Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Metabolic status, lactation persistency, and udder health of dairy cows after different dry period lengths
Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp; T.J.G.M. Lam, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel; Jan Dijkstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438070 - 285
dairy cattle - animal health - animal behaviour - dry period - metabolism - energy balance - lactation - milk production - udders - cattle feeding - melkvee - diergezondheid - diergedrag - gustperiode - metabolisme - energiebalans - lactatie - melkproductie - uiers - rundveevoeding

Cows traditionally have a 6 to 8 week non-lactating –‘dry period’- before calving and the start of the next lactation in order to maximize milk production in the subsequent lactation. An omitted, compared with a shortened, dry period reduces milk yield and improves energy availability in cows postpartum, but effects on udder health and persistency were unclear. Cows without a dry period fattened and spontaneously dried off due to the improved energy availability. Reducing the energy availability in the feed for cows without a dry period did not affect fattening or lactation persistency in late lactation. Cows with a short or without a dry period did not receive dry cow antibiotics in this study and this did not affect udder health across the dry period or in early lactation, but seemed to impair udder health in late lactation for cows without a dry period.

Development of pigs raised in a group housing system for lactating sows and their litters
Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth Bolhuis; Nicoline Nieuwenhuizen-Soede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431392 - 270
pigs - piglets - sows - biological development - group housing - lactation - weaning - environmental enrichment - animal behaviour - performance - varkens - biggen - zeugen - biologische ontwikkeling - groepshuisvesting - lactatie - spenen - omgevingsverrijking - diergedrag - prestatieniveau

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the development of pigs that were raised in a newly developed group housing system for lactating sows and their litters, with a focus on the transition around weaning and performance later in life. The starting point of our multi-suckling (MS) system was the natural behaviour of pigs, and the system consisted of 5 farrowing pens connected to a communal area, which included a communal feeding area. Litters were grouped at 1 week of age. Compared with a conventional farrowing system (in which a sow and her piglets are housed in a pen in which the sow is confined individually in a crate), the MS system provided a more spacious and complex environment, with more social and physical enrichment. Before weaning, we found that MS piglets showed more feed-directed behaviour and less damaging behaviours, such as tail biting, than conventionally housed piglets. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, when housed in a more physically and socially enriched pen, MS-raised piglets showed a higher feed intake, a higher weight gain, more play behaviour, and less maladaptive behaviour than the conventionally raised piglets that were housed in a standard nursery pen. In a follow-up study, in which all pigs were housed under equal and enriched conditions after weaning, we found that piglets raised in the MS system had a higher feed utilisation and a lower carbohydrate absorption in an oral sugar absorption test in the early post-weaning phase. In a subsequent study, the same animals were used to investigate their social and cognitive development, using behaviour tests during which pigs competed for access to feed. We found few differences, but there were indications that the pigs raised pre-weaning in the MS system made more use of social information than the conventionally raised pigs. Lastly, we studied effects of different weaning procedures in the MS system (gradual weaning during 9 weeks of lactation vs. abrupt weaning at 4 weeks of age). Weaning seemed to have less impact for the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment (reflected in weight gain and maladaptive behaviour). Also on the long term during the finishing phase (during which both groups were housed equally from 9 weeks of age), the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment showed less maladaptive behaviour and had fewer body lesions than abruptly weaned pigs. To conclude, the multi-suckling system seems promising for improving pig performance, behaviour, and welfare, especially in combination with a more gradual weaning procedure during an extended lactation.

Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle : morphological, functional, and gene expression changes of the rumen papillae and changes of the rumen microbiota during the transition period
Dieho, Kasper - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Andre Bannink; J.Th. Schonewille. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430258 - 248
dairy cattle - rumen - rumen microorganisms - morphology - gene expression - animal nutrition - dry period - lactation - melkvee - pens - pensmicro-organismen - morfologie - genexpressie - diervoeding - gustperiode - lactatie

In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ net energy for lactation during the first weeks of lactation, compared with the dry period, whereas feed intake doubles to ~24 kg dry matter (DM)/d compared with the dry period. In addition, high quality lactation rations are fed, usually containing a sizable portion of concentrate, thereby increasing fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake to ~14 kg/d. As a result, daily volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by the rumen microbiota increases from ~60 mol/d during the dry period to ~132 mol/d during early lactation. To maintain rumen pH at levels favorable for microbial fermentation, and prevent a negative impact on production and health, clearance of the produced VFA is essential. This mainly occurs through absorption over the rumen wall. The increase in capacity of the rumen for absorption of VFA is associated with morphological and functional changes of the rumen papillae which cover the rumen wall. However, current knowledge of these changes as they occur around calving is scarce (Chapter 1). Increasing our understanding of the adaptation of the rumen can provide new insights to optimize dairy cattle nutrition and thereby health, welfare, and production.

The objective of this thesis was to study the adaptation of the rumen to ration changes during the dry period and early lactation. Changes in rumen papillae morphology, fractional absorption rate of VFA (kaVFA), and changes in the composition of the rumen microbiota were the primary targets for study. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with absorption and metabolism of VFA by the rumen epithelium were studied to better understand the relationship between functional changes and morphological changes of the papillae. Uniquely, all these aspects were studied in parallel in the same dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation using a repeated measurement setup. Two experiments were conducted. In the lactation experiment, the effect of transition from the dry period to the subsequent lactation, and the effect of early lactation concentrate build-up strategy on the adaptation of the rumen were studied. In the dry period experiment, the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the late dry period in order to ‘prepare’ the rumen for the lactation was studied. Treatments of both experiments were aimed at creating a difference in FOM intake (kg/d) and thereby VFA production (mol/d), as VFA production was hypothesized to affect rumen papillae development and thereby the capacity for VFA absorption.

During the lactation experiment, intake of FOM did not change during the dry period (5.7 kg/d), but increased during the subsequent lactation to 15.0 kg/d at 80 d postpartum (pp). In addition, the rapid increase in concentrate allowance resulted in a temporarily 22% greater FOM intake compared with a gradual increase at 16 d pp (Chapter 2). The total production rate of VFA, measured using an isotope dilution technique (Chapter 3), was affected by these changes in FOM intake and increased 2.3 fold to 123 mol/d after calving, compared with the dry period (53 mol/d). The temporarily greater FOM intake with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance at 16 d pp coincided with a 54% greater propionate production (34 mol/d) compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas acetate (66 mol/d) and butyrate (10 mol/d) production were not affected. Papillae surface area (Chapter 2) decreased by 19% between 50 d antepartum (ap) and 3 d pp to 28.0 mm2, but increased during early lactation to 63.0 mm2. Papillae surface area increased faster with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance and surface area was 38, 34 and 22% larger at 16, 30, and 44 d postpartum respectively, than with a gradual rate of increase of concentrate allowance. Histology (Chapter 2) revealed that rumen papillae and epithelium thickness decreased slightly after calving, but were not affected by the concentrate treatment. Feeding concentrate during the dry period did not affect daily FOM intake (6.0 kg/d) but did increase VFA concentration in the rumen fluid by 21 mM to 121 mM, and increased papillae surface by 29% (Chapter 4). However, the increased papillae surface area in the dry period was not maintained to the subsequent lactation period. After calving, papillae surface area increased by 50% to 58.0 mm2 at 45 d pp. The postpartum development of the rumen papillae was not affected by the treatment during the dry period. These results indicate that rumen papillae respond to changes in FOM and VFA production intake during the dry period and early lactation, and that the magnitude of this response depends on the rate of change in FOM intake.

During both experiments, kaVFA was measured using a buffer incubation technique in an empty washed rumen. During the lactation experiment (Chapter 3), in accordance with the developments in papillae surface area, the kaVFA decreased during the dry period from 0.48/h at 50 d ap to 0.34/h at 3 d pp. During the subsequent lactation, it increased rapidly to 0.56/h at 16 d pp and further to 0.72/h at 80 d pp. However, the greater papillae surface area due to the rapid increase in concentrate did not coincide with a greater kaVFA. During the dry period experiment (Chapter 4), kaVFA increased after calving by 50% to 0.48/h at 45 d pp, but the increase in papillae surface area due to supplemental concentrate during the dry period did not affect the kaVFA during the dry period (0.36/h) or the subsequent lactation. These results indicate that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for kaVFA.

Changes in the expression of genes were studied at the mRNA level in papillae tissue from both experiments (Chapter 5). The expression of apoptosis related genes was not affected by sampling day or its interaction with treatment for both experiments, suggesting papillae proliferation during the transition period was mainly the result of an increased mitosis rate. The limited changes in the expression of genes associated with rumen epithelial transport and metabolism of VFA in dairy cows during the transition period do not suggest that these capacities of the epithelium increased per unit of surface area. Thus the major response to the increase in daily VFA production after calving was tissue proliferation. In addition, papillae from the lactation experiment were used to study expression at the protein level using immunoblotting. Results showed that expression of several proteins changed during early lactation indicating modulation of intracellular pH regulation and sodium homeostasis, and VFA metabolism. Only for one gene, a significant but weak correlation between the examined mRNA and protein expression levels was observed, indicating that care must be taken when interpreting results obtained at either level.

Ration changes associated with the transition from the dry period to lactation affected the rumen microbiota during the lactation experiment (Chapter 6). The rapid increase in concentrate allowance postpartum temporarily decreased bacterial community richness by as much as 30% compared with a gradual increase in concentrate. This transient depression in bacterial community richness with a rapid, but not a gradual, rate of increase of concentrate allowance pp indicates that the rate of change in ration composition and feed intake has a greater effect than the change in ration composition and feed intake level as such. The relative abundances of most major bacterial taxa were affected by the transition to lactation, but few were affected by the rate of increase of the concentrate allowance. The relative abundances of rumen protozoal taxa changed after calving, and were affected by the concentrate treatment. However, differences between treatments groups disappeared again when concentrate intake became similar. The archaeal community was likewise affected by both the transition to lactation and the treatment. The observed changes in rumen microbiota composition, including changes in bacterial community richness, did not appear to affect the fractional degradation rate of NDF, starch, CP, and OM measured in situ using a nylon bag technique.

The results in the present thesis show that morphologically and functionally the rumen papillae can adapt rapidly to the changes in FOM intake and daily VFA production associated with the transition from the dry period into the subsequent lactation. However, the contrast in response of rumen papillae surface area development and the fractional absorption rate of VFA to the concentrate treatments indicates that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for VFA absorption. This proposition is further supported by the limited histological changes of the rumen epithelium and limited changes in gene expression. Considering that the capacity for absorption and metabolism of VFA per unit of papillae surface area remains similar, an extra-epithelial factor, likely visceral blood flow, limits VFA absorption. The capacity of the rumen to adapt after calving and the limited beneficial effect of supplementing concentrate during the dry period indicate that dry period feeding strategies can best be optimized for the prevention of periparturient diseases.

Vaker weglaten droogstand kan. Melkproductieverliezen nemen af na twee lactaties achter elkaar de droogstand weglaten.
Knegsel, Ariette van; Chen, Juncai ; Kok, Akke - \ 2017
Why dry - droogstand - lactatie

Kunnen koeien meerdere lactaties achter elkaar niet of kort drooggezet worden? Dat is mogelijk, blijkt uit Wagenings onderzoek. Op de lange termijn wijkt de productie per dag nauwelijks af. Houd dan wel goed de conditie van de koeien in de gaten en zorg voor een korte tussenkalftijd, raden de onderzoekers aan.

Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows : effects on milk yield, energy balance, metabolic status, and fertility
Chen, Juncai - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579088 - 205
dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - milk yield - energy balance - metabolism - lactation - melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - melkopbrengst - energiebalans - metabolisme - lactatie

During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, subfertility, and increased culling rates. Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) and feeding glucogenic diet could possibly improve EB in dairy cows. The objective of this thesis was to study the effects of shortening or omitting the DP on milk yield, energy balance, metabolism, and fertility over two subsequent lactations in dairy cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet during early lactation. In the current study, 167 cows were assigned to three DP lengths (0, 30, or 60 days) and two early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic diet), and cows were planned to have same DP length and diet over two subsequent lactations. In the first lactation after DP length and dietary treatments, shortening or omitting the DP improved EB due to a decreased milk yield in the early lactation compared with a conventional DP of 60 days. Omitting the DP or feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status in early lactation. Moreover, omitting the DP increased the percentage of cows with normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Shortening the DP to 30 d did not influence metabolic status and fertility compared with conventional DP in dairy cows. In the first lactation, the cows with a 0-d DP had less milk but similar energy intake, leading to excessive weight gain and, therefore, high body condition score (BCS) at onset of the second lactation after DP length and dietary treatments. In the second lactation, improvement of EB in cows with a 0-d DP was less pronounced than the first lactation, which could be related to the high BCS at onset of lactation and reduced milk yield losses. Shortening or omitting the DP did not influence uterine health status, ovarian activity, and reproductive performance in the second lactation. In second lactation, feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status and shortened the interval from calving to first ovulation compared with a lipogenic diet without affecting EB independent of DP length. Furthermore, shortening or omitting the DP decreased peak yield but did not influence lactation persistency in both lactations after implementation of DP treatment. In conclusion, omitting the DP improved metabolic status and resumption of ovarian activity, which was related to an improved EB in early lactation. Shortening the DP for two subsequent lactations could be achieved for most cows with limited milk yield losses. Independent of DP length, glucogenic diet improved EB and metabolic status compared with lipogenic diet in early lactation.

Eindrapportage Veerkracht van Melkvee I : verandering van dynamiek, voorspellende kracht
Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Mol, Rudi de; Werf, Joop van der; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 956) - 94
melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - lactatie - rundveeziekten - diergezondheid - diergedrag - dierfysiologie - gegevens verzamelen - voorspelling - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - lactation - cattle diseases - animal health - animal behaviour - animal physiology - data collection - prediction - cattle farming
The transition period is a critical phase in the life of dairy cows. Early identification of cows at risk for disease would allow for early intervention and optimization of the transition period. Based on the theory of resilience of biological systems we hypothesize that the level of vulnerability of an individual cow can be quantified by describing dynamical aspects of continuously measured physiological and behavioural variables. To examine the relationship between the risk to develop diseases early in lactation and dynamic patterns of high-resolution, physiological and behavioural data, were continuously recorded in individual cows before calving. Dynamic, quantitative parameters for high-resolution physiological and behavioural measures, continuously acquired during the dry period have predictive value for the risk of cows to develop diseases during the early lactation period. Our results suggest that quantitative parameters derived from sensor data may reflect the level of resilience of individual cows.
Nieuwe maat voor melkproductie : vergelijking melkgift koeien met verschillende droogstandslengte mogelijk met effectieve lactatie
Kok, A. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Middelaar, C.E. van - \ 2016
Veeteelt 33 (2016)7. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 44 - 45.
dairy cattle - dairy farming - milk production - lactation - dry period - calving interval - agricultural research - melkvee - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - lactatie - gustperiode - tussenkalftijd - landbouwkundig onderzoek
De gebruikelijke maat voor lactatieproductie, de 305 dagenproductie, houdt geen rekening met de lengte van de droogstand of tussenkalftijd van de koe. Onderzoekers van Wageningen UR stellen daarom een nieuwe maat voor lactatieproductie voor
Dynamics of the proteome in human and farm animal milk
Zhang, L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Toon van Hooijdonk, co-promotor(en): Kasper Hettinga; Jacques Vervoort. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574199 - 193
moedermelk - melk - kamelenmelk - proteomen - melkeiwit - melkeiwitten - lactatie - melksamenstelling - melkbewerking - kwantitatieve analyse - kwalitatieve analyse - human milk - milk - camel milk - proteomes - milk protein - milk proteins - lactation - milk composition - milk processing - quantitative analysis - qualitative analysis

Abstract

The milk proteome changes due to many factors, such as lactation, individual, health status, processing, and species differences. The objective of the work described in this thesis was to increase our understanding of the dynamics of proteome in human and farm animal milk, and its contributions on the improvement of infant formula. This study shows that milk proteome not only differs qualitatively and quantitatively but also differs in their changing rate over lactation between species, especially for immune-related proteins. In addition, milk proteome shows different stability under different processing within and between species. It is concluded that although milk proteome differs between species, the function of milk proteins is essentially the same for all newborns, in providing nutrients and immunity for their growth and development. Both enriching specific milk proteins and mild processing of milk proteins should be considered for the improvement of infant formula.

Effect van voerniveau bij drachtige lacterende zeugen op reproductie en conditie = Effect of feeding level in gestating lactating sows on reproduction and condition
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Rommers, J.M. ; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 861) - 39
zeugen - voeropname - varkensvoeding - varkenshouderij - lichamelijke fitheid - zogen - voortplantingsvermogen - biggen - lactatie - sows - feed intake - pig feeding - pig farming - physical fitness - suckling - reproductive performance - piglets - lactation
Op VIC Sterksel is onderzocht wat het effect is van het voerniveau van zeugen tijdens de laatste 8 dagen van een zes weekse lactatie waarin ze ook drachtig zijn op de gewichts- en spekdikte ontwikkeling van de zeugen, de resultaten van de biggen en het aantal levend en dood geboren biggen in de volgende worp. De resultaten van het onderzoek zijn in dit rapport beschreven.
Dertig dagen droog voldoende
Drie, I. van; Knegsel, A. van; Lam, T.G.J.M. ; Koopmans, A. - \ 2015
Veeteelt 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 54 - 55.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - lactatie - gustperiode - strategisch management - mastitis - dairy farming - dairy cows - lactation - dry period - strategic management
De afronding van het project Why Dry van Wageningen Universiteit is aanleiding om stil te staan bij de droogstand. Wat is de ideale droogstandslengte? Is doormelken of het weglaten van de droogstand aan te raden en zorgt selectief droogzetten voor meer mastitisgevallen? Veeteelt zet aan de hand van zeven vragen de onderzoeksresultaten op een rij.
WHYDRY; Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid
Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, leerstoelgroep Adaptatiefysiologie - 156
melkproductie - energiebalans - diergezondheid - koeien - kalveren - experimenten - melkopbrengst - lactatie - melkinterval - melkveehouderij - gustperiode - milk production - energy balance - animal health - cows - calves - experiments - milk yield - lactation - milking interval - dairy farming - dry period
Van Knegsel, A.T.M. (Editor), 2014. WHYDRY: Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalf-gezondheid. Wageningen University, Wageningen, Nederland. 156 blz. Sinds het begin van de 20ste eeuw worden melkkoeien enkele weken voor de verwachte kalfdatum drooggezet, d.w.z. niet meer gemolken. Het doel van deze droogstand is om de melkproductie in de daaropvolgende lactatie te maximaliseren. Daarnaast kunnen koeien met subklinische mastitis tijderns de droogstand behandeld worden met antibiotica. Recent is er discussie ontstaan of een droogstand van 6 tot 8 weken nog wel optimaal is vanwege een aantal redenen. Ten eerste is de vraag of een maximale melkproductie nog steeds wenselijk is, omdat een hoge melkproductie in begin lactatie wordt geassocieerd met een hoge ziekte-incidentie. Ten tweede is het droogzetten van hoogproductief melkvee met nog een hoge dagproductie bij droogzetten een risico voor uiergezondheid. Ten derde is sinds 2013 in Nederland het gebruik van antibiotica in de veehouderij sterk gelimiteerd. Dit geldt ook voor de antibiotica gebruikt in de droogstand, zgn. droogzetters. Deze antibiotica bepalen mede de lengte van de toegepaste droogstand, vanwege de wachttijd na gebruik van droogzetters voor de levering van melk. Het doel van WHYDRY was om via een integrale aanpak te onderzoeken wat de consequenties zijn van het verkorten van de droogstand voor melkproductie, melksamenstelling, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid. Het onderzoeksproject WHYDRY bestond hoofdzakelijk uit een groot dierexperiment waarin koeien 2 lactaties zijn gevolgd onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden. Binnen dit experiment zijn 168 Holstein-Friesian koeien random toegewezen aan een van de drie droogstandslengtes (0, 30 of 60 dagen) en een van twee lactatierantsoenen (glucogeen of lipogeen). Daarnaast is er een separaat experiment uitgevoerd naar pensontwikkeling van koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes en zijn de melkcontrolegegevens geanalyseerd van 11 praktijkbedrijven die al een verkorte droogstand toepasten. De resultaten van WHYDRY laten zien dat het verkorten of weglaten van de droogstand resulteert in een verschuiving van de melkproductie van de kritische periode na afkalven naar de periode vóór afkalven wanneer de koe makkelijk in haar energiebehoefte kan voorzien. De verschillen in melkproductie en energiebalans tussen koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes waren aanzienlijk. Verkorten van de droogstand resulteerde in beperkte reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar met een duidelijke verbetering van de energiebalans in de daaropvolgende lactatie. Verkort droog zetten had geen gevolgen voor het celgetal in de melk, biestkwaliteit, antistofconcentratie in het bloed van de kalveren of groei van de kalveren. Een tweede lactatie opnieuw verkort droogzetten was goed mogelijk. Daarmee kan het verkorten van de droogstand naar 30 dagen een interessante strategie zijn om de energiebalans in vroege lactatie te verbeteren zonder dat het gevolgen heeft voor de totale lactatieproductie. Dit geldt zeker wanneer geen rekening gehouden hoeft te worden met de wachttijd van eventuele droogzetters en het gewenst is de melkproductie van koeien met een hoge dagproductie op 60 dagen voor afkalven de lactatieperiode te verlengen. Weglaten van de droogstand resulteerde in een sterke reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar de energiebalans (qua duur en diepte) en metabole gezondheid werden sterk positief beïnvloed. Biestkwaliteit was significant minder, wat ook resulteerde in een lagere concentratie antistoffen in het bloed van de kalveren tot 6 weken leeftijd, maar daarna niet meer. Verder bestond het risico dat koeien vervetten en niet persistent genoeg waren om een tweede lactatie tot 4 aan afkalven gemolken te worden. Voor bepaalde koeien leek deze strategie echter wel succesvol. Koeien met een hoge dagproductie enkele maanden voor afkalven kenden geen negatieve gevolgen voor de melkproductie in de totale volgende lactatie wanneer zij gemolken werden tot aan afkalven. Onafhankelijk van droogstandslengte was ook het voeren van een glucogeen rantsoen in vroege lactatie gunstig voor de energiebalans en metabole gezondheid, in vergelijking met een meer lipogeen rantsoen.
Lagere vervanging succesformule doormelken
Heeren, J.A.H. ; Berentsen, P.B.M. ; Steeneveld, W. - \ 2013
Veeteelt 2013 (2013)12. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - melkproductie - gustperiode - lactatie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - vervangingspercentage - efficiëntie - dairy farming - dairy cows - milk production - dry period - lactation - farm management - replacement rate - efficiency
Doormelken blijkt onder andere in het Why dry-project een mogelijke oplossing om de koegezondheid in het begin van de lactatie te verbeteren. Maar is doormelken ook economisch interessant? Wageningen-student Johan Heeren deed een modelstudie naar de economische gevolgen van doormelken. Dit blijkt alleen interessant als het vervangingspercentage ook echt lager is.
Waarom een goede droogstand zo belangrijk is
Ginneken, R. van; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2012
Melkveebedrijf 10 (2012). - ISSN 1376-7232 - p. 13 - 15.
melkveehouderij - gustperiode - melkveevoeding - melkproductie - lactatie - energiebalans - diergezondheid - calcium - melkziekte - melkkoeien - dairy farming - dry period - dairy cattle nutrition - milk production - lactation - energy balance - animal health - parturient paresis - dairy cows
Op welke manier droogstaande koeien gevoerd moeten worden, is al vaak benoemd. Maar waarom we dingen doen zoals ze geadviseerd worden, is wat minder bekend. In de aanloop naar een nieuwe lactatie spelen twee stromen een belangrijke rol in de stofwisseling. Bewustwording van wat de effecten zijn van een verstoorde energie- en calciumhuishouding, draagt bij aan een goede opstart van de melkkoe.
Familiekuddes : Judith Poelarends over de jong volwassen kudde
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
melkveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - melkvee - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - diergedrag - melkveestapel - kuddes (herds) - vaarzen - huisvesting, dieren - lactatie - stallen - duurzame veehouderij - biologische landbouw - dairy farming - animal welfare - dairy cattle - animal production - animal health - animal behaviour - dairy herds - herds - heifers - animal housing - lactation - stalls - sustainable animal husbandry - organic farming
In de huidige melkveehouderij ervaren de vaarzen behoorlijk veel stress als ze in de koppel worden geïntroduceerd na het afkalven. Een groot deel van de dieren begint niet eens aan een tweede lactatie en verlaten het bedrijf omdat ze tegenvallen. We denken dat een 'jong volwassen kudde', waarbij vaarzen al veel eerder voor het afkalven in de kudde worden geïntroduceerd (bijvoorbeeld al na dekking of inseminatie of 2 tot 3 maanden voor afkalven) een positieve invloed heeft op deze groep dieren. Ze maken immers onderdeel uit van de kudde en de rangorde en raken gewend aan het management. Meer over de familiekudde op: http://www.familiekuddes.nl
Genetic aspects of feed intake in lactating sows
Bergsma, R. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; Martin Verstegen, co-promotor(en): Egbert Kanis. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789064644795 - 274
dierveredeling - varkens - lactatie - voeropname - genetica - prestatiekenmerken - prestatieniveau - vruchtbaarheid - animal breeding - pigs - lactation - feed intake - genetics - performance traits - performance - fertility

Productivity of sows has increased worldwide, especially during the last decade. Sows have been changed genetically to produce larger litters. It was hypothesized that including feed intake or feed efficiency during lactation or both in the breeding objective for dam lines is necessary to facilitate sow’s future increase of unproblematic production of grower-finishers that efficiently convert feed into meat. Increasing feed intake of sows is one solution to prevent excessive mobilization from body stores. As a result of selection for leaner pigs with higher feed efficiency, however, feed intake tends to decrease because high leanness and high feed efficiency are genetically associated with low appetite. There is a risk, therefore, that feed intake during lactation reduces due to selection for lean and efficient finishing pigs.
In this thesis a model was developed to estimate the energy efficiency of a lactating sow based on on farm observations enabling large scale data recording. Increasing energy efficiency during lactation might be a solution to overcome the apparent contradiction of the desired direction of selection for feed intake during growing-finishing and lactation. Increased energy efficiency during lactation will yield more milk output given the feed intake and mobilization from body stores.
To study the consequences of selection, heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated for fertility, lactation performance and growing-finishing characteristics. For growing-finishing characteristics the genetic models contained social interactions and for lactation feed intake, environmental sensitivity was studied as well.
The main conclusion of a simulation of a breeding program in pigs was that it is possible to achieve a balanced genetic progress in fertility, lactation performance and growing-finishing characteristics. Genetic regulation of feed intake during growing-finishing is to a large extend different from genetic regulation of feed intake during lactation. Results of this thesis show that feed intake of sows during lactation is not an immediate risk for further improvement of more and heavier piglets. Higher piglet production is still on its way via the genetic pipeline and will continue to increase by selection for more and heavier piglets. Selection for increased milk production or litter weight gain is preferred; this will lead to increased protein and energy demands as well. At all events, sows need to eat more and be more efficient at the same time to keep up with this increased demand. It is a question of tuning the breeding objective in order to optimize the relation between feed intake and body weight losses during lactation.

Overgang lactatie, droogstand en opstart in de geitenhouderij
Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2010
Biokennis
biologische landbouw - geitenhouderij - geiten - lammeren werpen - lactatie - melkproductie - voersamenstelling - diergezondheid - gustperiode - organic farming - goat keeping - goats - lambing - lactation - milk production - feed formulation - animal health - dry period
Geiten zijn toppers in het produceren van melk als we ze goed in de teugels hebben. Lammeren produceren, is vaak een moeilijke opdracht die er tussendoor komt om ze weer terug aan de melk te krijgen en nieuwe aanwas te hebben. In dit dossier leest u wat vaak misgaat aan het einde van de lactatie, bij de droogstand en bij de opstart en hoe deze problemen mogelijk te voorkomen zijn.
Verkorten van de droogstand voor een gezondere koe?
Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2010
V-focus 7 (2010)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 28 - 29.
lactatie - melkveehouderij - diergezondheid - gustperiode - melkproductie - kalveren - lactation - dairy farming - animal health - dry period - milk production - calves
In de huidige melkveehouderij is een droogstandsperiode voor afkalven van 6 tot 8 weken gangbaar. Recente resultaten uit de internationale literatuur laten echter zien dat het verkorten of zelfs weglaten van de droogstand een interessante strategie kan zijn om gezondheidsproblemen bij melkvee in de vroege lactatie te verminderen.
Zwangerschapsgym voor koeien : stimuleren van lichaamsbeweging in de droogstand zorgt voor een betere start van de lactatie
Goselink, R.M.A. ; Gosselink, J.M.J. ; Ouweltjes, W. - \ 2010
Veeteelt 27 (2010)7. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
melkveehouderij - gustperiode - lichaamsbeweging - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - lichaamsconditie - lactatie - dairy farming - dry period - exercise - animal health - animal welfare - body condition - lactation
Is zwangerschapsgym goed voor koeien? Wageningen UR Livestock Research liet droge koeien rondstappen in een tredmolen om die vraag te beantwoorden. Uit de eerste resultaten van het onderzoek blijkt dat extra beweging in de droogstand zorgt voor actievere en gezondere verse koeien.
'De koe in de watten leggen' : Maria Verduin verzorgt droogstaande en verse koeien in kraamhotel'
Hulst, M. van der - \ 2009
Nieuwe Oogst / Magazine Veehouderij 5 (2009)21. - ISSN 1871-0948 - p. 4 - 4.
rundveehouderij - gustperiode - tussenkalftijd - lactatie - kalven - afkalfpercentage - cattle husbandry - dry period - calving interval - lactation - calving - calving rate
Maria Verduin, veehouder in Koudum runt sinds 2008 een kraamhotel
'Aflammeren voor topsporters'
Govaerts, W. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2009
BioKennis bericht Geiten 6 (2009). - 4
biologische landbouw - geitenhouderij - lammeren - diergezondheid - diervoeding - melkproductie - geitenmelk - lactatie - organic farming - goat keeping - lambs - animal health - animal nutrition - milk production - goat milk - lactation
Geiten zijn toppers in het produceren van melk als we ze goed in de teugels hebben. Lammeren produceren is vaak een moeilijke opdracht die er tussendoor komt om ze weer terug aan de melk te krijgen en nieuwe aanwas te hebben. In dit bioKennisbericht kijken we welke dingen vaak mislopen aan het einde van de lactatie, de droogstand en de opstart. Vanuit de ervaring met de zaken die vaak mislopen, komen we tot een mogelijke aanpak om deze problemen te vermijden. Met ervaringsverhalen van geitenhouders geven we aan hoe het kan. Daarnaast geven we enkele handvatten om de geiten bij te sturen als het nodig is
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