Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Towards a Theory of Claim Making: Bridging Access and Property Theory
Kronenburg García, Angela ; Dijk, Han van - \ 2019
Society & Natural Resources (2019). - ISSN 0894-1920
access - Claim making - land - natural resources - property - theory

This article proposes a framework for studying and understanding how people make claims to land and other natural resources. We argue that a focus on claim-making practices of actors (individuals, groups, institutions, companies, the state), and the processes of appropriation, accessing and contestation that come along with it, best responds to Sikor and Lund’s call to examine “the grey zone” between access and property. We identify and discuss three practices of claim making: “grounding claims” is the practice of inscribing or altering the landscape with visible markers connoting ownership; “talking claims” is when speech is used strategically to make, justify and contest claims; and “representing claims” is when claims are represented on material objects (maps, title deeds) that are detached from the resource. We contribute to debates on enclosure, large-scale land acquisitions and resource grabbing by providing a lens of claim making through which these processes can be conceptualized.

Land surface impacts on precipitation in the Netherlands
Daniels, E.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bert Holtslag, co-promotor(en): Ronald Hutjes; G. Lenderink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576674 - 151
precipitation - land surface - land - environmental impact - land use - climatic change - urban areas - weather patterns - netherlands - neerslag - aardoppervlak - land - milieueffect - landgebruik - klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - weerpatronen - nederland
Dit proefschrift bestudeert de effecten van landgebruiksveranderingen uit het verleden en in de toekomst op neerslag in Nederland door middel van analyses van gemeten regendata en het gebruik van een weermodel.
Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - land - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions

Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia

Mequanint Biset Melesse

Abstract

Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.

From environmental nuisance to environmental opportunity: housefly larvae convert waste to livestock feed
Zanten, H.H.E. van; Mollenhorst, H. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Bikker, P. ; Meerburg, B.G. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
Journal of Cleaner Production 102 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 362 - 369.
life-cycle perspective - bio-energy - food - consequences - variability - digestion - scenarios - amazon - manure - land
The livestock sector is in urgent need for more sustainable feed sources, because of the increased demand for animal-source food and the already high environmental costs associated with it. Recent developments indicate environmental benefits of rearing insects for livestock feed, suggesting that insect-based feed might become an important alternative feed source in the coming years. So far, however, this potential environmental benefit of waste-fed insects is unknown. This study, therefore, explores the environmental impact of using larvae of the common housefly grown on poultry manure and food waste as livestock feed. Data were provided by a laboratory plant in the Netherlands aiming to design an industrial plant for rearing housefly larvae. Production of 1 ton dry matter of larvae meal directly resulted in a global warming potential of 770 kg CO2 equivalents, an energy use of 9329 MJ and a land use of 32 m2, caused by use of water, electricity, and feed for flies, eggs and larvae. Production of larvae meal, however, also has indirect environmental consequences. Food waste, for example, was originally used for production of bio-energy. Accounting for these indirect consequences implies, e.g., including the environmental impact of production of energy needed to replace the original bio-energy function of food waste. Assuming, furthermore, that 1 ton of larvae meal replaced 0.5 ton of fishmeal and 0.5 ton of soybean meal, the production of 1 ton larvae meal reduced land use (1713 m2), but increased energy use (21,342 MJ) and consequently global warming potential (1959 kg CO2-eq). Results of this study will enhance a transparent societal and political debate about future options and limitations of larvae meal as livestock feed. Results of the indirect environmental impact, however, are situation specific, e.g. in this study food waste was used for anaerobic digestion. In case food waste would have been used for, e.g., composting, the energy use and related emission of greenhouse gases might decrease. Furthermore, the industrial process to acquire housefly larvae meal is still advancing, which also offers potential to reduce energy use and related emissions. Eventually, land scarcity will increase further, whereas opportunities exist to reduce energy use by, e.g., technical innovations or an increased use of solar or wind energy. Larvae meal production, therefore, has potential to reduce the environmental impact of the livestock sector.
Opportunities and challenges for investigating the environment-migration nexus
Neumann, K. ; Hilderink, H. - \ 2015
Human Ecology 43 (2015)2. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 309 - 322.
climate-change impacts - rural out-migration - agent-based model - burkina-faso - population mobility - hurricane katrina - great-plains - land - vegetation - bangladesh
Environmental change is an acknowledged factor influencing human migration. Analytical research regarding the relationship between the environment and human migration has increased in recent years yet still faces numerous hurdles, partly due to limited availability of suitable data. We review available data and methodologies for investigating the environment-migration nexus, identifying data inconsistencies resulting from the combination of different sources and illustrating the underlying reasons for them. We discuss a number of methods for investigating the environment-migration relationship, including frameworks and concepts; surveys; empirical, quantitative methods; and simulation approaches. Based on this overview, we offer recommendations for improved analyses of the environment-migration nexus including reporting data inconsistencies and uncertainties, combining approaches and data sources, and developing multiple-study approaches.
Yield gap analysis and resource footprints of Irish potato production systems in Zimbabwe
Svubure, O. ; Struik, P.C. ; Haverkort, A.J. ; Steyn, J.M. - \ 2015
Field Crops Research 178 (2015). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 77 - 90.
agriculture - intensification - argentina - ecology - climate - africa - growth - land
Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's food security challenges. The magnitude of food production increase on already existing croplands depends on the difference between the current actual yields and the potential yield of the crop in the given agro-ecological environment, also called the yield gap. We used three already well-understood types of yield gap: (1) the gap between actual farmer yields, Ya, and the maximum (potential) yield, Yp, achieved when a crop is grown under conditions of non-limiting water and nutrient supply with biotic stress effectively controlled; (2) the gap between Ya and the water-limited yield, Yw, which is the maximum yield attainable under rainfed systems; and (3) the gap between Ya, and the highest yield, Yh, achieved by the best farmers in an agro-ecological area. A grower survey was conducted on the different potato production systems in the country in order to establish the actual yields and input application rates used in potato production. The actual potato yields were used to calculate efficiencies of natural and synthetic resources use. Potential and water-limited yields, and planting times of potato were established for the different agro-ecological regions using the LINTUL-POTATO model, a model based on interception and utilisation of incoming solar radiation. The mean actual yield observed ranged from 8 to 35% of the potential yield, translating to a yield gap of 65 to 92%, hence there is a huge potential to increase production. Simulated potential water use efficiency based on evapotranspiration range was 19–27 g potato/l against the actual water use efficiency of 2–6 g potato/l based on irrigation and rainfall. The current high fertiliser application rates and low actual yields we report, suggest inefficient fertiliser use in potato production in Zimbabwe. The average actual fungicide and insecticide use efficiencies were 0.7 and 13 kg potato/g active ingredient, respectively, across all production systems. All sampled growers lacked knowledge on integrated pest management, a concept which could possibly improve the biocide use efficiency through lowering biocide application rates while maintaining or even improving yields. Our analysis suggests that there is opportunity to improve water, nutrients and biocides resource use efficiencies and increase potato actual yields in Zimbabwe.
Why are lions killing us? Human-wildlife conflict and social discontent in Mbire District, northern Zimbabwe
Matema, S. ; Andersson, J.A. - \ 2015
The Journal of Modern African Studies 53 (2015)01. - ISSN 0022-278X - p. 93 - 120.
natural-resource management - indirect rule - land - campfire - politics - africa - conservation - tradition - livestock - botswana
Early in 2010, lions killed four people and over a hundred livestock in Mbire district, northern Zimbabwe, an area bordering a complex of protected wildlife areas of global conservation importance. The events prompted a local outcry, prominent media coverage, and even calls for the translocation of people to safer areas (The Herald 11.1.2010, 23.1.10, 27.3.2010, ZimEye.org 17.1.10, 22.1.10). Government agencies also responded to this apparent human–wildlife conflict. The Mbire Rural District Council (RDC), the local authority in wildlife management, shot ten lions and lifted a moratorium on the hunting of female lions. The central government’s Parks and Wildlife Management Authority (ZimParks) more than doubled the RDC’s annual lion hunting quota. But unlike these government bodies, local people did not see the attacks only as a human–wildlife conflict. For them, the lion attacks were also meaningful in a different way, signifying a political problem of a much larger magnitude. As local government in Mbire is highly dependent on wildlife exploitation, they did not see the lion attacks independently of the changing governance arrangements in Mbire district.
Reconciling spatial and temporal soi moisture effects on aftrnoon rainfall
Guillod, B.P. ; Orlowsky, B. ; Miralles, D.G. ; Teuling, A.J. ; Seneviratne, S.I. - \ 2015
Nature Communications 6 (2015). - ISSN 2041-1723
energy system ceres - stratiform precipitation - atmospheric controls - surface irradiances - land - evaporation - scale - feedback - evapotranspiration - variability
Soil moisture impacts on precipitation have been strongly debated. Recent observational evidence of afternoon rain falling preferentially over land parcels that are drier than the surrounding areas (negative spatial effect), contrasts with previous reports of a predominant positive temporal effect. However, whether spatial effects relating to soil moisture heterogeneity translate into similar temporal effects remains unknown. Here we show that afternoon precipitation events tend to occur during wet and heterogeneous soil moisture conditions, while being located over comparatively drier patches. Using remote-sensing data and a common analysis framework, spatial and temporal correlations with opposite signs are shown to coexist within the same region and data set. Positive temporal coupling might enhance precipitation persistence, while negative spatial coupling tends to regionally homogenize land surface conditions. Although the apparent positive temporal coupling does not necessarily imply a causal relationship, these results reconcile the notions of moisture recycling with local, spatially negative feedbacks.
Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops
Wijnen, J. van; Ivens, W.P.M.F. ; Kroeze, C. ; Löhr, A.J. - \ 2015
Science of the Total Environment 511 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 101 - 111.
biomass production - marine ecosystems - future-trends - biofuels - land - rivers - export - agriculture - nitrogen - waters
In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10–30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large.
Multiple interests across European coastal waters: the importance of a common language
Ramos, J. ; Soma, K. ; Bergh, Ø. ; Schulze, T. ; Gimpel, A. ; Stelzenmuller, V. ; Mäkinen, T. ; Grati, F. ; Fabi, G. ; Gault, J. - \ 2015
ICES Journal of Marine Science 72 (2015)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 720 - 731.
multicriteria decision-analysis - natural-resource management - sea use management - stakeholder analysis - criteria analysis - marine - support - typology - land
Different marine and coastal activities have diverse economic, environmental, and socio-cultural objectives, which can lead to conflict when these multidimensional activities coincide spatially or temporally. This is sometimes driven by a lack of understanding or other users’ needs and consequentially adequate planning and the utilization of acommonlanguage is essential. By using a transparent approach based on multi-criteria analysis, we characterize and establish priorities for future development/conservation for all users in the coastal area using six representative European Case Studies with different levels of complexity. Results varied according to location, but significantly it was found that stakeholders tended to favour ecological and social over economic objectives. This paper outlines the methodology employed, the results derived, and the potential for this approach to reduce conflict in coastal and marine waters. Keywords: case studies, coexist, conflict (reduction), European Coastal Zone, marine spatial planning, multi-criteria analysis, stakeholders.
Combining backcasting and exploratory scenarios to develop robust water strategies in face of uncertain futures
Vliet, M. van; Kok, K. - \ 2015
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20 (2015)1. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 43 - 74.
klimaatverandering - waterbeheer - onzekerheidsanalyse - methodologie - climatic change - water management - uncertainty analysis - methodology - stakeholder participation - sustainability - framework - management - visions - europe - world - land - tool
Water management strategies in times of global change need to be developed within a complex and uncertain environment. Scenarios are often used to deal with uncertainty. A novel backcasting methodology has been tested in which a normative objective (e.g. adaptive water management) is backcasted within the context of exploratory scenarios that sketch four different plausible futures (Economy First, Policy Rules, Fortress Europe, and Sustainability Eventually). The main advantage of combining exploratory and normative scenarios is in the identification of robust actions: actions that are effective in the different socio-environmental contexts sketched in the exploratory scenarios. This paper has three objectives: (1) to present the methodology, focussing on its novel aspects (2) to test the methodology and evaluate its perceived success by analysing organiser and stakeholder feedback and (3) to analyse and evaluate the results, in order to study the impact of the exploratory scenarios on the backcasting results and the added value of robust actions. The methodology was successfully tested in 9 local and one regional case study in a water project water scenarios for Europe and for Neighbouring States (SCENES). Results showed that the exploratory scenarios influenced the content of the backcasts, thus making the identification of robust strategies possible. The list of robust strategies includes both technological and social/organisational strategies, highlighting the need for an integrated approach. The approach shows high potential, but as the methodology is in its infancy more research is needed, particularly in methods to facilitate and monitor information flow between exploratory scenarios and backcasts.
Changing patterns of basic household consumption in the Inner Mongolian grasslands: a case study of policy-oriented adoptive changes in the use of grasslands
Du, B. ; Zhen, L. ; Groot, R.S. de; Goulden, C.E. ; Long, X. ; Cao, X. ; Wu, R. ; Sun, C. - \ 2014
The Rangeland Journal 36 (2014)5. - ISSN 1036-9872 - p. 505 - 517.
energy-consumption - northern china - vegetation - land - food - communities - management - attitudes - responses - selection
Grassland ecosystems, as the basic natural resources in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, are becoming increasingly sensitive to human intervention, leading to deterioration in fragile ecosystems. The goal of this study was to describe the restoration policy-oriented adoptive changes to basic household consumption patterns of food, fuel, and water, and their spatial distribution by grassland types in the region. Basic household consumption data were collected in the meadow steppe (Hulun Buir), typical steppe (Xilin Gol), and semi-desert steppe (Ordos) ecosystems using structured questionnaires administered to 209 herders and farmers. In 2010, the householders' intake comprised a low amount of agricrops, including staple foods, vegetables and fruit with a high amount of meat, which still dominated the patterns of food consumption. However, the number of households preferring this pattern is decreasing and higher amounts of agri-crop and lower amounts of meat consumption pattern is increasing. From 1995 to 2010, fuel consumption patterns changed from being dominated by bio-fuels (dung) to being dominated mainly by electricity and gas. However, bio-fuel remains a major energy source for daily life in the meadow steppe ecosystem. In all three surveyed grassland types, the use of coal, electricity and gas increased from 1995 to 2010. The source of domestic water in all three surveyed areas is from groundwater, with an increasing trend to use tap water from a public supply rather than from privately owned wells.
Species’ traits influence ground beetle responses to farm and landscape level agricultural intensification in Europe
Winqvist, C. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Öckinger, E. ; Aavik, T. ; Berendse, F. ; Clement, L.W. ; Geiger, F. - \ 2014
Journal of Insect Conservation 18 (2014)5. - ISSN 1366-638X - p. 837 - 846.
carabid beetle - habitat fragmentation - biological-control - intraguild predation - functional diversity - spatial scales - arable crops - context - biodiversity - land
Agricultural intensification may result in important shifts in insect community composition and function, but this remains poorly explored. Studying how groups of species with shared traits respond to local and landscape scale land-use management can reveal mechanisms behind such observed impacts. We tested if ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) divided into trait groups based on body sizes, wing morphologies and dietary preferences respond differently to farming practise (organic and conventional), farming intensity (measured as yield) and landscape complexity (measured as the proportion of arable land within a 1,000 m radius) across Europe. We used data from 143 farms in five regions in northern and central Europe. Organic farms did not differ in abundance or richness of any trait group compared to conventional farms. As farm scale intensity (yield) increased, overall abundance of beetles decreased, but abundances of small and medium sized beetles, as well as that of wingless beetles, were unaffected. Overall species richness was not affected by yield, whereas consideration of traits revealed that phytophagous and omnivorous beetles were less species rich on farms with high yields. Increasing the proportion of arable land in the landscape increased overall beetle abundance. This was driven by an increase in omnivorous beetles. The total species richness was not affected by an increase in the proportion arable land, although the richness of wingless beetles was found to increase. Potential effects on ecosystem functioning need to be taken into account when designing schemes to maintain agricultural biodiversity, because species with different ecological traits respond differently to local management and landscape changes.
From disaster to sustainability: floods, changing property relations and water management in the south-western Netherlands, c. 1500-1800
Cruijningen, P.J. van - \ 2014
Continuity and Change 29 (2014)2. - ISSN 0268-4160 - p. 241 - 265.
low-countries - flanders - land
When large parts of the south-western Netherlands flooded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the main cause was insufficient maintenance of the sea defences. The subsequent re-embankment of the polders resulted in changes to both soil conditions and property relations in the region. The Church and the local peasants lost land and members of the urban bourgeoisie became the most important landowners. Unlike their risk-averse predecessors, these capitalist landlords were prepared to invest in drainage. They were also able to organise state support for those polders that were at risk of flooding. Tenant and yeomen farmers had an equally important role as they maintained the fertility of the soil and were prepared to invest in the upkeep of the flood defences.
Evaluation of two different soil databases to assess soil erosion sensitivity with MESALES for three areas in Europe and Morocco
Hessel, R. ; Daroussin, J. ; Verzandvoort, S.J.E. ; Walvoort, D.J.J. - \ 2014
Catena 118 (2014). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 234 - 247.
land
Modelling soil erosion sensitivity at continental scale provides a way to compare different countries and to identify those areas that are most seriously threatened. In this research, the MESALES model was applied to 3 large areas in Europe and Morocco, using soil data from ESDB and DSMW as well as from the newly developed e-SOTER database. Land use data were derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 database, and slope angle from the HYDRO1K DEM. The aim was to evaluate whether the e-SOTER database resulted in better assessment of soil erosion sensitivity than existing data. To judge this, expert opinion was used. The comparison of results obtained with existing data and with e-SOTER data showed considerable differences. However, it proved impossible to say which results were better. The main reasons for that were that MESALES predicts soil erosion sensitivity, which cannot be measured in the field, and that expert judgement of model results proved inconclusive. Another reason can have been that the e-SOTER database is as yet incomplete. The fact that the application of different soil databases resulted in quite different results does, however, indicate the importance of using the best available data for evaluation of soil threats. However, a current lack of options to validate soil erosion sensitivity estimates was also identified.
Estimation of the refractive index structure parameter from single-level daytime routine weather data
Boer, A. van de; Moene, A.F. ; Graf, A. ; Simmer, C. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
Applied Optics 53 (2014)26. - ISSN 1559-128X - p. 5944 - 5960.
obukhov similarity functions - water-vapor - optical turbulence - sonic anemometer - surface fluxes - energy-balance - temperature - radiation - land - heat
Atmospheric scintillations cause difficulties for applications where an undistorted propagation of electromagnetic radiation is essential. These scintillations are related to turbulent fluctuations of temperature and humidity that are in turn related to surface heat fluxes. We developed an approach that quantifies these scintillations by estimating Cn2 from surface fluxes that are derived from single-level routine weather data. In contrast to previous methods that are biased to dry and warm air, our method is directly applicable to several land surface types, environmental conditions, wavelengths, and measurement heights (lookup tables for a limited number of site-specific parameters are provided). The approach allows for an efficient evaluation of the performance of, e.g., infrared imaging systems, laser geodetic systems, and ground-to-satellite optical communication systems.We tested our approach for two grass fields in central and southern Europe, and for a wheat field in central Europe. Although there are uncertainties in the flux estimates, the impact on Cn2 is shown to be rather small. The Cn2 daytime estimates agree well with values determined from eddy covariance measurements for the application to the three fields. However, some adjustments were needed for the approach for the grass in southern Europe because of non-negligible boundary-layer processes that occur in addition to surface-layer processes.
Conflict and the Evolution of Institutions: Unbundling Institutions at the Local Level in Burundi
Voors, M.J. ; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2014
Journal of Peace Research 51 (2014)4. - ISSN 0022-3433 - p. 455 - 469.
civil-war - violent conflict - armed conflict - consequences - rwanda - uganda - land - africa - health
The impact of armed conflict may persist long after the end of war, and may include a lasting institutional legacy. We use a novel dataset from rural Burundi to examine the impact of local exposure to conflict on institutional quality, and try to ‘unbundle’ institutions by distinguishing between three dimensions of the institutional framework: property rights security, local political institutions, and social capital. We find that conflict exposure affects institutional quality, and document that the impact of conflict on institutional quality may be positive or negative, depending on the institutional measure. Specifically, exposure to violence strengthens in-group social capital and promotes tenure security. However, the appreciation for state institutions is negatively affected by exposure to violence. We find no evidence consistent with design-based theories of institutional quality, or the idea that institutional quality is enhanced by interventions of (non)state external actors. Instead our findings provide some support for the theory of parochial altruism. Our results emphasize the importance for policymakers to consider autonomous responses to conflict when designing development programs. They further imply some caution for actors seeking to reform local institutions through top-down interventions.
Understanding bioenergy conflicts: Case of a jatropha project inKenya’s Tana Delta
Arevalo, J. ; Ochieng, R.M. ; Mola-Yudego, B. ; Gritten, D. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 138 - 148.
ethical analysis - land - plantations
In recent years, conflicts related to tenure, management and utilization of natural resources, in particularbioenergy conflicts, are becoming increasingly common. Many bioenergy conflicts are related to plan-tation projects seeking to capitalize on the opportunity to profit from a combination of factors, centredon the enabling environment for biofuel plantation establishment found in many developing countries.This study analyses these and other related issues in a conflict in the Tana Delta in Kenya. The conflictis centred on a proposed 65,000 ha Jatropha curcas plantation for biodiesel by the Canadian companyBedford. Ethical Analysis, a conflict management and research tool, was employed to better understandthe underlying conflict causes. Shortcomings in the technical feasibility studies and participatory plan-ning processes were revealed, including a poor understanding of the different interests and values withregard to land tenure and traditional rights. While the adoption of Free, Prior and Informed Consent(FPIC) is proposed, also capacities and the regulatory framework need to be strengthened to improvetransparency, coordination, impact assessment and investment security. The study proposes ways tomanage the ongoing conflict and discusses its implications for bioenergy governance.
Benchmarking the economic, environmental and societal performance of Dutch dairy farms aiming at internal recycling of nutrients
Dolman, M.A. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Mollenhorst, H. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2014
Journal of Cleaner Production 73 (2014). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 245 - 252.
life-cycle assessment - data envelopment analysis - sustainability - agriculture - netherlands - indicators - nitrogen - systems - land
Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing their environmental impact by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) at farm level. Practices to improve nutrient cycling at these INC farms, however, might not only reduce the environmental impact on-farm, but alter also the off-farm environmental impact associated with supply chain processes (production and transport) related to inputs entering the farm, such as purchased feed or fertilizer or the economic or societal performance of these farms. We compared, therefore, a set of sustainability indicators of nine INC farms with a group of benchmark farms, comparable in terms of farm size, intensity and site-specific circumstances. This benchmark group was composed using statistical matching to exclude the effect of these characteristics on economic, environmental and societal performance. Economic indicators used were: farm income per unpaid annual working unit and the costs to revenues ratio. Environmental indicators used were derived from a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment: land occupation (LO), non-renewable energy use (NREU), global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP), expressed per kg fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM). In addition, we quantified the soil content of organic carbon and phosphorus, and the soil nitrogen supply. Societal indicators used were: payments for agri-environmental measures, grazing hours and penalties for aberrant milk composition. Results showed that INC farms had a lower non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM, higher soil organic carbon content and received higher annual payments for agri-environmental measures, whereas economic and other environmental, societal indicators did not differed. Furthermore, we demonstrated the need for a sound benchmark to assess the effect of INC-farming on the economic, environmental and societal performance. Statistical matching enabled us to define, for each INC farm, a benchmark group with similar farm characteristics, which are known to affect sustainability indicators. Observed differences in sustainability indicators between both farm groups, therefore, truly resulted from aiming at internal nutrient cycling, and not from differences in other farm characteristics.
High Nature Value farmland identification from satellite imagery, a comparison of two methodological approaches
Hazeu, G.W. ; Milenov, P. ; Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Samoungi, V. ; Eupen, M. van; Vassilev, V. - \ 2014
International Journal of applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 30 (2014). - ISSN 0303-2434 - p. 98 - 112.
land
While the identification of High Nature Value (HNV) farmland is possible using the different types of spatial information categories available at European scale, most data used is still too coarse and therefore only provides an approximate estimate of the presence of HNV farmland. This paper describes two promising methods using remote sensing – one for HNV farmland identification and one for change detection within HNV farmland. The performance of the two methods is demonstrated by detailed results for two case studies – the Netherlands for the HNV farmland identification, and Bulgaria for change detection within HNV farmland. An estimation of the presence of HNV farmland or of HNV farmland change can well be based on high-resolution satellite imagery, but the classification method must be adapted to regional characteristics such as field size and type of landscape. The temporal variability and bio-climatological characteristics across Europe do not allow for a simple European classification of HNV farmland. Also comparison between years is complicated because of the large impact of seasonal variation in the land cover expression and the complexity of the HNV farmland definitions. Although HNV farmland detection methods are promising, remote sensing alone does not yet provide the appropriate tools for adequate monitoring.
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