amounts to over 15,000. Almost a third of those working within the fish sector are female. The total income of the fish sector is estimated at ¿644 million.
    GIWIS-etalage: Amerikaans voorbeeld bruikbaar in Nederland
    Rip, F.I. ; Crompvoets, J.W.H.C. - \ 2007
    VI Matrix 15 (2007)1. - ISSN 0929-6107 - p. 22 - 23.
    geografische informatiesystemen - arbeidsmarkt - beroepen - geographical information systems - labour market - occupations
    De afstemming tussen GI-werkgevers en GI-opleiders schiet tekort. Daarnaast is de instroom van geïnteresseerden bij de opleidingen onvoldoende. Het is een schrale troost, maar we zijn niet het enige land met dat probleem. Ook de Verenigde Staten worstelen ermee. Een nieuw arbeidsmarktinformatiesysteem op het web aldaar heeft voorbeeldwaarde voor Nederland.
    Land rental market and off-farm employment: rural households in Jiangxi Province, P.R. China
    Feng, S. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Nico Heerink. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045359 - 137
    economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwhuishoudens - grondmarkten - huur - pachtstelsel - grondrente - arbeidsmarkt - agrarische economie - werkgelegenheid buiten het landbouwbedrijf - china - economic development - rural development - agricultural households - land markets - rent - tenure systems - ground rent - labour market - agricultural economics - off-farm employment - china
    In ruralChina, agricultural production factor markets, particularly land and labour, face many institutional obstacles and remain largely underdeveloped. Further growth in agricultural productivity and rural household incomes, and thus a reduction in rural-urban income inequality are likely to depend on increases in rural land and labour productivity, and therefore require the development of land and labour markets. Previous research regarding factor market development and agricultural production in ruralChinahas often focused on either the land or the labour market. However, the recent increases of both land rental transactions and off-farm employment suggest that households may make simultaneous decisions on land and labour market participation. Analysing these phenomena therefore requires a simultaneous approach.

    This study provides a quantitative analysis of the factors determining the participation of farm households in rural land and off-farm labour markets, and the consequences of participation in these markets for allocative efficiency and agricultural productivity inSoutheast China. It contributes to the previous literature by analysing the inter-relationship of household land and labour market participation, investigating the determinants of joint household land and labour market participation, examining the allocative efficiency and separability of household decision making for different land and labour market participation regimes, and exploring the implications of participation in land and labour markets for short-term land investment, input use and land productivity.

    A farm household model approach is applied, using data collected from 329 rural households in three villages of Northeast Jiangxi province. The empirical analysis indicates that participation in the land rental market improves allocative efficiency and land productivity, while off-farm employment improves allocative efficiency but not land productivity. These findings suggest that reforming the household registration system and land tenure system, building local institutions, and implementing pro-poor policy interventions are likely to facilitate land rental market development, stimulate off-farm employment, thereby increasing agricultural productivity and rural household incomes and reducing rural-urban income inequality.
    Verbetering arbeidsefficientie op vier melkveehouderijbedrijven : netwerkproject De Tik
    Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Vogelzang, T.A. ; Kroeze, G.H. ; Schotanus, L. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 432) - ISBN 9789067549202 - 67
    arbeidseconomie - vraag - arbeidsmarkt - alternatieve landbouw - arbeidsproductiviteit - melkveebedrijven - arbeid (werk) - arbeid in de landbouw - labour economics - demand - labour market - alternative farming - labour productivity - dairy farms - labour - farm labour
    On four dairy farms, the labour demand and effects of alternate farming plans on labour efficiency and financial results are studied. Insight into the development of labour demand during a year was obtained by labour recording during three weeks (week 39, 43 and 46) and by labour budgeting. To record labour demand, every worker on the farms recorded exactly how many quarters of an hour were spent on welldefined treatments. Labour budgeting is done using the computer-model AgroWerk. To obtain detailed input data for this model, all farms were visited and data were collected together with the farmers. As expected, the results of labour recording and labour budgeting were different. Labour recording during three weeks gave specific information about the farms in question and during these three weeks, but did not represent the labour demand for seasonal activities. Further, it was difficult for the workers to distinguish some categories of treatments. It was concluded that labour budgeting gave the best insight into labour demand and its distribution over the year, especially when combined with the data obtained by labour recording. Total labour demands were between 4268 hours on the dairy farm with 91 dairy cows and 6659 hours on the farm with 89 cows. Labour demand per 1000 kg milk was between 5.6 and 8.0 hours. Labour demand was affected by farm size (scale effects), farming out the cattle breed, calling in agricultural contractors and the intensity of the grassland use (kg milk per ha). For each farm, effects of one or two alternative business plans on labour demand and financial results were calculated. The alternatives consisted of combinations of expansion of farm size, expansion of the milking shed or purchase of a milking robot, and several other changes in equipment and management. In all cases the work efficiency improved. Six alternatives resulted in reduction of total work demand, three of them also in a light improvement of financial results. In three other cases, the financial results decreased firmly. Evaluating the project, the farmers judged it gave them good insight in labour input and labour demand on their farms and in effects of alternate farming plans on labour efficiency and financial results. They intend to use the results in their business plans.
    Arbeid en Zorg op de plankaart gezet. Een vernieuwende invalshoek voor de gemeentelijke ruimtelijke ordening
    Hidding, M.C. - \ 2001
    Leeuwarden : Emancipatiebureau Equa - ISBN 9789075344059 - 44
    stedelijke planning - stadsomgeving - arbeidsmarkt - werkgelegenheid - gezondheidszorg - zorgvoorzieningen in de naaste woonomgeving - sociale voorzieningen - planning - zorg - urban planning - urban environment - labour market - employment - health care - community care - social services - planning - care
    Friends and Foes in the Occupational Career : The Influence of Sweet and Sour Social Capital on the Labour Market
    Moerbeek, H.H.S. - \ 2001
    S.n. - ISBN 9789090147277 - 242
    carrièreontwikkeling - arbeidsmarkt - netwerken voor persoonlijke ondersteuning - menselijke relaties - sociale interactie - sociale relaties - sociale samenwerking - invloeden - career development - labour market - personal support networks - human relations - social interaction - social relations - social cooperation - influences
    Een zorg minder?
    Maassen, H. van den; Groot, W. de - \ 2000
    ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 85 (2000)4266. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 611 - 612.
    arbeidseconomie - arbeidsmarkt - secundaire arbeidsvoorwaarden - kostenanalyse - arbeidsverdeling - verlof - zorg - financieren - vrouwenemancipatie - labour economics - labour market - fringe benefits - cost analysis - division of labour - leave - care - financing - emancipation of women
    Over de kosten van langdurig zorgverlof en de effecten op het arbeidsaanbod en de werkgelegenheid
    Economic analysis and policy implications of farm and off-farm employment : a case study in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia
    Woldehanna, T. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.J. Oskam; C.P.J. Burger. - S.l. : S.n. - 277
    werkgelegenheid buiten het landbouwbedrijf - arbeidsmarkt - lonen - gezinsinkomen - landbouwondernemingen - landbouwproductie - Ethiopië - off-farm employment - labour market - wages - household income - farm enterprises - agricultural production - Ethiopia

    The central item of this research is the impact of off-farm employment and income on farm households and agricultural production. The interaction between farm and non-farm activities, the adjustment of labor demand and supply, the performance of the labor market, and wage determination are analysed using a farm household model with liquidity constraints. The analysis provides a new insight into the role of off-farm income in risky and less dynamic agriculture (as opposed to dynamic and less risky agriculture).

    The study shows that off-farm income can be complementary to farm income if farm households are constrained in their borrowing. Imposing liquidity constraints into the standard farm household model proves this theoretically. This is tested empirically using farm household survey data collected from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Farm households with more diversified sources of income have a higher agricultural productivity. Expenditure on farm input is dependent not only on agricultural production, but also on off-farm income because of capital market imperfections (borrowing constraints). Farmers involved in better paying off-farm activities such as masonry, carpentry and trading are in a better position to hire farm labor.

    The wage rates for off-farm work vary across agricultural seasons and skill requirements. Hence, wage rates respond to forces of demand and supply. Increased expenditure on variable farm inputs is found to increase the demand for and supply of farm labor. The farm households have an upward sloping off-farm labor supply, but the supply of off-farm labor is wage inelastic. Due to entry barriers, relatively wealthy farm households dominate the most lucrative rural non-farm activities such as masonry, carpentry and petty trade.

    Although the study focuses on Northern Ethiopia, most conclusions can have a wider application in the other parts of the country and in many of the Sub-Saharan African countries where agriculture is not dynamic and the capital market is highly imperfect.

    Rural Development in Central America : Markets, Livelihoods and Local Governance
    Ruben, R. ; Bastiaensen, J. - \ 1999
    New York : St. Martin's Press - ISBN 9780312226596 - 252
    plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - goederenmarkten - grondmarkten - arbeidsmarkt - landhervorming - centraal-amerika - ? - rural development - markets - commodity markets - land markets - labour market - capital market - land reform - central america
    Rural development is now considered almost synonymous with involvement in market exchange. When market and institutional failures prevail, however, rural communities increasingly rely on local institutional or contractual arrangements to guarantee their livelihoods. This book offers a comprehensive review of the debate on the importance of real markets in the Central American rural development process.
    De sociaal-economische emancipatie index : een voorstudie voor een monitor-onderzoek naar de sociaal-economische positie van vrouwen en mannen in Nederland
    Maassen, H. van den; Groot, W. - \ 1999
    Den Haag : Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid - ISBN 9789057492655 - 58
    vrouwen - mannen - positie van de vrouw - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - arbeidsmarkt - Nederland - economische situatie - emancipatie - vrouwenemancipatie - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - women - men - woman's status - labour - income - labour market - Netherlands - economic situation - emancipation - emancipation of women - female equality
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