Follicular development of sows at weaning in relation to estimated breeding value for within-litter variation in piglet birth weight
Costermans, N.G.J. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Keijer, J. ; Knol, E.F. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 554 - 563.
lactation - litter uniformity - metabolism - reproduction - sows
In this study we aimed to identify possible causes of within-litter variation in piglet birth weight (birth weight variation) by studying follicular development of sows at weaning in relation to their estimated breeding value (EBV) for birth weight variation. In total, 29 multiparous sows (parity 3 to 5) were selected on their EBV for birth weight variation (SD in grams; High-EBV: 15.8±1.6, N=14 and Low-EBV: −24.7±1.5, N=15). The two groups of sows had similar litter sizes (15.7 v. 16.9). Within 24 h after parturition, piglets were cross-fostered to ensure 13 suckling piglets per sow. Sows weaned 12.8±1.0 and 12.7±1.0 piglets, respectively, at days 26.1±0.2 of lactation. Blood and ovaries were collected within 2 h after weaning. The right ovary was immediately frozen to assess average follicle size and percentage healthy follicles of the 15 largest follicles. The left ovary was used to assess the percentage morphologically healthy cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of the 15 largest follicles. To assess the metabolic state of the sows, body condition and the circulating metabolic markers insulin, IGF1, non-esterified fatty acid, creatinine, leptin, urea and fibroblast growth factor 21 were analysed at weaning. No significant differences were found in any of the measured follicular or metabolic parameters between High-EBV and Low-EBV. A higher weight loss during lactation was related to a lower percentage healthy COCs (β= −0.65, P=0.02). Serum creatinine, a marker for protein breakdown, was negatively related to average follicle size (β= −0.60, P=0.05). Backfat loss during lactation was related to a higher backfat thickness at parturition and to a higher average follicle size (β=0.36, P<0.001) at weaning. In conclusion, we hypothesise that modern hybrid sows with more backfat at the start of lactation are able to mobilise more energy from backfat during lactation and could thereby spare protein reserves to support follicular development.
Metabolic status, lactation persistency, and udder health of dairy cows after different dry period lengths
Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B. Kemp; T.J.G.M. Lam, co-promotor(en): A.T.M. Knegsel; J. Dijkstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438070 - 285
dairy cattle - animal health - animal behaviour - dry period - metabolism - energy balance - lactation - milk production - udders - cattle feeding - melkvee - diergezondheid - diergedrag - gustperiode - metabolisme - energiebalans - lactatie - melkproductie - uiers - rundveevoeding
Cows traditionally have a 6 to 8 week non-lactating –‘dry period’- before calving and the start of the next lactation in order to maximize milk production in the subsequent lactation. An omitted, compared with a shortened, dry period reduces milk yield and improves energy availability in cows postpartum, but effects on udder health and persistency were unclear. Cows without a dry period fattened and spontaneously dried off due to the improved energy availability. Reducing the energy availability in the feed for cows without a dry period did not affect fattening or lactation persistency in late lactation. Cows with a short or without a dry period did not receive dry cow antibiotics in this study and this did not affect udder health across the dry period or in early lactation, but seemed to impair udder health in late lactation for cows without a dry period.
Development of pigs raised in a group housing system for lactating sows and their litters
Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B. Kemp, co-promotor(en): J.E. Bolhuis; N.M. Soede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431392 - 270
pigs - piglets - sows - biological development - group housing - lactation - weaning - environmental enrichment - animal behaviour - performance - varkens - biggen - zeugen - biologische ontwikkeling - groepshuisvesting - lactatie - spenen - omgevingsverrijking - diergedrag - prestatieniveau
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the development of pigs that were raised in a newly developed group housing system for lactating sows and their litters, with a focus on the transition around weaning and performance later in life. The starting point of our multi-suckling (MS) system was the natural behaviour of pigs, and the system consisted of 5 farrowing pens connected to a communal area, which included a communal feeding area. Litters were grouped at 1 week of age. Compared with a conventional farrowing system (in which a sow and her piglets are housed in a pen in which the sow is confined individually in a crate), the MS system provided a more spacious and complex environment, with more social and physical enrichment. Before weaning, we found that MS piglets showed more feed-directed behaviour and less damaging behaviours, such as tail biting, than conventionally housed piglets. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, when housed in a more physically and socially enriched pen, MS-raised piglets showed a higher feed intake, a higher weight gain, more play behaviour, and less maladaptive behaviour than the conventionally raised piglets that were housed in a standard nursery pen. In a follow-up study, in which all pigs were housed under equal and enriched conditions after weaning, we found that piglets raised in the MS system had a higher feed utilisation and a lower carbohydrate absorption in an oral sugar absorption test in the early post-weaning phase. In a subsequent study, the same animals were used to investigate their social and cognitive development, using behaviour tests during which pigs competed for access to feed. We found few differences, but there were indications that the pigs raised pre-weaning in the MS system made more use of social information than the conventionally raised pigs. Lastly, we studied effects of different weaning procedures in the MS system (gradual weaning during 9 weeks of lactation vs. abrupt weaning at 4 weeks of age). Weaning seemed to have less impact for the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment (reflected in weight gain and maladaptive behaviour). Also on the long term during the finishing phase (during which both groups were housed equally from 9 weeks of age), the pigs subjected to the gradual weaning treatment showed less maladaptive behaviour and had fewer body lesions than abruptly weaned pigs. To conclude, the multi-suckling system seems promising for improving pig performance, behaviour, and welfare, especially in combination with a more gradual weaning procedure during an extended lactation.
Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle : morphological, functional, and gene expression changes of the rumen papillae and changes of the rumen microbiota during the transition period
Dieho, Kasper - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Andre Bannink; J.Th. Schonewille. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430258 - 248
dairy cattle - rumen - rumen microorganisms - morphology - gene expression - animal nutrition - dry period - lactation - melkvee - pens - pensmicro-organismen - morfologie - genexpressie - diervoeding - gustperiode - lactatie
In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ net energy for lactation during the first weeks of lactation, compared with the dry period, whereas feed intake doubles to ~24 kg dry matter (DM)/d compared with the dry period. In addition, high quality lactation rations are fed, usually containing a sizable portion of concentrate, thereby increasing fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake to ~14 kg/d. As a result, daily volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by the rumen microbiota increases from ~60 mol/d during the dry period to ~132 mol/d during early lactation. To maintain rumen pH at levels favorable for microbial fermentation, and prevent a negative impact on production and health, clearance of the produced VFA is essential. This mainly occurs through absorption over the rumen wall. The increase in capacity of the rumen for absorption of VFA is associated with morphological and functional changes of the rumen papillae which cover the rumen wall. However, current knowledge of these changes as they occur around calving is scarce (Chapter 1). Increasing our understanding of the adaptation of the rumen can provide new insights to optimize dairy cattle nutrition and thereby health, welfare, and production.
The objective of this thesis was to study the adaptation of the rumen to ration changes during the dry period and early lactation. Changes in rumen papillae morphology, fractional absorption rate of VFA (kaVFA), and changes in the composition of the rumen microbiota were the primary targets for study. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with absorption and metabolism of VFA by the rumen epithelium were studied to better understand the relationship between functional changes and morphological changes of the papillae. Uniquely, all these aspects were studied in parallel in the same dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation using a repeated measurement setup. Two experiments were conducted. In the lactation experiment, the effect of transition from the dry period to the subsequent lactation, and the effect of early lactation concentrate build-up strategy on the adaptation of the rumen were studied. In the dry period experiment, the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the late dry period in order to ‘prepare’ the rumen for the lactation was studied. Treatments of both experiments were aimed at creating a difference in FOM intake (kg/d) and thereby VFA production (mol/d), as VFA production was hypothesized to affect rumen papillae development and thereby the capacity for VFA absorption.
During the lactation experiment, intake of FOM did not change during the dry period (5.7 kg/d), but increased during the subsequent lactation to 15.0 kg/d at 80 d postpartum (pp). In addition, the rapid increase in concentrate allowance resulted in a temporarily 22% greater FOM intake compared with a gradual increase at 16 d pp (Chapter 2). The total production rate of VFA, measured using an isotope dilution technique (Chapter 3), was affected by these changes in FOM intake and increased 2.3 fold to 123 mol/d after calving, compared with the dry period (53 mol/d). The temporarily greater FOM intake with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance at 16 d pp coincided with a 54% greater propionate production (34 mol/d) compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas acetate (66 mol/d) and butyrate (10 mol/d) production were not affected. Papillae surface area (Chapter 2) decreased by 19% between 50 d antepartum (ap) and 3 d pp to 28.0 mm2, but increased during early lactation to 63.0 mm2. Papillae surface area increased faster with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance and surface area was 38, 34 and 22% larger at 16, 30, and 44 d postpartum respectively, than with a gradual rate of increase of concentrate allowance. Histology (Chapter 2) revealed that rumen papillae and epithelium thickness decreased slightly after calving, but were not affected by the concentrate treatment. Feeding concentrate during the dry period did not affect daily FOM intake (6.0 kg/d) but did increase VFA concentration in the rumen fluid by 21 mM to 121 mM, and increased papillae surface by 29% (Chapter 4). However, the increased papillae surface area in the dry period was not maintained to the subsequent lactation period. After calving, papillae surface area increased by 50% to 58.0 mm2 at 45 d pp. The postpartum development of the rumen papillae was not affected by the treatment during the dry period. These results indicate that rumen papillae respond to changes in FOM and VFA production intake during the dry period and early lactation, and that the magnitude of this response depends on the rate of change in FOM intake.
During both experiments, kaVFA was measured using a buffer incubation technique in an empty washed rumen. During the lactation experiment (Chapter 3), in accordance with the developments in papillae surface area, the kaVFA decreased during the dry period from 0.48/h at 50 d ap to 0.34/h at 3 d pp. During the subsequent lactation, it increased rapidly to 0.56/h at 16 d pp and further to 0.72/h at 80 d pp. However, the greater papillae surface area due to the rapid increase in concentrate did not coincide with a greater kaVFA. During the dry period experiment (Chapter 4), kaVFA increased after calving by 50% to 0.48/h at 45 d pp, but the increase in papillae surface area due to supplemental concentrate during the dry period did not affect the kaVFA during the dry period (0.36/h) or the subsequent lactation. These results indicate that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for kaVFA.
Changes in the expression of genes were studied at the mRNA level in papillae tissue from both experiments (Chapter 5). The expression of apoptosis related genes was not affected by sampling day or its interaction with treatment for both experiments, suggesting papillae proliferation during the transition period was mainly the result of an increased mitosis rate. The limited changes in the expression of genes associated with rumen epithelial transport and metabolism of VFA in dairy cows during the transition period do not suggest that these capacities of the epithelium increased per unit of surface area. Thus the major response to the increase in daily VFA production after calving was tissue proliferation. In addition, papillae from the lactation experiment were used to study expression at the protein level using immunoblotting. Results showed that expression of several proteins changed during early lactation indicating modulation of intracellular pH regulation and sodium homeostasis, and VFA metabolism. Only for one gene, a significant but weak correlation between the examined mRNA and protein expression levels was observed, indicating that care must be taken when interpreting results obtained at either level.
Ration changes associated with the transition from the dry period to lactation affected the rumen microbiota during the lactation experiment (Chapter 6). The rapid increase in concentrate allowance postpartum temporarily decreased bacterial community richness by as much as 30% compared with a gradual increase in concentrate. This transient depression in bacterial community richness with a rapid, but not a gradual, rate of increase of concentrate allowance pp indicates that the rate of change in ration composition and feed intake has a greater effect than the change in ration composition and feed intake level as such. The relative abundances of most major bacterial taxa were affected by the transition to lactation, but few were affected by the rate of increase of the concentrate allowance. The relative abundances of rumen protozoal taxa changed after calving, and were affected by the concentrate treatment. However, differences between treatments groups disappeared again when concentrate intake became similar. The archaeal community was likewise affected by both the transition to lactation and the treatment. The observed changes in rumen microbiota composition, including changes in bacterial community richness, did not appear to affect the fractional degradation rate of NDF, starch, CP, and OM measured in situ using a nylon bag technique.
The results in the present thesis show that morphologically and functionally the rumen papillae can adapt rapidly to the changes in FOM intake and daily VFA production associated with the transition from the dry period into the subsequent lactation. However, the contrast in response of rumen papillae surface area development and the fractional absorption rate of VFA to the concentrate treatments indicates that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for VFA absorption. This proposition is further supported by the limited histological changes of the rumen epithelium and limited changes in gene expression. Considering that the capacity for absorption and metabolism of VFA per unit of papillae surface area remains similar, an extra-epithelial factor, likely visceral blood flow, limits VFA absorption. The capacity of the rumen to adapt after calving and the limited beneficial effect of supplementing concentrate during the dry period indicate that dry period feeding strategies can best be optimized for the prevention of periparturient diseases.
Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows : effects on milk yield, energy balance, metabolic status, and fertility
Chen, Juncai - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579088 - 205
dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - milk yield - energy balance - metabolism - lactation - melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - melkopbrengst - energiebalans - metabolisme - lactatie
During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, subfertility, and increased culling rates. Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) and feeding glucogenic diet could possibly improve EB in dairy cows. The objective of this thesis was to study the effects of shortening or omitting the DP on milk yield, energy balance, metabolism, and fertility over two subsequent lactations in dairy cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet during early lactation. In the current study, 167 cows were assigned to three DP lengths (0, 30, or 60 days) and two early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic diet), and cows were planned to have same DP length and diet over two subsequent lactations. In the first lactation after DP length and dietary treatments, shortening or omitting the DP improved EB due to a decreased milk yield in the early lactation compared with a conventional DP of 60 days. Omitting the DP or feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status in early lactation. Moreover, omitting the DP increased the percentage of cows with normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Shortening the DP to 30 d did not influence metabolic status and fertility compared with conventional DP in dairy cows. In the first lactation, the cows with a 0-d DP had less milk but similar energy intake, leading to excessive weight gain and, therefore, high body condition score (BCS) at onset of the second lactation after DP length and dietary treatments. In the second lactation, improvement of EB in cows with a 0-d DP was less pronounced than the first lactation, which could be related to the high BCS at onset of lactation and reduced milk yield losses. Shortening or omitting the DP did not influence uterine health status, ovarian activity, and reproductive performance in the second lactation. In second lactation, feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status and shortened the interval from calving to first ovulation compared with a lipogenic diet without affecting EB independent of DP length. Furthermore, shortening or omitting the DP decreased peak yield but did not influence lactation persistency in both lactations after implementation of DP treatment. In conclusion, omitting the DP improved metabolic status and resumption of ovarian activity, which was related to an improved EB in early lactation. Shortening the DP for two subsequent lactations could be achieved for most cows with limited milk yield losses. Independent of DP length, glucogenic diet improved EB and metabolic status compared with lipogenic diet in early lactation.
Eindrapportage Veerkracht van Melkvee I : verandering van dynamiek, voorspellende kracht
Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Mol, Rudi de; Werf, Joop van der; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 956) - 94
melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - lactatie - rundveeziekten - diergezondheid - diergedrag - dierfysiologie - gegevens verzamelen - voorspelling - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - lactation - cattle diseases - animal health - animal behaviour - animal physiology - data collection - prediction - cattle farming
The transition period is a critical phase in the life of dairy cows. Early identification of cows at risk for disease would allow for early intervention and optimization of the transition period. Based on the theory of resilience of biological systems we hypothesize that the level of vulnerability of an individual cow can be quantified by describing dynamical aspects of continuously measured physiological and behavioural variables. To examine the relationship between the risk to develop diseases early in lactation and dynamic patterns of high-resolution, physiological and behavioural data, were continuously recorded in individual cows before calving. Dynamic, quantitative parameters for high-resolution physiological and behavioural measures, continuously acquired during the dry period have predictive value for the risk of cows to develop diseases during the early lactation period. Our results suggest that quantitative parameters derived from sensor data may reflect the level of resilience of individual cows.
Nieuwe maat voor melkproductie : vergelĳking melkgift koeien met verschillende droogstandslengte mogelijk met effectieve lactatie
Kok, A. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Middelaar, C.E. van - \ 2016
Veeteelt 33 (2016)7. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 44 - 45.
dairy cattle - dairy farming - milk production - lactation - dry period - calving interval - agricultural research - melkvee - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - lactatie - gustperiode - tussenkalftijd - landbouwkundig onderzoek
De gebruikelĳke maat voor lactatieproductie, de 305 dagenproductie, houdt geen rekening met de lengte van de droogstand of tussenkalftĳd van de koe. Onderzoekers van Wageningen UR stellen daarom een nieuwe maat voor lactatieproductie voor
Comparison of Milk Oligosaccharides Pattern in Colostrum of Different Horse Breeds
Difilippo, E. ; Willems, H.A.M. ; Vendrig, J.C. ; Fink-Gremmels, J. ; Gruppen, H. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)19. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4805 - 4814.
neutral oligosaccharides - mass-spectrometry - bovine colostrum - fed babies - lactation - feces - acid
Colostrum oligosaccharides are known to exhibit prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties. Oligosaccharide composition is species-specific, and equine colostrum has been reported to contain unique oligosaccharides. Therefore, equine oligosaccharides (EMOS) from colostrum from different horse breeds were analyzed by CE-LIF, CE-MSn, HILIC-MSn, and exoglycosidase degradation. Sixteen EMOS were characterized and quantified, of which half were neutral and half were acidic. EMOS showed about 63% structural overlap with human milk oligosaccharides, known for their bioactivity. Seven EMOS were not reported before in equine oligosaccharides literature: neutral Gal(ß1–4)HexNAc, Gal(ß1–4)Hex-Hex, ß4'-galactosyllactose, and lactose-N-hexaose, as well as acidic 6'-Sialyl-Hex-Ac-HexNAc, sialyllacto-N-tetraose-a, and disialylacto-N-tetraose (isomer not further specified). In all colostrum samples, the average oligosaccharide concentration ranged from 2.12 to 4.63 g/L; with ß 6'and 3'- galactosyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and disialyllactose as the most abundant of all oligosaccharides (27–59, 16–37, 1–8, and 1–6%, respectively). Differences in presence and in abundance of specific EMOS were evident not only between the four breeds but also within the breed.
Dynamics of the proteome in human and farm animal milk
Zhang, L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Toon van Hooijdonk, co-promotor(en): Kasper Hettinga; Jacques Vervoort. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574199 - 193
moedermelk - melk - kamelenmelk - proteomen - melkeiwit - melkeiwitten - lactatie - melksamenstelling - melkbewerking - kwantitatieve analyse - kwalitatieve analyse - human milk - milk - camel milk - proteomes - milk protein - milk proteins - lactation - milk composition - milk processing - quantitative analysis - qualitative analysis
The milk proteome changes due to many factors, such as lactation, individual, health status, processing, and species differences. The objective of the work described in this thesis was to increase our understanding of the dynamics of proteome in human and farm animal milk, and its contributions on the improvement of infant formula. This study shows that milk proteome not only differs qualitatively and quantitatively but also differs in their changing rate over lactation between species, especially for immune-related proteins. In addition, milk proteome shows different stability under different processing within and between species. It is concluded that although milk proteome differs between species, the function of milk proteins is essentially the same for all newborns, in providing nutrients and immunity for their growth and development. Both enriching specific milk proteins and mild processing of milk proteins should be considered for the improvement of infant formula.
Effect of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and natural and specific antibody titers in calves
Mayasari, N. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Remmelink, G.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2015
Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3969 - 3979.
dairy-cows - energy-balance - milk-production - bovine somatotropin - metabolic status - performance - responses - lactation - pathogen - antigen
The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d). Colostrum production, concentration of colostrum IgG and IgM, and titers of NAb (isotypes IgG and IgM) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and human serum albumin (HuSA) in colostrum were measured. Female calves were immunized with both KLH and HuSA at wk 6 and 10 of life. Titers of NAb and specific antibody (SpAb) for isotypes IgG, IgM, and total immunoglobulin (IgT) binding KLH or HuSA were determined in plasma of female calves. Primary and secondary antibody responses to KLH or HuSA from wk 6 and 10 were expressed as the increase in antibody titers to wk 10 and 11 of life after primary and secondary challenges, respectively. Pregnancy length for cows with a 0-d dry period was 3 d shorter compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Birth weight of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period was lower compared with calves from cows with a 30-d dry period. Growth of calves until 12 wk of life was not affected by dry period length. Colostrum production and IgG and IgM concentration in colostrum were lower for cows with a 0-d dry period than a 60-d dry period. Natural IgG and IgM titers binding KLH or HuSA were lower in colostrum from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Natural antibody titers (IgG, IgM, and IgT) binding KLH or HuSA in plasma were lower during the first 2 wk of life for calves from cows with a 0-d dry period compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. After primary and secondary immunization of calves with KLH and HuSA, SpAb titers of calves were not affected by dry period length. After secondary immunization, the response of IgG and IgT binding KLH was higher in plasma of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period. The results of this study demonstrate that, although omission of the dry period of dairy cows leads to lower plasma NAb titers in calves during the first 2 wk of life, SpAb titers in calves were not affected and even the secondary antibody responses were enhanced compared with calves from cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period.
Effect van voerniveau bij drachtige lacterende zeugen op reproductie en conditie = Effect of feeding level in gestating lactating sows on reproduction and condition
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Rommers, J.M. ; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 861) - 39
zeugen - voeropname - varkensvoeding - varkenshouderij - lichamelijke fitheid - zogen - voortplantingsvermogen - biggen - lactatie - sows - feed intake - pig feeding - pig farming - physical fitness - suckling - reproductive performance - piglets - lactation
Op VIC Sterksel is onderzocht wat het effect is van het voerniveau van zeugen tijdens de laatste 8 dagen van een zes weekse lactatie waarin ze ook drachtig zijn op de gewichts- en spekdikte ontwikkeling van de zeugen, de resultaten van de biggen en het aantal levend en dood geboren biggen in de volgende worp. De resultaten van het onderzoek zijn in dit rapport beschreven.
Dertig dagen droog voldoende
Drie, I. van; Knegsel, A. van; Lam, T.G.J.M. ; Koopmans, A. - \ 2015
Veeteelt 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 54 - 55.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - lactatie - gustperiode - strategisch management - mastitis - dairy farming - dairy cows - lactation - dry period - strategic management - mastitis
De afronding van het project Why Dry van Wageningen Universiteit is aanleiding om stil te staan bij de droogstand. Wat is de ideale droogstandslengte? Is doormelken of het weglaten van de droogstand aan te raden en zorgt selectief droogzetten voor meer mastitisgevallen? Veeteelt zet aan de hand van zeven vragen de onderzoeksresultaten op een rij.
Peptidomic analysis of healthy and subclinically mastitic bovine milk
Guerrero, A. ; Dallas, D.C. ; Contreras, S. ; Bhandari, A. ; Canovas, A. ; Islas-Trejo, A. ; Medrano, J.F. ; Parker, E.A. ; Wang, M. ; Hettinga, K.A. ; Chee, S. ; German, J.B. ; Barile, D. ; Lebrilla, C.B. - \ 2015
International Dairy Journal 46 (2015). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 46 - 52.
enzyme inhibitory peptides - globule-membrane proteome - somatic-cell count - casein - proteolysis - hydrolysate - lactation - antibacterial - colostrum - casecidin
A variety of proteases release hundreds of endogenous peptide fragments from intact bovine milk proteins. Mass spectrometry-based peptidomics allows for high throughput sequence assignment of a large number of these peptides. Mastitis is known to result in increased protease activity in the mammary gland. Therefore, we hypothesized that subclinically mastitic milks would contain higher concentrations of released peptides. In this work, milks were sampled from three cows and, for each, one healthy and one subclinically mastitic teat were sampled for milk. Peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry and identified with database searching. In total, 682 peptides were identified. The total number of released peptides increased 146% from healthy to subclinically mastitic milks (p <0.05), and the total abundance of released peptides also increased significantly (p <0.05). Bioinformatic analysis of enzyme cleavage revealed increases in activity of cathepsin D and elastase (p <0.05) with subclinical mastitis.
WHYDRY; Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid
Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, leerstoelgroep Adaptatiefysiologie - 156
melkproductie - energiebalans - diergezondheid - koeien - kalveren - experimenten - melkopbrengst - lactatie - melkinterval - melkveehouderij - gustperiode - milk production - energy balance - animal health - cows - calves - experiments - milk yield - lactation - milking interval - dairy farming - dry period
Van Knegsel, A.T.M. (Editor), 2014. WHYDRY: Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalf-gezondheid. Wageningen University, Wageningen, Nederland. 156 blz. Sinds het begin van de 20ste eeuw worden melkkoeien enkele weken voor de verwachte kalfdatum drooggezet, d.w.z. niet meer gemolken. Het doel van deze droogstand is om de melkproductie in de daaropvolgende lactatie te maximaliseren. Daarnaast kunnen koeien met subklinische mastitis tijderns de droogstand behandeld worden met antibiotica. Recent is er discussie ontstaan of een droogstand van 6 tot 8 weken nog wel optimaal is vanwege een aantal redenen. Ten eerste is de vraag of een maximale melkproductie nog steeds wenselijk is, omdat een hoge melkproductie in begin lactatie wordt geassocieerd met een hoge ziekte-incidentie. Ten tweede is het droogzetten van hoogproductief melkvee met nog een hoge dagproductie bij droogzetten een risico voor uiergezondheid. Ten derde is sinds 2013 in Nederland het gebruik van antibiotica in de veehouderij sterk gelimiteerd. Dit geldt ook voor de antibiotica gebruikt in de droogstand, zgn. droogzetters. Deze antibiotica bepalen mede de lengte van de toegepaste droogstand, vanwege de wachttijd na gebruik van droogzetters voor de levering van melk. Het doel van WHYDRY was om via een integrale aanpak te onderzoeken wat de consequenties zijn van het verkorten van de droogstand voor melkproductie, melksamenstelling, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid. Het onderzoeksproject WHYDRY bestond hoofdzakelijk uit een groot dierexperiment waarin koeien 2 lactaties zijn gevolgd onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden. Binnen dit experiment zijn 168 Holstein-Friesian koeien random toegewezen aan een van de drie droogstandslengtes (0, 30 of 60 dagen) en een van twee lactatierantsoenen (glucogeen of lipogeen). Daarnaast is er een separaat experiment uitgevoerd naar pensontwikkeling van koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes en zijn de melkcontrolegegevens geanalyseerd van 11 praktijkbedrijven die al een verkorte droogstand toepasten. De resultaten van WHYDRY laten zien dat het verkorten of weglaten van de droogstand resulteert in een verschuiving van de melkproductie van de kritische periode na afkalven naar de periode vóór afkalven wanneer de koe makkelijk in haar energiebehoefte kan voorzien. De verschillen in melkproductie en energiebalans tussen koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes waren aanzienlijk. Verkorten van de droogstand resulteerde in beperkte reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar met een duidelijke verbetering van de energiebalans in de daaropvolgende lactatie. Verkort droog zetten had geen gevolgen voor het celgetal in de melk, biestkwaliteit, antistofconcentratie in het bloed van de kalveren of groei van de kalveren. Een tweede lactatie opnieuw verkort droogzetten was goed mogelijk. Daarmee kan het verkorten van de droogstand naar 30 dagen een interessante strategie zijn om de energiebalans in vroege lactatie te verbeteren zonder dat het gevolgen heeft voor de totale lactatieproductie. Dit geldt zeker wanneer geen rekening gehouden hoeft te worden met de wachttijd van eventuele droogzetters en het gewenst is de melkproductie van koeien met een hoge dagproductie op 60 dagen voor afkalven de lactatieperiode te verlengen. Weglaten van de droogstand resulteerde in een sterke reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar de energiebalans (qua duur en diepte) en metabole gezondheid werden sterk positief beïnvloed. Biestkwaliteit was significant minder, wat ook resulteerde in een lagere concentratie antistoffen in het bloed van de kalveren tot 6 weken leeftijd, maar daarna niet meer. Verder bestond het risico dat koeien vervetten en niet persistent genoeg waren om een tweede lactatie tot 4 aan afkalven gemolken te worden. Voor bepaalde koeien leek deze strategie echter wel succesvol. Koeien met een hoge dagproductie enkele maanden voor afkalven kenden geen negatieve gevolgen voor de melkproductie in de totale volgende lactatie wanneer zij gemolken werden tot aan afkalven. Onafhankelijk van droogstandslengte was ook het voeren van een glucogeen rantsoen in vroege lactatie gunstig voor de energiebalans en metabole gezondheid, in vergelijking met een meer lipogeen rantsoen.
A quantitative trait locus on Bos taurus autosome 17 explains a large proportion of the genetic variation in de novo synthesized milk fatty acids
Duchemin, S.I. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7276 - 7285.
selection signatures - genotype imputation - dairy-cattle - protein - dgat1 - association - population - parameters - lactation - summer
A genomic region associated with milk fatty acid (FA) composition has been detected on Bos taurus autosome (BTA)17 based on 50,000 (50K) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. The aim of our study was to fine-map BTA17 with imputed 777,000 (777K) SNP genotypes to identify candidate genes associated with milk FA composition. Phenotypes consisted of gas chromatography measurements of 14 FA based on winter and summer milk samples. Phenotypes and genotypes were available on 1,640 animals in winter milk, and on 1,581 animals in summer milk samples. Single-SNP analyses showed that several SNP in a region located between 29.0 and 34.0 Mbp were in strong association with C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0. This region was further characterized based on haplotypes. In summer milk samples, for example, these haplotypes explained almost 10% of the genetic variance in C6:0, 9% in C8:0, 3.5% in C10:0, 1.8% in C12:0, and 0.9% in C14:0. Two groups of haplotypes with distinct predicted effects could be defined, suggesting the presence of one causal variant. Predicted haplotype effects tended to increase from C6:0 to C14:0; however, the proportion of genetic variance explained by the haplotypes tended to decrease from C6:0 to C14:0. This is an indication that the quantitative trait locus (QTL) region is involved either in the elongation process or in early termination of de novo synthesized FA. Although many genes are present in this QTL region, most of these genes on BTA17 have not been characterized yet. The strongest association was found close to the progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2) gene, which has not yet been associated with milk FA composition. Therefore, no clear candidate gene associated with milk FA composition could be identified for this QTL.
Economic comparison of a sixty day dry period with no dry period on Dutch dairy farms
Heeren, J.A.H. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Berentsen, P.B.M. - \ 2014
Livestock Science 168 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 149 - 158.
milk-production - energy-balance - holstein herds - short 35-d - cows - lactation - performance - lengths - health - reproduction
In the Netherlands it is general practice that dairy cows have a dry period of six to eight weeks. Research, however, shows that omission of the dry period avoids the negative energy balance after calving with its potential negative effects on metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and fertility. On the downside, no dry period (NDP) causes a loss of milk production per cow compared with a conventional dry period (CDP). The objective of this research was to make an economic comparison between CDP with a sixty day dry period and NDP. Data on milk production per cow and on replacement rate, being the possible result of improved health, were taken from five farms involved in a research project on the effects of NDP, both from the year before and the year after switching from CDP to NDP. These data show that the replacement rate was on average 37% in the CDP situation while it was 24% in the NDP situation. Milk production was on average 13% lower in the NDP situation while fat and protein content of the milk were 0.21% and 0.42% points higher. A whole farm dairy linear programming model maximizing labor income (returns to family labor and management) was used to determine the technical and economic results for the situation with CDP and NDP. Results were calculated for three scenarios (one with milk quota and two without milk quota), representing differences in possibilities for increasing the farm size. Results show that under each scenario NDP is more profitable than CDP. The increase in labor income varies from 20% to 42%. This means that the negative effect of a lower milk production per cow is outweighed by the positive effect of a lower replacement rate and higher milk components. Sensitivity analysis shows that under a milk quota scenario NDP always results in a higher labor income than CDP irrespective of the change in replacement rate and milk production loss. Under the scenarios without milk quota a replacement rate of 34–35% or a milk production loss of 19–21% with NDP would result in a comparable labor income. The conclusion of this research is that NDP gives better economic results than CDP in a dairy quota situation for a broad range of replacement rate reduction and milk production reduction. In a situation without dairy quota, the replacement rate should be at least 3% points lower and milk production should be not more than 19% lower in the NDP situation to end up with better economic results.
Passage kinetics of dry matter and neutral detergent fibre through the gastro-intestinal tract of growing beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet measured with internal ð13C and external markers
Daniel, J.B. ; Laar, H. van; Warner, D. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)9. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 1471 - 1475.
dairy-cows - in-vitro - short-communication - different forage - digesta - cattle - fermentation - lactation - ruminants - behavior
Fractional rumen passage rates (K1) are fundamental in feed evaluation systems for ruminants to predict the extent of nutrient degradation. Data on passage kinetics of growing beef cattle fed high-concentrate diets are scarce and mainly rely on external passage markers which do not provide nutrient-specific K1 estimates. The present study describes the use of carbon stable isotopes (d13C) as an internal marker to estimate K1 of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) fractions of a compound feed in a high-concentrate diet, and compares them to the external markers ytterbium (Yb)-actetate and chromium mordanted fibre (Cr-NDF). Four rumen-fistulated Holstein heifers received four times per day a basal diet consisting of barley straw and pelleted compound feed offered separately (ratio 10 : 90, DM basis). Compound feed in the basal diet was mainly based on wheat of low natural 13C enrichment (-28.4 d13C), which was exchanged with a single dose of a maize-based compound feed of higher natural 13C enrichment (-18.9 d13C). This difference in natural 13C abundance was used to determine K1 values from faecal 13C excretion patterns. At the same time Yb-Acetate and Cr-NDF were introduced into the rumen to determine K1 values from faecal excretions. Faeces were collected over 90 h after pulse dosing. The K1 of d13C-marked DM (0.062/h) did not differ (P = 0.745) from d13C-marked NDF (0.060/h). The d13C-based K1 values also did not differ from Cr-NDF (0.056/h; P = 0.315). These results indicate similar passage behaviour of these fractions in the rumen of beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.
Genetic correlations between bodyweight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age
Rose, I.J. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Werf, J.H.J. van der; Thompson, A.N. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3249 - 3257.
wool production - liveweight - nutrition - sheep - parameters - pregnancy - survival - components - lactation - variance
Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less bodyweight when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more bodyweight when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on bodyweight change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between bodyweight, bodyweight change, and reproduction were estimated using records from ~7350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on ~5300 2-year-old ewes, ~4900 3-year-old ewes and ~3600 4-year-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes bodyweight change was measured: ~1950 two-year-old ewes, ~1500 three old ewes and ~1100 four-year-old ewes. The bodyweight measurements were for three periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 days on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 days for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 days for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than zero using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all bodyweights had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In two-year old ewes, bodyweight change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); bodyweight change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = - 0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than zero but estimates of genetic correlations for three-year-old ewes were generally consistent with these findings. The direction of the genetic correlations mostly coincided with the energy requirements of the ewes, and the stage of maturity of the ewes. In conclusion, optimized selection strategies on bodyweight changes to increase resilience will depend on the genetic correlations with reproduction, and are dependent on age.
Cow characteristics and their association with production performance with different dry period lengths
Steeneveld, W. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Remmelink, G.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Vernooij, J.C.M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014). - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4922 - 4931.
dairy-cows - milk-production - energy-balance - bovine somatotropin - metabolic status - holstein herds - short 35-d - lactation - health - yield
Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60 d. Some cows have less milk production loss than other cows after applying no DP or a short DP. The aim of this study is to evaluate which cow characteristics are associated with the amount of milk production losses following no DP or a short DP (30 d). Daily production information from the lactation before and after the DP was available from 161 dairy cows (54 cows with a 0-d DP, 51 cows with a 30-d DP, and 56 cows with a 60-d DP) from a research herd. Daily production (milk, fat, and protein) until 305 d in milk was estimated for all cows. Subsequently, total fat- and protein-corrected milk yield from 60 d before the expected calving date until 305 d in the following lactation (FPCMtotal) was estimated. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which cow characteristics were associated with limited or no production losses following no DP or a short DP, compared with a conventional DP length of 60 d. Average FPCMtotal was 9,341, 10,499, and 10,795 kg for cows with no DP, a 30-d DP, and a 60-d DP, respectively. The cow characteristics parity, daily milk production at 12 wk before the expected calving date, and reduction in daily milk production between 16 and 12 wk before the expected calving date were associated with production loss due to a short (30 d) or no DP. Compared with 60 d DP, multiparous cows had less production loss (987 kg) following no DP than primiparous cows (2,132 kg). The difference in FPCMtotal between the 3 DP groups was largest for cows with a low milk production (e.g., 10 kg/d) at 12 wk before the expected calving date. The greater the reduction in milk production between 16 and 12 wk before the expected calving date, the larger the difference in FPCMtotal between the 3 DP groups. The difference in FPCMtotal between cows with no DP and 60 d DP at a reduction in milk production between 16 and 12 wk of 10% was 665 kg, whereas this difference was 1,138 kg at a reduction of 70%. The cow characteristics found can be used to select cows for specific DP lengths in a decision-support model to support the farmer on the economic optimal DP length for each individual cow. Output of such a decision-support model can be, for instance, to advise a 30-d DP for multiparous cows with high milk production (e.g., 25 kg/d) at 12 wk before the expected calving date.
Cystic ovaries in intermittently-suckled sows: follicle growth and endocrine profiles
Gerritsen, R. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2014
Reproduction Fertility and Development 26 (2014). - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 462 - 468.
luteinizing-hormone - reproductive-performance - estrous behavior - dairy-cattle - lactation - estrus - pigs - estradiol - ovulation - cortisol
This paper presents follicle development and hormone profiles for sows with normal ovulation or cystic follicles during an intermittent-suckling (IS) regime that started at Day 14 of lactation. Sows were subjected to separation from their piglets during blocks of 6 h or 12 h. In total, 8 out of 52 sows developed cystic follicles; either full cystic ovaries (n = 6) or partial ovulation (n = 2). Increase in follicle size of these sows was similar to that of normal ovulating sows until pre-ovulatory size at Day 5 after the start of separation, but from then on became larger (P <0.05). LH surge was smaller or absent in sows that developed (partially) cystic ovaries (0.4 ± 0.1 vs 3.6 ± 0.3 ng mL–1; P <0.01). Peak levels of oestradiol (E2) were similar but high E2 levels persisted in sows that developed (partly) cystic ovaries and duration of oestrus tended to be longer. The risk of developing (partly) cystic ovaries was higher when IS occurred in blocks of 6 h versus 12 h (33 vs 10%). In conclusion, the appearance of cystic ovaries at approximately Day 20 of ongoing lactation was related to an insufficient LH surge, as is also the case in non-lactating sows.