Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Planned development interventions and contested development in the Casamance Region, Senegal: an enquiry into the ongoing struggles for autonomy and progres by the Casamance peasantry
    Ndiame, Fadel - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.D. van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): P.G.M. Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436779 - 180
    peasant farming - peasantry - farming - farmers - agricultural development - development projects - development studies - history - social change - senegal - west africa - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven - boeren - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsstudies - geschiedenis - sociale verandering - senegal - west-afrika

    This thesis analyses the relationships between i) planned development interventions which took place in the Casamance over the last 100 years; ii) the advent and co-existence of different forms of endogenous responses to state interventions, and iii) the conflictive outcomes which emanated from the interplay of i) and ii). The ultimate goal is to provide a critical and situated understanding of the ‘Casamance crises’.

    The thesis is anchored on and actor oriented conceptual framework. This approach positions the agency of different categories of actors and their ability to engage, accommodate, resist and co-determine the outcome of the development processes. The processes observed in the Casamance are interpreted as ‘a structural feature of agrarian development’, as “arenas where different actors interact, compete and cooperate, based on their own objectives’ (Long, 2001). In light of this framework, the peasantry is seen to be able to strive for autonomy by relying on own resources to survive in an increasingly globalising economy. However, their potentials can be blocked by unfavourable socio- economic conditions, such as those that deprive them the fruits of their labour, thus leading to an agrarian crisis as defined by Van der Ploeg (2008). From this angle, the thesis explores the extent to which the long-term configurations of relationships between external interventions and local responses have accelerated the disarticulation of the traditional production systems, and contributed to compromising the livelihood position and the emancipation trajectories of youth and women within the traditional domestic units in the Casamance.

    The methodology adopted described in chapter 2, thus focussed on unpacking interplay and mutual determination between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ factors and relationships. This entailed a historical contextualization of processes of planned state interventions and distancing from development activities in the Casamance over a long period of time. This is followed by a detailed analysis of the various consequent responses shown by different segments of the Casamance society at different historical junctures, in pursuit of a differentiated set of emancipatory trajectories. Data collection involved multiple times and locations, combining field observations, data collected through interviews and surveys and consulting research reports.

    Chapter 3 reviews the key physical, socioeconomic and political features of the Casamance region, from the colonial era until the present day’s developments which culminated in the protracted conflict opposing the Government of Senegal and the Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de la Casamance (MFDC). The land reform programmes initiated during the colonial era brought a number of provisions which made it easier for the Colonial government to control local people’s holdings. When Senegal became independent in 1960, the colonial concept of land tenure also played an important role in the “Loi sur le Domaine National”, considered as a means of achieving both economic and social objectives. In addition, the country maintained a policy of specialisation on groundnut and the development of an import- substitution industry funded by foreign donors. During the 1980-2000s, changes in government policy and the drought contributed to significant changes in the production systems. These changes triggered multifaceted responses: collaboration, resistance, rejection as well as conflict- the most dramatic of which was the launch of an armed campaign for the independence of the Casamance region during the 1980s.

    Chapter 4 analyses the state-administered agricultural programmes and the consequent local people’s responses which took place in the Casamance between the 1960s and the 1980s. These typically revolved around land and agrarian reform programmes supplying agricultural equipment and technology, rural development projects and farming systems research. They enabled significant sections of rural people to access animal traction equipment and complementary inputs through agricultural credit. Later during the 1980s, the state withdrew form direct involvement in production and marketing activities as part of the structural adjustment programme. This chapter also showed that State hegemony and locally driven development dynamics are related both historically and conceptually: During the first phase of State hegemony, a number of rural institutions were controlled and managed by the State. During the 1970s and 1980s when the state withdrew, an autonomous farmer movement (FONGS) emerged outside the official state extension and structuring system- defining a new farmer-centered political and economic agenda.

    Chapter 5 provides an in-depth analysis of the two types of responses that the Casamance peasantry brought to planned development interventions. First, the incentives provided through State policies for groundnuts production analysed in chapter 4 led to a widespread adoption of labour-saving and scale-enlarging technologies, which facilitated a significant increase in the male-dominated production of cash crops- groundnuts especially- as a source for rural livelihoods in the region. This however happened at the expense of food crops whose production was dominated by women and youth. It also accelerated the gradual disconnections between crop production, livestock management at the household and village levels. Moreover, subsequent changes in State policies, which was no longer providing favourable conditions for entrepreneurial farming, combined with the negative consequences of a long drought, led to devastating impacts on local production systems. This situation triggered a significant out-migration of the Casamance youth to the country’s capital city and other metropolitan areas, in search of alternative employment and livelihood opportunities.

    With the evolution of time, the Casamance farmers developed a second set of responses. As discussed in chapters 5 and 6, the rural youth and women explored new livelihood and emancipation opportunities- such as producing rice for family consumption and diversifying production activities to include seasonal cultivation of fruits and vegetables for sale. Many young people also embarked on seasonal out-migration to enable them to accumulate the resources necessary to start their own households.

    Chapters 6 further analyzes the development and growth of FOs, and how they managed to use funding from donors to develop new technical and organisational capabilities to support the activities of the Casamance family farms. They succeeded in fulfilling the technical and advisory roles previously provided by state institutions, and facilitated rural people’s access to agricultural finance. They were also able to integrate and play a bigger role in the activities of their local government-with a more emboldened voice and power to influence change. The Chapter also shows the development of other forms of private rural business development actors from the Casamance and other regions of Senegal- mainly premised on the participation of smallholder farmers in the agricultural value chain.

    Chapter 7 analyses the Casamance crisis as a major conflict of articulation between a region and the rest of country; epitomising a violent contestation of a dominant state- driven modernisation scenario which does not conform to the emancipation trajectories of the educated youth, aspiring to the benefits of sovereignty. In this respect the conflict conforms to the definitions of a governance and agrarian crisis as articulated in this thesis. However while significant, the actions of the MFDC do not represent the sole and unique responses of the Casamance rural youth to the prevailing crisis. The agrarian interpretation of the conflict adopted in this thesis enable us to illustrate other types of development dynamics associated with the interplay between planned interventions and local people responses. Building on the lessons learned in conducting this study, it appears that finding practical answers to the question of local people’s access to decent resources and living conditions could be a prerequisite to overcoming the current political and agrarian crisis prevailing in the Casamance.

    The concluding chapter 8 explores the links between ‘peace’, ‘autonomy’ and ‘development’ in the Casamance. I examine the extent to which more autonomy, associated with peasant-centred development, can lead to ‘peace’ and development in the southern region of Senegal. It links the successful resolution of the Casamance crisis to the advent of a governance revolution, which permits a re-alignment of the resources, activities and personal agendas of the different family members around a shared goal for transformation and progress. Building on the lessons learned as part of this study, the approaches considered here are based on new principles of the valorisation of local resources, as well as the redefinition of the format and content of relationships with other development actors. This approach requires the revision of the relationships between local actors and the wider set of actors; it also implies a reconciliation of diverse strategies deployed by the different protagonists over different geographic boundaries.

    These principles inform the final recommendations of this study which aim at creating the necessary conditions for the advent of lasting peace linked to the capacity of the local people to rebuild a more viable livelihood for the inhabitants of the Casamance region.

    Advancement of farming by facilitating collaboration : reference architectures and models for farm software ecosystems
    Kruize, Jan Willem - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adrie Beulens, co-promotor(en): Huub Scholten; Jacques Wolfert. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579668 - 242
    farming - information technology - computer software - farms - models - farm management - information systems - landbouw bedrijven - informatietechnologie - computer software - landbouwbedrijven - modellen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - informatiesystemen

    Since time began, mankind has been threatened by the combination of growing populations and diminishing resources. Present-day, this threat is very pertinent as mankind is challenged by a growing world population that is expected to exceed 10 billion in 2050, while resources diminish. Simultaneously, increase of food production should be accomplished in a sustainable manner as consumers require food to be produced environmentally-friendly. Moreover, consumers require safe food produced in transparent agri-food supply chain networks. Farm enterprises can contribute by advancing their management to increase food production in a sustainable, safe and transparent manner. A well-known advanced farm management style, which is knowledge and information intensive, is precision agriculture. Precision agriculture increases the profitability of crop production, while simultaneously reducing the negative environmental impact by tight monitoring and control, in which applications rates of agricultural inputs are adjusted to local needs. Such advanced farm management requires integrated farm information systems as it is knowledge and information intensive. However, advancement is hindered because of interoperability issues between software systems of multiple vendors. An integrated farm information system, containing components of multiple vendors, is required as single organisations cannot develop all technical solutions and ICT Components (e.g. tractors, implements, FMIS, decision support tools) that farmers require. A global overarching system, developed by a single vendor, that can support all business functions of farmers is therefore neither a feasible nor, from a competitive point of view, a desirable solution in agriculture. To realize farm enterprise integration we combine the approaches ICT Mass Customisation with Best-of-Breed. ICT mass customisation combines advantages of standard and customised software by enabling on-demand configuration of information systems from standard components with standardised interfaces. These ICT components can be supplied by different software vendors, which allow Best-of-Breed solutions. By realization of these approaches farm enterprise integration can improve. A farm enterprise can be an arable farm, livestock farm or horticultural farm. In this thesis we focus on arable farm enterprises.

    To enable farm enterprise integration we have developed six artefacts that are presented in this thesis which are:

    The Reference Architecture of Agricultural Enterprises (RAAgE) 1.0 that can describe farm enterprise architectures in a uniform and efficient manner;

    A problem description, which is a case specific instantiation of RAAgE 1.0 generalized to a generic problem description;

    An ontology that supports communication between collaborating actors and components;

    Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems that defines generic relationships between actors and components;

    RAAgE 2.0 that is a technical reference model to support configuration of business processes and ICT components, which is based on RAAgE 1.0;

    Prototype software that serves as a proof of concept substantiating that all previous components will provide a solution for integration problems at farm enterprises.

    RAAgE 1.0 supports designing enterprise architectures in a uniform and efficient manner. The reference model is described in a standard modelling language, named ArchiMate, and shows the interrelations between the business, application and technology layers of farm enterprises. The reference model includes an ontology to provide a concise and precise, formal specification of the object system. This is required to have a shared understanding and effective communication between researchers, farmers, software developers and other stakeholders involved. This ontology is used and extended in other parts of our research. The architectural descriptions can depict the relations between farm business processes and the ICT Components used. The model is validated by two experts that have experience in developing reference architectures and models.

    A detailed problem description is created using RAAgE 1.0 to gain insight in the cause and nature of integration problems at farm enterprises. To find these problems a method was developed and applied in a case study research including three arable farm enterprises producing potatoes. These farm enterprises focused on improving their management and invested in new technologies for innovation. Within multiple steps of the method the architectural descriptions developed with RAAgE 1.0 facilitated communication and provided insight into problems of farm enterprises to achieve more advanced farm management. The case specific problems, described by instantiating RAAgE 1.0, have been analysed and formulated as more generic problems for farm enterprise integration. These generic problem descriptions have been validated with national and international experts. Based on this research we found that the cause and nature of current integration problems in farming are that ICT components used within the same farm enterprise:

    have partly overlapping and partly unique application services, functions and interfaces (that are non-standard);

    are missing required application services, functions and interfaces,

    have disjoint data repositories;

    have inadequate and incomplete data exchange as semantics are not unambiguously defined;

    are hard to configure while this configuration is not supported by an actors and tools.

    A design, addressing these problems is expected to solve current integration bottlenecks. First, this design must enable smooth data handling and seamless data exchange between ICT Components to solve inadequate and incomplete data exchange and enable integration of data repositories of multiple vendors. Second, it must include a configuration approach to link ICT Components to each other in a meaningful and coherent way. This should be supported by actors that are willing to configure ICT Component of multiple vendors into an integrated solution. Third, the design must enable the formation of a software enterprise to address the previous points and to organize collaboration between actors involved. This software enterprise should focus both on improving interoperability to contribute in solving problems with partly overlapping and partly unique application services, functions and interfaces as well as on organizing the development of missing application services, functions and interfaces.

    To address these integration challenges a Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems and RAAgE 2.0 were developed, focusing on both technical and organizational aspects.

    From literature we found that collaboration can take place within Software Ecosystems. Software Ecosystems are defined as the interaction of a set of actors on top of a common technological platform that results in a coherent set of ICT components or Services. They can provide an effective way to construct large software systems on top of a software platform by combining components, developed by actors that are part of different organisations. To support instantiation of Software Ecosystems for farming, a Reference Architecture was developed. This Reference Architecture describes how software developers, farmers and other stakeholders can collaborate to enable development, configuration and instantiation of integrated software solutions. More specifically, it can be used to map, assess, design and implement Farm Software Ecosystems to help to decrease current integration problems. The reference architecture comprises five main components:

    Actors, which are basically app developers, business architects/software developers and end-users, i.e. farmers that finally use the configured ICT components and services;

    Platform that enables configuration of Atomic Application Components into integrated information systems for farmers;

    Open software enterprise that manages the relation between the actors and the platform;

    Business services that support software configuration, development and hosting;

    ICT Components that are configured application components from multiple vendors allowing seamless data exchange based on standards

    After the design the reference architecture was first verified based on the requirements. Second, semi-structured interviews were held with experts to validate the model. Moreover, the assessment and mapping functionally was validated by using the reference architecture in a case study, in which two existing farm software ecosystems were assessed and mapped.

    The Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems mainly addresses the organizational part of this research question. The technical part on the configuration of different ICT components into integrated solutions was not yet sufficiently covered in the Reference Architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems. Therefore we designed RAAgE 2.0 to improve the integrating capabilities of ICT Components, focussing on configuration and ICT Mass Customisation. In this research RAAgE 1.0 was extended into RAAgE 2.0 supporting technical aspects related to configuration of ICT Components by providing a hierarchical configuration methodology. This methodology divides configuration in two steps (i) business process configuration and (ii) software configuration. To enable business process configuration the model comprises three reference models, i.e. on products, processes and resources. The dependencies between these models are defined in rules that define possible combinations of products, processes and resources and that constrain the configuration of farm-specific models i.e. instances. The reference model also includes a configuration tree and templates. Templates describe a set of pre-configured product, process and resource models for typical cases. Variety in farm business processes can be modelled with business process variants. Such a variant realizes a similar kind of business services (e.g. basic fertilization, precision fertilization). Each variant has partly overlapping business processes and resources and unique ones. RAAgE 2.0 provides insight into these specific and generic parts. The other part of the methodology, software configuration, is divided in two additional sub-steps. The first sub-step is to create configuration templates that describe the required (generic) application services (capability types) to support specific business process variants. These configuration templates describe the interactions between the capability types. This sub step is typically performed by a business architect in close collaboration with software developers. The second sub-step is the selection and configuration of the specific capability of a capability type. Capabilities can be offered by atomic application components of multiple vendors that need to be selected. This second sub-step is performed by a business architect, in close collaboration with a farmer. With this extension RAAgE 2.0 supports (i) development of ICT components that fit within an ICT Mass Customisation and Best-of-Breed approach, (ii) selection of ICT components based on business processes that they should support and (iii) getting insight into configuration of different ICT components into an integrated farm information system.

    To substantiate that our artefacts contribute to realizing ICT Mass Customisation in combination with Best-of-Breed in arable agriculture a proof of concept was developed. A proof of concept is defined as a phase in development, in which experimental hardware or software is constructed and tested to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept. Realizing ICT Mass Customisation requires: (i) software modularity, (ii) an information integration platform, (iii) component availability, (iv) configuration support and (v) reference information models. To fulfil these requirements a design was developed and instantiated for a specific use case on late blight protection in potato growing for a specific farmer in The Netherlands. For that purpose we:

    configured the business processes that are involved in late blight protection using RAAgE 2.0 to identify which advanced ICT components are needed to support this process for this farmer;

    developed the required advanced ICT components that were identified in the previous step using the FIspace platform. These components were provided by different app developers from 5 different European countries;

    configured a composite application component within the FIspace platform using the configuration framework of RAAgE 2.0. This included involvement of 5 different European organizations;

    instantiated and executed the application component within the FIspace platform for this specific farmer.

    This resulted in prototype software that showed how we can configure business processes and multi-vendor atomic application components into a composite component to support late blight protection in potatoes for a specific farmer. It was made plausible that this approach is also applicable to other cases to create software able to support other business processes in agriculture.

    Within this research we developed artefacts and substantiated that they facilitate collaboration between the actors involved and can help to develop ICT Components that improve farm enterprise integration. Still, to make ICT Mass Customisation and Best-of-Breed a more common practice, future research is required. In this research we recommend to focus on:

    Development of business models to gain insight into the motives of software developers to become part of Farm Software Ecosystems. Insight into these motives can enhance the adoption of Software Ecosystems for agriculture, which makes the concept of ICT Mass Customisation more feasible.

    Improving configuration of atomic application components and supporting tools as this is currently still cumbersome. We recommend focussing on one specific case to dig into all details of the case. Such a detailed description will be re-usable for many other farm business processes such as fertilization, other types of crop protection, seeding and harvesting.

    Although, there are still hurdles to take we recommend continuing this research line as it can result in improved farm enterprise integration and adoption of advanced farm management styles by famers. This can enable farm enterprises to increase food production, while producing in a sustainable, safe and transparent manner.

    Agricultural intensification in Nepal, with particular reference to systems of rice intensification
    Uprety, Rajendra - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper, co-promotor(en): Harro Maat. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579651 - 190
    rice - oryza sativa - nepal - asia - south asia - intensification - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - farming systems - farming - crop management - fertilizers - nutrients - irrigation - varieties - rijst - oryza sativa - nepal - azië - zuid-azië - intensivering - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - bedrijfssystemen - landbouw bedrijven - gewasteelt - kunstmeststoffen - voedingsstoffen - irrigatie - rassen (planten)

    This thesis deals with agricultural intensification in Nepal. The initial focus of the study was the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), as introduced in Nepal from 2001. The multiple factors affecting SRI adoption, modification and dissemination together with the option to apply SRI in different combinations of its components result in a variety of SRI applications. For the same reason the effect of SRI on overall agricultural and livelihood development of Nepalese farmers has to be evaluated within the variety of farming systems in which it is applied.

    Despite government policies to promote rice cultivation, national rice production is declining. Farmer livelihood strategies, as reflected in rice farming systems, and field management strategies were influenced by several agro-ecological and socio-economic factors. Livelihood and field management strategies of rice farmers are interconnected. In the study presented here four livelihood strategies and three kinds of field management strategies are distinguished. Two livelihood strategies can be characterized as more intensive and more productive; the other two are less intensive and less productive. Livelihood strategies are more family resource-based strategies, while farmers’ field management strategies are more context-dependent. Field management strategies were characterized by forms of nutrient management. Intensive management strategies had most similarities with SRI. But rice intensification is not achievable as a general strategy.

    Government policies (fertiliser subsidies) encourage increased fertiliser use. Study results didn't show any significant effect of volume of fertilisers on rice yield but the combined use of organic manure and mineral fertilisers resulted in the highest average rice yields. Irrigation management is another important factor for rice production. Field management is influenced by the reliability of water which was better in farmers' managed irrigation system. Choice of rice varieties influenced the overall rice farming system and cropping intensity and preference of varieties for rice cultivation by scientists and by farmers were different in eastern Nepal. Most popular varieties were those not recommended by science and policy and were disseminated farmer to farmer.

    The introduction of SRI in Morang district resulted in several changes in rice farming, but only part of the farmers have adopted such technologies, and adoption has been only in part of their fields. Other farmers have incorporated some SRI practices in their conventional practices. After the introduction of SRI, farmers further tested, re-packaged or hybridized SRI methods to make SRI ideas suitable for their agro-ecological and socio-economic environments. In order to reform Nepalese rice farming, we need to recognize that different farmers, with different livelihood strategies, and with access to different kinds of fields, need different forms for agricultural intensification. High-intensive farmers prefer to use modified SRI methods where there is good irrigation and drainage facilities. There are many possibilities for improvement of the existing nutrient management practices of rice farmers in Nepal. Nutrient management will be useful to increase rice production because the majority of farmers currently use fertilisers non-judiciously. The SRI-recommended practices (younger seedlings, early weeding, use of organic manure, and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation) will be useful to improve the nutrient use efficiency of rice farmers. Cost-reduction strategies and less labour-intensive cultivation practices will be appropriate options to improve existing rice farming system of Nepal. Participatory cultivar selection and dissemination will be better strategies to introduce new, promising rice cultivars among rice farmers.

    Big data analysis for smart farming : Results of TO2 project in theme food security
    Kempenaar, C. ; Lokhorst, C. ; Bleumer, E.J.B. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Been, Th. ; Evert, F.K. van; Boogaardt, M.J. ; Ge, L. ; Wolfert, J. ; Verdouw, C.N. ; Bekkum, Michael van; Feldbrugge, L. ; Verhoosel, Jack P.C. ; Waaij, B.D. ; Persie, M. van; Noorbergen, H. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Plant Research report ) - 82
    animal production - milk production - farming - data analysis - data collection - information technology - models - dierlijke productie - melkproductie - landbouw bedrijven - gegevensanalyse - gegevens verzamelen - informatietechnologie - modellen
    In this report we describe results of a one-year TO2 institutes project on the development of big data technologies within the milk production chain. The goal of this project is to ‘create’ an integration platform for big data analysis for smart farming and to develop a show case. This includes both technical (hard/software) and organizational integration (developing business ecosystem) and combining and linking of data and models. DLO, NLR and TNO worked together in 2015 towards the realization of an IT data infrastructure that makes it possible to solve to connect data from different sources and models in an effective and safe way, ontology problems, specific analysis tools develop, opportunities and risks to identify and assess the acquired knowledge and experience and present it in a smart farming show case, from 'grass to glass‘.
    Economische betekenis van de grondgebonden landbouw in Zuid-Holland in 2016
    Vogelzang, T.A. ; Smit, A.B. ; Smit, J. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Vader, J. ; Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-066) - ISBN 9789462578449 - 27
    landbouw - landgebruik - tuinbouw - landbouw bedrijven - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwregio's - nederland - zuid-holland - agriculture - land use - horticulture - farming - agricultural development - agricultural regions - netherlands - zuid-holland
    The socio-economic future of agriculture in the Dutch province of Zuid-Holland is partly linked to the perspectives of the agrocluster, the combination of agricultural and horticultural firms, fishery, food and luxury industry and the firms that supply these sectors. The importance of this cluster for Zuid- Holland is described, with a focus on the primary sectors, and especially on the agricultural firms. The current situation of these firms is presented, including the developments in the recent decade and the perspectives for the next decade. Attention is also paid to the (economic) perspectives of short supply chains and innovation for agriculture in Zuid-Holland.
    Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
    Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233
    sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - kenya - oost-afrika

    Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

    The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

    This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

    This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

    One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

    The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

    As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

    Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

    The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

    Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

    One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

    There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

    Kennisoverdracht stalboekjes
    Groot, M.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2016.002) - 17
    kennisoverdracht - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - knowledge transfer - farmers - farming
    Dit rapport gaat in op de mogelijkheden voor kennisverspreiding van informatie die in de stalboekjes is weergegeven. De eerste stalboekjes waren bedoeld voor de biologische sector en werden als pdf via internet verspreid. Ondanks de vrije beschikbaarheid leek de kennis niet goed beschikbaar was voor de veehouders. Oorzaken hiervoor waren de 1) grote bestanden, mensen printen grote bestanden niet graag uit, 2) veehouders gaan liever niet experimenteren zonder steun van hun dierenarts, en 3) de dierenartsen hebben weinig kennis van natuurproducten.
    Network formation, learning and innovation in multi-stakeholder research projects : experiences with Adaptive Research and Learning Alliances in rice farming communities in Southeast Asia
    Flor, R.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): H. Maat; Grant Singleton. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576650 - 230
    learning activities - adult learning - learning - social networks - education - agricultural education - rice - farming - agricultural extension - south east asia - cambodia - leeractiviteiten - volwassenenstudie - leren - sociale netwerken - onderwijs - agrarisch onderwijs - rijst - landbouw bedrijven - landbouwvoorlichting - zuidoost-azië - cambodja

    Mounting pressure on research organizations to achieve sustainable development outcomes from research has pushed them to use multi-stakeholder approaches. Insights are missing however, on how these influence social, technical, and institutional change, as well as what outcomes emerge from these. The thesis is an examination of the enactment of multi-stakeholder approaches, questioning how and to what extent Adaptive Research (AR) and Learning Alliance (LA) approaches influence socio-technical innovation in rice farming communities. Four case studies of research and development projects that employed the approaches in rice farming communities were elaborated in this thesis.

    AR implementation in Indonesia (chapter 2), showed how AR fast-tracked technical adaptations and built upon the improvisational capacities of farmers. AR monitoring however, rendered invisible the adaptations required on the social aspect. Simultaneous social, technical, and institutional redesign was limited.

    A case of LA implemented at national level engaged a network that changed and expanded after three years to include diverse actors (chapter 3). There were points where implementation (mis)aligned with assumptions from project implementers and from conceptual literature of the LA approach. The network influenced change at community level by engaging small groups that made reconfigurations on the technologies and the social arrangements for these (chapter 4). A community-level LA in Myanmar was also found to stimulate a self-organized learning process towards innovation for flatbed dryer technology (chapter 5).

    A case where a project used AR only versus AR with LA in Myanmar (chapter 6), revealed differing networks, learning processes, and outcomes in terms of learning agenda. The involvement of a wider network resulted in a broader set of activities, which were initiatives outside the original plans of the project. The learning activities were not only about technologies but also included experimentations on supportive environment for access and use of the technologies.

    This thesis therefore demonstrates that project actors implement AR and LA approaches through a range of translations in multiple contexts. These imply varied interactions in different types of networks. Such interactions triggered varied learning processes and thus influenced different planned or emergent outcomes. Both approaches have potential to catalyze innovation in farming communities; however, outcomes on adoption numbers provide a caveat that these approaches are not silver bullets that guarantee technology adoption. Instead, implementation that facilitates effective learning processes, and monitoring that flags where projects could support emergent outcomes, can help implementers improve their contributions to development in farming communities.

    Kansen en belemmeringen voor omschakeling naar de biologische sector
    Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-148)
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouw bedrijven - biologische landbouw - landbouwsector - besluitvorming - investeringsbeslissingen - boeren - nederland - farm management - farming - organic farming - agricultural sector - decision making - investment decisions - farmers - netherlands
    De vraag naar biologische producten groeit harder dan het aanbod van de Nederlandse biologische sector. De vraag die het ministerie van Economische Zaken stelt is welke factoren de omschakeling van de gangbare naar de biologische sector belemmeren en hoe deze omschakeling gestimuleerd kan worden. Daartoe heeft ze het LEI Wageningen UR gevraagd om interviews met marktpartijen te houden en een enquête uit te zetten om de overwegingen bij biologische boeren te peilen. Belangrijke uitkomst is dat de sector vooral zelf de regie wil houden op het omschakelproces en voor de overheid een faciliterende rol ziet.
    NSO-typering 2015; Typering van agrarische bedrijven in Nederland
    Everdingen, W.H. van - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-084) - 36
    landbouw bedrijven - bedrijven - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - bedrijfsvoering - opbrengsten - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - bedrijfsgegevens - standaardisering - classificatie - agrarische economie - farming - businesses - farm comparisons - management - yields - farm income - farm size - farm accountancy data - standardization - classification - agricultural economics
    In 2014 is voor de Nederlandse variant een nieuw kengetal geïntroduceerd: de Standaard Verdiencapaciteit (SVC) van bedrijven. Dat kengetal is ontwikkeld vanwege verschillen in marge tussen de sectoren. Met de SVC is de bedrijfsgrootte van bedrijven over bedrijfstypen heen meer gerelateerd aan arbeidsinzet en resultaat dan bij de Standaardopbrengst (SO) het geval is. De classificatie is gekoppeld aan de Landbouwtelling. De normen worden berekend voor de categorieën dieren en gewassen die in de Landbouwtelling worden uitgevraagd. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verschaffen in de achtergronden, rekenschema’s, indelingen en normen die bij de typering in gebruik zijn rond de Landbouwtelling van 2015. Achtereenvolgens komen in de volgende paragrafen de Standaardopbrengst (1), de NSO-typering (2), de Standaard Verdiencapaciteit (3) en het gebruik van de gegevens (4) aan bod.
    Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) Year Report 2014
    Nijhoff, G.H. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2015
    Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 48
    agribusiness - agricultural development - agriculture - policy - agricultural policy - farms - farming - east africa - africa - landbouwindustrie - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - beleid - landbouwbeleid - landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven - oost-afrika - afrika
    The Africa Agribusiness Academy (AAA) supports African SME agrifood companies in growing their business. An AAA member companies can enhance knowledge, skills and expertise, and get support in accessing finance and markets. By the end of 2014, AAA had 200 members in five countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda. These members are in the business of sourcing from or supplying to farmers. AAA’s goal is that by stimulating business growth of the SMEs it indirectly supports business growth of the farmers that are linked to these companies.
    Investigating the suitability of constructed wetlands for the treatment of water for fish farms
    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Dien, F. van; El-Beshbishi, D.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-079) - 27
    wetlands - artificial wetlands - fish farms - heavy metals - farming - pesticides - waste water - tilapia - development projects - egypt - north africa - africa - wetlands - helofytenfilters - viskwekerijen - zware metalen - landbouw bedrijven - pesticiden - afvalwater - tilapia - ontwikkelingsprojecten - egypte - noord-afrika - afrika
    Many fish farms in Egypt rely on water of drainage canals to fill the fish ponds. There is a risk that this water is contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals. This report describes the results of a collaborative project that took place in 2012-2014 and that aimed to test the suitability of a constructed (engineered) wetland as treatment device for the removal of such pollutants from drainage canal water on a private fish farm in Egypt
    Family farming futures : agrarian pathways to multifunctionality: flows of resistance, redesign and resilience
    Oostindië, H.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572294 - 204
    familiebedrijven, landbouw - multifunctionele landbouw - landbouw bedrijven - rurale sociologie - landbouwontwikkeling - natuurbeleid - nederland - europa - family farms - multifunctional agriculture - farming - rural sociology - agricultural development - nature conservation policy - netherlands - europe

    Summary

    During my more than two decades of research experiences as a rural sociologist, the multifunctionality of agricultural activity was a subject of major interest, although under different denominators. In this thesis I theorize and present agriculture’s multifunctionality as characterized, shaped and propelled by flows of resistance, redesign, and resilience.

    This central thesis starts with an introduction to the key notions resistance, redesign and resilience. I associate the meaning and significance of resistance, especially, with a long standing tradition of farmers’ resistance to the negative externalities that accompany modernisation, commoditisation and globalisation processes and broader socio-cultural resistance against loss of rurality. Together these underpin how resistance continues to be a crucial component in agricultural and rural development through 1) its more or less overt and covert expressions; 2) its material as well as symbolic representations; and 3) its conservative as well as transformative power.

    This relevance of resistance appears more specifically in Chapters 2 to 6. The emergence, definition and interpretations of the multifunctionality concept in the Dutch agri-expert system shows how societal resistance against the negative externalities of the agricultural modernisation model went along with a renewed attention for agriculture’s multifunctionality, although more or less broadly defined and more or less widely accepted.

    The role of resistance shows up next as part of the wider driving forces that underlie the multifunctionality of farming practices. In addition to the persistence of farm-development trajectories based on pluriactivity and diversification, this will be particularly associated among Dutch professional farm-enterprises engaged in new rural development activities with the desire to ‘farm differently’ i.e., different from the logics of the agricultural modernisation model in the sense of enabling more direct contact with consumers, citizens, other rural dwellers, etc. The distinction and characterization of different farm-development trajectories in the overall analysis further confirms that multifunctional pathways remain closely interwoven with different expressions of resistance within family-based farming.

    In the analysis of European agri-environmental governance resistance will be specifically related to dissatisfaction and discontent that addresses hierarchical relations and its consequences in terms of prevailing institutional ‘voids’ in multi-level governance settings. The latter notion refers to the absence of transparency and agreement on institutional conditions and rules in multi-level governance settings. As such the analysis concentrates especially on resistance that emerges at the interfaces between different policy levels and between policy and practice.

    The relevance of resistance appears in the analysis of ‘nested’ rural markets in Europe as opposition against hegemonic food market relations. It addresses different types of the negative consequences of dominant food market relations such as the loss of distinctiveness at farm and territorial level, of trust in food, of influence within globalizing chains, of income opportunities for farmers, of food justice, etc.

    Chapter 6 stresses that resistance manifests itself spatially in specific ways by introducing the rural web as an instrument to analyse rural differentiation processes. As a multi-dimensional analytical tool it addresses resistance especially through the distinction of the domains endogeneity, social capital and sustainability. Overall, the rural framework enables us as such to focus on the spatial interlinkages and interaction patterns between different manifestations of farmer-led and broader social-cultural resistance against marginalisation tendencies and loss of rural distinctiveness.

    Next to resistance, redesign is thought to be a second key notion that characterizes and propels multifunctional agricultural pathways. Theoretically it makes it possible to underline that these are also closely interwoven with transition processes around a fundamental re-positioning of the role of agriculture in rural development processes and, as such, are part of new ways of social ordering. The further conceptualization of redesign as combined processes of dis-embedding and re-embedding stresses the multi-facetted nature and complexity of involved redesign processes.

    Again, the significance and meaning of redesign will appear in different ways in Chapters 2 to 6, in the first place as an issue that divides the Dutch agri-expert system. The analysis around the national emergence of the multifunctionality concept reveals how, particularly, the rural development model associates agriculture’s multifunctionality with a fundamental re-positioning of agriculture’s role in rural development and, thus, manifold redesign challenges. In other, narrower definitions of multifunctionality redesign is limited much more to debates about the pros and cons of interventions in market relations and land property rights. Overall, contrasting ideas within the Dutch agri-expert system about the necessity of and opportunity for redesign reflect a transition context where the societal benefits of multifunctional agricultural pathways remain strongly the subject of debate.

    In this Dutch setting redesign, in line with the rural development model, manifests itself as already more promising at the micro-level. Next to more historically rooted expressions of multifunctional pathways, Dutch professional farm enterprises increasingly succeed in building new relations with consumers, in creating new interlinkages with other rural sectors, in developing new professional identities and in constructing new rural business models. Analytically, these different expressions of farm-level redesign reflect a strong capacity to re-vitalise family farming and to re-define farm boundaries. The distinction between different farm-level pathways shows how these redesign capacities are more or less prominently present and may be expressed at different paces.

    In the analysis of European agri-environmental governance, redesign emerges as a subject of growing institutional attention and openness to new, more market-led approaches, new forms of self-organisation and self-regulation, new forms of public-private cooperation and new accountability arrangements. Thus, redesign centres on a re-distribution of responsibilities between public, private and civil actors and novel responses to the rigidity and limitations of hierarchical relations, as well as the manifold institutional voids, in increasingly complex and barely transparent multi-level governance settings.

    The analysis around emerging ‘nested’ rural markets in Europe goes more into detail as to how market relations are actively redesigned. It emphasizes the significance of new roles for and relation between food producers and food consumers, building upon new normative frameworks, new boundary organisations, new food reputations, new forms of common pool resource management and new forms of co-experimentation, in short, novel rural market governance mechanisms that intend to safeguard, reproduce and strengthen the specificities of place, products and networks.

    Rural web analysis underlines that redesign will manifest itself spatially in different ways within rural place-making processes. Particularly, the web domains ‘new institutional arrangements’, ‘rural market governance’ and ‘novelty production’ refer to different manifestations of redesign and stress that their place specific interaction patterns will comprise a second crucial component for an adequate understanding of on-going rural spatial differentiation tendencies.

    Resilience, as the third overarching key notion to characterize multifunctional agrarian pathways, attracts growing attention in different theoretical strands. Sociologically, I understand resilience as the need for alignment within contemporary increasingly complex ‘improvisation societies’ in pursuit of sustainable development. Inspired by agro-ecological approaches that make a distinction between its stabilising (‘bouncing back’) and adaptive and transformative (‘bouncing forward’) capacities, I further conceptualize the resilience of agricultural pathways to multifunctionality more specifically as the outcome of flows of resistance and redesign. Briefly, resilience as the capacity to persist, to adapt and to transform representations of certain promises to align social ordering processes.

    This specific understanding and relevance of resilience is further clarified throughout Chapters 2 to 6. The Dutch emergence of the multifunctionality notion shows how the negative externalities of agricultural modernization may go along with a gradual rediscovery and rehabilitation of agriculture’s multifunctionality. The emerging rural development model, particularly, recognizes and acknowledges the persistence and adaptability of multifunctional pathways. The national co-evolution of contrasting sustainability paradigms reveals, at the same time, that this translates into a still more limited transformative capacity in terms of the normative alignment of societal ideas about the core-functions of agriculture.

    Chapter 3 underlines that this transformative capacity may express itself already much more prominently at the micro-level: next to pluri-active and hobby farms, as well known expressions of the adaptability of multifunctional agrarian pathways, the Netherlands knows also robust novel multifunctional rural business models. These novel business models are strongly grounded in the following characteristics of family-based farming: 1) strong linkages between economic and socio-cultural values as integrative powers for productive and consumptive rural functions; 2) changing gender relations that result in new forms of labour division and a re-distribution of responsibilities within farm-families; 3) new professional identities with differentiating strategic meanings for farming; and 4) a certain flexibility in the use of resources. The farm-development trajectories illustrate how this resilience of Dutch family-farms presents itself to different degrees and at different paces.

    The analysis of European agri-environmental governance underscores that resilience is closely interwoven with self-organization and self-regulation capacity. In addition to the emergence of different types of market-led approaches, this covers in the Netherlands experiments with more hybrid remuneration systems, more performance based accountability arrangements and more collective and place-based provision systems. It particularly demonstrates that the resilience of multifunctional agricultural pathways will be also reflected in their ability to mobilize experimental space and to create synchronicity and coherence in highly complex multi-level institutional settings.

    The analysis around emerging ‘nested markets’ in Europe approaches resilience as distinctive market relations. The ability of agriculture’s multifunctionality to persist, adapt and transform, coalesces here into alternative practices and normative frameworks that, in sharp contrast with hegemonic food market relations, succeed in integrating social, ethical and ecological values with market relations. This may contribute to a reduction of transaction costs for producers and to consumers getting access to high quality food markets. It actively forges synergy-effects between traditional and novel rural markets at farm and regional level and succeeds in transforming consumer behavior.

    Finally, rural web analysis further depicts resilience as interacting flows of resistance and redesign. First, its distinction between the dimensions endogeneity, sustainability, social capital, novelty production, new institutional arrangements and governance of rural markets enables the characterization of these flows in more detail. Secondly, it underpins the highly place specific interaction, coalescence and precipitation of such flows. The resilience of multifunctional agrarian pathways is incorporated here into the strong rural web configurations characteristic of rural competitiveness, quality of rural life and strong functional ties between rural and urban spaces. The differences in rural web dynamics between Laag-Holland and the Rivierengebied demonstrate how this spatial coalescence of resilience capacities may express itself rather differently in rural areas facing similar changing societal demands. These empirical findings confirm that multifunctional agricultural pathways represent specific, non-linear interrelations between the past, present and future of farming.

    Chapter 7 starts with a reflection on their future in the Netherlands and reaches the conclusion that the financial crisis and economic downturn since 2008 went along with a (temporary?) deteriorating political climate as, amongst others, reflected in the growing popularity of the notion ‘sustainable intensification’ and the specific way that this is being interpreted. The longer term prospects of agrarian pathways to multifunctionality are further briefly depicted with the help of the various outcomes of national opportunity-constraint analyses. More specifically, I dwell upon the following selection of institutional redesign challenges that are thought to have a great impact on these longer terms prospects: 1) towards alternative multifunctional symbols for the agro-industrial mega-stable; 2) towards sustainable urban food planning; 3) towards more inclusive cost-benefit analysis; 4) towards substantial CAP reforms; and 5) towards longer term support commitment.

    The last part of Chapter 7 draws attention to the unpredictability of the national future of agrarian pathways to multifunctionality. It acknowledges the limitations of sociological theory but, at the same time, the growing scholarly recognition of the performativity of the social sciences. That the social sciences do influence the way societal reality unfolds is particularly underlined by scientists that oppose social theorizing that loses itself in skepticism and negativism. Alternatively, so-called ‘weak theorizing’ is propagated with ambitions primarily oriented towards providing openings, degrees of freedom and hope. In line with these rather modest scientific intentions and pretentions, I finish by expressing the hope that this thesis may contribute to prosperous and flourishing multifunctional family-farming futures, particularly in the Netherlands, but also elsewhere.

    Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda
    Mastenbroek, A. ; Chebet, A. ; Muwanika, C.T. ; Adong, C.J. ; Okot, F. ; Otim, G. ; Birungi, J. ; Kansiime, M. ; Oyee, P. ; Ninsiima, P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 273
    seed production - seed development - seed quality - rural development - farming - markets - businesses - small businesses - regional development - training courses - training - agricultural development - uganda - west africa - africa - zaadproductie - zaadontwikkeling - zaadkwaliteit - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw bedrijven - markten - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - regionale ontwikkeling - scholingscursussen - opleiding - landbouwontwikkeling - uganda - west-afrika - afrika
    The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering selection, monitoring and sustaining local seed businesses; technically equipping local seed businesses, professionally organising LSBs; orienting LSBs to the market and strategically linking them to service providers.
    Duurzaamheidsindicatoren in het Bedrijveninformatienet
    Veen, H.B. van der; Helming, J.F.M. ; Leeuwen, T.C. van; Vrolijk, H.C.J. - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Vertrouwelijke Nota VR14-003) - 58
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - landbouw bedrijven - nederland - farm management - sustainability - sustainability indicators - farming - netherlands
    Why we need small cows : ways to design for urban agriculture
    Roggema, R.E. ; Keeffe, G. - \ 2014
    Velp : VHL University of Applied Sciences - ISBN 9789082245110 - 329 p.
    stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - stedelijke gebieden - landbouw bedrijven - landbouw - voedselproductie - innovaties - stedelijke samenleving - urban agriculture - alternative farming - urban areas - farming - agriculture - food production - innovations - urban society
    Ecologische gevolgen van bollenteelt op de Veluwe : bureaustudie naar omvang bollenteelt, bestrijdingsmiddelengebruik en mogelijke effecten op natuur
    Lahr, J. ; Smidt, R.A. ; Vink, C. ; Lange, M. de; Deneer, J.W. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 4542)
    landbouw bedrijven - bloembollen - oppervlakte (areaal) - landbouw en milieu - pesticiden - drift - emissie - natura 2000 - risicoschatting - nadelige gevolgen - veluwe - farming - ornamental bulbs - acreage - agriculture and environment - pesticides - drift - emission - natura 2000 - risk assessment - adverse effects - veluwe
    Naar aanleiding van een vraag van de Partij voor de Dieren in de Provinciale Staten van Gelderland is een korte bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar de mogelijke ecologische gevolgen van bollenteelt op de Veluwe voor Natura 2000-doelen. De vraagstelling spitste zich toe op een aantal onderdelen: omvang van de bollenteelt op de Veluwe, ontwikkelingstrend van bollenteelt op de Veluwe, verschillen in bestrijdingsmiddelengebruik tussen 'normale' akkerbouw (maïs, aardappelen, graan) en bollenteelt en mogelijke nadelige effecten op aangrenzende natuur via verwaaiing, uitspoeling of anderszins.
    Labelling the origin of food products: towards sustainable territorial development?
    Lopez Moreno, I. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): E. Aguilar Criado. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570177 - 191
    overgangseconomieën - voedselproductie - bedrijfssystemen - voedselproducten - herkomst - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - kwaliteitsetikettering - landbouw bedrijven - duurzame ontwikkeling - platteland - europa - transition economies - food production - farming systems - food products - provenance - nutrition labeling - quality labelling - farming - sustainable development - rural areas - europe
    The transition from domestic to market economy in rural areas of Europe is an ongoing process that affect and is affected by local and global dynamics. The outcome of this process is unique, but if we analyse and compare each case, it is possible to find patterns and common tendencies. This book highlights the unique and common elements of these transitions, and in order to do so, it takes as reference one case from the south of Europe, the attempt to achieve a PDO certification for local cured sheep cheese, and other from Western Europe, the design and unfold of a Regional Label for local lamb meat. The thesis of this book underline is the existence of a “quality turn” in Europe, and analyse how Origin Food Labels can instruments to institutionalise new forms of co-production and co-evolution that enhance sustainable territorial development. At the same time, the ethnographic nature of this research highlights that these are controversial and political processes, where local and non-local actors with different interests find each other and try to unfold their own projects. The use of a comparative strategy highlights how these transitions are influenced by local institutional frameworks and cultural patterns, but it also shows how collective action can change them.
    From production-oriented farming towards multifunctional entrepreneurship : exploring the underlying learning process
    Seuneke, P.L.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739131 - 207
    landbouw bedrijven - ondernemerschap - landbouwproductie - ecotoerisme - multifunctionele landbouw - agrarisch onderwijs - farming - entrepreneurship - agricultural production - ecotourism - multifunctional agriculture - agricultural education

    This thesis unravels the learning process underlying the switch from conventional production-oriented farming towards ‘multifunctional entrepreneurship’. In other words: the process by which former production-oriented farmers (men, women and their families) re-invent themselves as ‘multifunctional entrepreneurs’ and gain the necessary knowledge, skills and networks to re-develop their existing farm as a multifunctional one with the integration of new non-farming activities such as agro-tourism, nature and landscape management, processing and selling of farm products, professional (child)care and on-farm education. Apart from its contribution to theory with regard to the development of multifunctionality and multifunctional entrepreneurship, this thesis ultimately supports practitioners (such as teachers, trainers, advisers) in fostering this, for today’s and tomorrow’s agriculture and rural areas, valuable form of agricultural entrepreneurship.

    Betekenis van de Multifunctionele landbouw voor de gangbare landbouw
    Vrolijk, M. ; Stormink, H. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 756) - 43
    multifunctionele landbouw - landbouw bedrijven - landbouwontwikkeling - public relations - relaties tussen stad en platteland - waarden - multifunctional agriculture - farming - agricultural development - public relations - rural urban relations - values
    Via interviews met multifunctionele en gangbare ondernemers, met bestuurders van LTO of betrokken bij de Taskforce Multifunctionele Landbouw, met enkele adviseurs en via een twitterchat, is verkend welke betekenis de multifunctionele landbouw voor de gangbare landbouw heeft. Deze betekenis zit volgens de geïnterviewden in het ontwikkelen van nieuwe product-markt-combinaties, in directe contacten met klanten/eindgebruikers en daarmee met de markt, in het versterken van het imago van de landbouw en het platteland en in de ontwikkeling van de multifunctionele landbouw in samenspraak met de omgeving. Om deze betekenis vol te kunnen houden en te versterken is het gewenst dat de multifunctionele bedrijven een volwaardige agrarische tak behouden en dat de ondernemers voor wat betreft hun multifunctionele activiteiten nog meer met kengetallen en benchmarks gaan werken.
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