Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Influences that can trigger changes in landscapes | WURcast
    Hennemann, I. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation
    landscape analysis - landscape - climatic change - resource management
    What do you consider to be your landscape? What does it look like? But what was that same landscape like 10 years ago? Learn more about these changing landscapes in this video.
    Types of innovation needed to achieve productive and sustainable landscapes
    Oosten, C.J. van - \ 2019
    system innovation - landscape - landscape analysis
    Herstel van jeneverbesstruwelen : resultaten OBN-onderzoek 2007-2011
    Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Haveman, R. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2013
    Driebergen [etc.] : Bosschap [etc.] (Rapport / DKI nr. 2013/OBN157-DZ) - 84
    vegetatietypen - ecotypen - landschapsanalyse - heidegebieden - zandgronden - bodem-plant relaties - vegetation types - ecotypes - landscape analysis - heathlands - sandy soils - soil plant relationships
    Jeneverbesstruwelen vormen een karakteristiek onderdeel van de heide- en stuifzandlandschappen van onze pleistocene zandgronden. Binnen de open struwelen van jeneverbes waren tot voor kort botanisch zeer waardevolle mosvegetaties aanwezig. De toekomst van de jeneverbesstruwelen en hun karakteristieke ondergroei is echter onzeker geworden. Dit heeft enerzijds te maken met de jeneverbesstruiken die verouderen en waar sedert ongeveer zestig jaar nauwelijks nog verjonging optreedt, en anderzijds met de ondergroei die is veranderd en verarmd door voortgaande successie en strooiselophoping.
    HISTLAND : historisch-landschappelijk informatiesysteem
    Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 331) - 36
    historische geografie - cultuurlandschap - ruimtelijke databases - landschapsanalyse - kwaliteitsnormen - geografische informatiesystemen - historical geography - cultural landscape - spatial databases - landscape analysis - quality standards - geographical information systems
    Status A is de door Wageningen UR, Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur en Milieu (WOT N&M) ontwikkelde norm voor de kwaliteit van de modellen en bestanden die ingezet worden voor haar Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken. Om te kunnen beoordelen wat moet gebeuren om het GIS-bestand HISTAND aan kwaliteitsstatus A te laten voldoen, is beschreven hoe het bestand scoort op de vragen van de checklist kwaliteitsstatus A. Daarbij is geconcludeerd dat het zinvol is om te investeren in kwaliteitsstatus A voor het onderdeel landschapstypologie, maar dat dit voor het onderdeel mate van verandering niet zinvol is.
    Verrommeling op de Veluwe?
    Heijman, W.J.M. ; Hoofwijk, H. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2012
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 29 (2012)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 83 - 92.
    landschap - kwaliteit - bedrijventerreinen - nadelige gevolgen - landschapsanalyse - veluwe - landscape - quality - business parks - adverse effects - landscape analysis - veluwe
    Dit artikel beschrijft de invloed van bedrijventerreinen op natuur en landschap van de Veluwe. Er is gekeken naar de omvang en locatie van individuele bedrijven en van bedrijventerreinen. Op de Veluwe is sprake van veel versnipperde bedrijvigheid. Uit het verrichte onderzoek blijkt echter dat (toekomstige) vraag en aanbod van bedrijven en bedrijventerreinen redelijk goed op elkaar aansluiten. Wel liggen bedrijven en bedrijventerreinen vaak in gebieden met hoge landschappelijke en natuurwaarden.
    Habitat landscape pattern and connectivity indices : used at varying spatial scales for harmonized reporting in the EBONE project
    Estreguil, C. ; Caudullo, G. ; Whitmore, C. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2297) - 80 p.
    landschapsanalyse - patronen - habitats - grondbedekking - cartografie - landschapsecologie - biodiversiteit - west-europa - landscape analysis - patterns - habitats - ground cover - mapping - landscape ecology - biodiversity - western europe
    This study is motivated by biodiversity related policy information needs on ecosystem fragmentation and connectivity. The aim is to propose standardized and repeatable methods to characterize ecosystem landscape structure in a harmonized way at varying spatial scales and thematic resolutions (habitat in situ versus land cover satellite based observations). Habitat landscape pattern was assessed in terms of configuration, interface mosaic context and structural/functional connectivity on the basis of three available conceptual models (morphological analysis, landscape composition moving window, network graph theory) that were customized, automated and partly combined. Input data were from the EBONE General Habitat Categories maps available over sixty 1 km2 in-situ samples at fine scale (400 m2 Minimum Mapping Unit). Demonstration focused on the focal forest phanerophyte habitat. Forest spatial pattern, edge interfaces and connectivity related maps and indices were obtained for all samples, and then reported per European Environmental Zones. A prototype web-based mapping client ( was also developed to view and query the map layers and indices. Finally, the same models and indices were applied to the satellite based European and regional land cover maps available at broad (25 ha MMU) and medium (1ha MMU) scales. Differences in patterns across the three scales were highlighted over the only common 1 km2 analysis unit. Further, the satellite based patterns were reported at the more suitable fixed area grid of 25 km x 25 km. The overlay with the 1 km2 in situ habitat pattern enabled to inform the macro-scale landscape structure context of the squares and compare with their micro-scale pattern. Such study should be repeated to study spatio-temporal patterns relationships across scales once multi-temporal and larger in situ dataset will be available.
    Mind the gap: modelling event-based and millennial-scale landscape dynamics
    Baartman, J.E.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732668 - 216
    geomorfologie - erosie - sedimentatie - dynamica - tijdschalen - landschapsanalyse - modelleren - rivieren - regen - menselijke invloed - landschap - ontwikkeling - spanje - pleistoceen - holoceen - geomorphology - erosion - sedimentation - dynamics - time scales - landscape analysis - modeling - rivers - rain - human impact - landscape - development - spain - pleistocene - holocene

    This research looks at landscape dynamics – erosion and deposition – from two different perspectives: long-term landscape evolution over millennial timescales on the one hand and short-term event-based erosion and deposition at the other hand. For the first, landscape evolution models (LEMs) are often used, which describe landscape forming processes by geomorphic transport laws, usually on annual temporal resolutions. LEM LAPSUS is used in this research to evaluate the landscape dynamics in a study area in south-east Spain: the Guadalentín Basin. The model is calibrated on dated river terrace levels, which show an erosion – deposition – erosion sequence that the model could reproduce. Annual precipitation in this dryland area shows large inter-annual variability and erosion is supposed to be mainly the results of low-frequency, high magnitude rainfall events. Therefore, in this research, landscape dynamics are also assessed using the event-based erosion model OpenLISEM. Eventually, the role of extreme events in long-term landscape evolution are explored by comparing the two models and by incorporating annual rainfall variability into LEM LAPSUS. Another issue that is being addressed in this study is the relative influence of humans as compared to erosion as a natural process. A conceptual model, derived on the basis of dated sediment archives, is tentatively correlated to periods of human impact on the land. Using LAPSUS, the potential influence of historical tillage erosion is simulated, showing that the relatively slow process of tillage erosion added to floodplain aggradation over thousands of years.

    The performance of landscape concepts in spatial planning : branding, bonding and bringing about
    Hagens, J.E. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van der Valk, co-promotor(en): Wim van der Knaap. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858041 - 180
    ruimtelijke ordening - landschap - landschapsarchitectuur - nederland - gebiedsgericht beleid - landschapsanalyse - landschapsplanning - physical planning - landscape - landscape architecture - netherlands - integrated spatial planning policy - landscape analysis - landscape planning
    Spatial planners are expressive people. They often use landscape concepts, being metaphors that refer to landscape ideas and planning principles. Examples are Green Heart, Nature Pearls and the Camelisation of landscapes. Such landscape concepts seem ‘innocent’ but are ‘guilty’ of powerful effects. The power of a landscape concept is rooted in its colourful, rhetorical and multiple nature, in combination with the drives and political practice of its users. Accordingly, the first part of this study provides a theoretical or philosophical reflection on the use of landscape concepts in spatial planning, including views of Foucault, Deleuze and Latour. The effect of a landscape concept can be subtle and unexpected. For example, media indirectly couple assumptions about 'good planning' to the concept of National Landscape, i.e. the limited ideal of open landscapes. Using a concept also provides opportunities: it can be used for bonding people and promoting landscapes. For example, the concept Waterpark in a vision for the Dutch IJmeer region was a flexible and informal concept. This allowed the organisations involved to identify with the concept and bundle interests, although it was a temporarily success. The second part of this study provides more insight into Dutch regional planning practice and the use of landscape concepts. Finally, this study discusses the benefit of a 'will to connect' by planners in contrast to a 'will to control'.
    Capturing the view : a GIS based procedure to assess perceived landscape openness
    Weitkamp, S.G. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): Agnes van den Berg; Ron van Lammeren. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856276 - 151
    landschap - landschapsbescherming - perceptie - zichtbaarheid - geografische informatiesystemen - open ruimten - overheidsbeleid - nederland - cultuurlandschap - landschapsanalyse - landschapsbeleving - landschapsplanning - landscape - landscape conservation - perception - visibility - geographical information systems - open spaces - government policy - netherlands - cultural landscape - landscape analysis - landscape experience - landscape planning
    The landscape is an important contributor to quality of life. People identify with landscapes and landscapes contribute to a sense of place and wellbeing. Changes in land use activities, such as agriculture, and in current spatial planning policies and practice accelerate the transformation of landscapes as many new elements are superimposed upon traditional landscapes, altering their visual appearance. These changes may have profound influences on people?s quality of life. The visual landscape should therefore be given explicit attention in landscape planning and policy making. An important landscape characteristic is landscape openness. It is defined as the amount of space perceivable to the viewer which illustrates the importance of the interaction of people with their environment. Landscape openness is an important characteristic and a measure of attractiveness. In the Netherlands landscape openness is one of the features of the visual landscape and is also one of the core qualities of the National Landscapes, which have to be protected or enhanced. Landscape openness is vulnerable for changes is the landscape and monitoring the effect of landscape changes on openness is therefore essential for policy makers and planners. Current methods to measure landscape characteristics such as landscape openness either are suitable for policy makers but not reflect essential characteristics of the phenomenon, or accurately reflect the phenomenon but are not suitable for policy making and planning. Current improvements in measurement techniques, enabled by GIS, and the availability of highly detailed topographic data covering large areas make it feasible to describe landscape openness with a higher degree of realism, while making few concessions to generality and objectivity. Procedures and methods used in previous studies to describe landscape characteristics like landscape openness for policy making and planning purposes do not take full advantage of these improvements. The objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure which takes advantage of these improvements, but also produces a sound description of landscape openness and meets the required standards for policy making and planning. We formulated three research questions: 1: How can landscape openness be measured? 2: How well does the measured openness correspond with perceived landscape openness? 3: Is the measured openness relevant for landscape policy makers?
    Een nieuwe landschapsdienst: landschapselementen voor een goede luchtkwaliteit
    Oosterbaan, A. ; Berg, C.A. van den; Gies, T.J.A. ; Griffioen, A.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1949) - 29
    landschap - landschapsbescherming - luchtverontreiniging - fijn stof - luchtkwaliteit - bomen - heggenplanten - nederland - landschapsanalyse - landschapselementen - landschapsbeheer - gebiedsontwikkeling - landscape - landscape conservation - air pollution - particulate matter - air quality - trees - hedgerow plants - netherlands - landscape analysis - landscape elements - landscape management - area development
    Landschapselementen als bomen, boomrijen en bosjes kunnen bijdragen aan een goede luchtkwaliteit. In dit rapport is uitgewerkt op welke wijze de invang van fijnstof door landschapselementen geschat kan worden. Vervolgens worden mogelijkheden beschreven om de luchtzuiverende werking van landschapselementen in te brengen in gebiedsontwikkeling.
    Verkenning van een landschapsimpact analyse : een uitwerking voor drie deelgebieden in het Groene Hart
    Breman, B.C. ; Weijschede, T.J. ; Bont, C.H.M. de - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1972) - 114
    landschap - landschapsbescherming - impact - milieueffect - bescherming - ontwikkeling - nederland - landschapsanalyse - landschapsbeheer - nationale landschappen - groene hart - west-nederland - veenweiden - landscape - landscape conservation - impact - environmental impact - protection - development - netherlands - landscape analysis - landscape management - national landscapes - groene hart - west netherlands - peat grasslands
    Voor Nationale Landschappen geldt de beleidsstrategie ‘Behoud door Ontwikkeling’ ten aanzien van de landschappelijke kwaliteiten. Dit vereist een concretisering van de (waardevolle) landschappelijke karakteristieken en inzicht in de verwachtte impact van ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen. In dit onderzoeksrapport is op deelgebiedsniveau binnen het Nationaal Landschap Groene Hart invulling gegeven aan het instrument van landschapsimpact analyse (LIA) om de waarde van dit instrument voor (anticiperend) landschapsbeleid te verkennen.
    Samenstellen van landelijke kaarten met landschapselementen, grondeigendom en beheer : technisch achtergronddocument bij de opgeleverde bestanden
    Smidt, R.A. ; Os, J. van; Staritsky, I.G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 164) - 75
    cartografie - kaarteenheden - grondeigendom - nederland - thematische cartografie - landschapselementen - landschapsanalyse - landschapsbeheer - mapping - mapping units - land ownership - netherlands - thematic mapping - landscape elements - landscape analysis - landscape management
    Het doel van dit onderzoek is voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving het actualiseren van een landelijke grondprijskaart 2001 en een landelijke eigendomskaart 2004. Om te komen tot een landelijke eigendomskaart hebben we diverse bronbestanden verzameld en bewerkt. De gegevens van het Kadaster zijn het meest voor de hand liggende bronbestand, maar deze kwamen door de hoge verstrekkingskosten niet in beeld voor dit project. Daarom zijn de volgende bronbestanden gebruikt: • Vastgoed Rijksoverheid – domeinen, defensie, Rijkswaterstaat, LNV, Prorail; • Overige overheden – provincies, gemeenten, waterschappen, etc. • Natuurbeherende organisaties: Staatsbosbeheer, Provinciale Landschappen, Natuurmonumenten; • Natuur overig: waterwingebieden, recreatieschappen, nationaal park Hoge Veluwe, Landgoed Twickel; • Basisregistratie Percelen van het ministerie van LNV.
    Krassen op het landschap : over de beleving van storende elementen
    Wulp, N.Y. van der; Veeneklaas, F.R. ; Farjon, J.M.J. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 1) - 8
    landschap - kwaliteit - regionale planning - degradatie - perceptie - nederland - cultuurlandschap - landschapsanalyse - landschapselementen - landschapsbeheer - landscape - quality - regional planning - degradation - perception - netherlands - cultural landscape - landscape analysis - landscape elements - landscape management
    Het onderzoek naar verrommeling is tot nu toe vooral gebaseerd op oordelen van deskundigen. Maar vinden gewone burgers ook dat Nederland een steeds rommeliger landschap krijgt? WOt-paper 1 doet verslag van een onderzoek waarin door middel van foto’s en interviews aan burgers is gevraagd of ook zij vinden dat het landschap verrommelt, en zo ja welke elementen zij dan als meest storend ervaren. Het blijkt onder andere dat mensen zich vooral ergeren aan de verstoring naarmate het landschap er om heen nog gaaf is. En ook: hoe verder weg de verstoring is, hoe minder storend deze is.
    Storende elementen in het landschap: welke, waar en voor wie?
    Wulp, N.Y. van der; Farjon, J.M.J. ; Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 151) - 77
    landschap - degradatie - perceptie - kwaliteit - regionale planning - nederland - cultuurlandschap - landschapsanalyse - landschapsbeheer - landschapselementen - landscape - degradation - perception - quality - regional planning - netherlands - cultural landscape - landscape analysis - landscape management - landscape elements
    Dit onderzoek bouwt voort op twee publicatie van de WOT Natuur & Milieu: Verrommelt het platteland onder stedelijke druk? (Veeneklaas et al., 2004, Planbureaurapport 22) en Verrommeling in Nederland (Veeneklaas et al., 2006, WOt-rapport 6). Daar is gekeken welke elementen in het landschap potentieel storend zijn. Op basis van oordelen van deskundigen van Alterra werd geconcludeerd dat de storendheid van een element afhangt van het landschap waarin het staat. Het huidige onderzoek gaat verder: deelt de Nederlandse bevolking het oordeel van de deskundigen? Welke kenmerken van de landschappen zijn hierbij belangrijk? En verschillen elementen in de mate waarin ze storend worden gevonden? Kortom: Welke elementen, waar en voor wie zijn deze storend? Een element wordt als storend beschouwd, als het landschap zonder het element aantrekkelijker wordt gevonden dan hetzelfde landschap met dat element. Het gaat hierbij om empirisch onderbouwde uitspraken.
    Geo-spatial modelling and monitoring of European landscapes and habitats using remote sensing and field surveys
    Mücher, C.A. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Schaepman; Joop Schaminee, co-promotor(en): Bob Bunce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854531 - 269
    landschap - remote sensing - karteringen - habitats - geografische verdeling - modellen - monitoring - europa - vegetatiemonitoring - landschapsanalyse - veldwerk - ruimtelijke modellen - ruimtelijke analyse - modelleren - landgebruiksmonitoring - landscape - remote sensing - surveys - habitats - geographical distribution - models - monitoring - europe - vegetation monitoring - landscape analysis - field work - spatial models - spatial analysis - modeling - land use monitoring
    De belangrijkste doelstelling van dit proefschrift is het ontwikkelen van methoden voor het kwantificeren van de ruimtelijke verspreiding en omvang van Europese landschappen en habitats en hun monitoring. In een bredere context gaat het om monitoring van de biodiversiteit met behulp van remote sensing bestaande uit het analyseren van satellietbeelden en gebruikmakend van additionele Europese digitale milieubestanden, GIS technieken en veldgegevens. Deze methoden zijn verdienstelijk, maar hebben ook beperkingen vooral bij het karteren van kleine en gefragmenteerde habitats en het monitoren van geleidelijke veranderingen daarin. Daarom is het gebruik van additionele en gestandaardiseerde veldmethodieken noodzakelijk om verschillende componenten van Europese landschappen te monitoren.
    Anticiperend landschapsbeleid : katern 1 : klimaatverandering en klimaatbeleid
    Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1708) - 87
    landschap - landgebruik - landschapsbeheer - landschapselementen - landschapsanalyse - landscape - land use - landscape management - landscape elements - landscape analysis
    Het Nederlandse landschap is een resultante van een eeuwenlange wisselwerking tussen de fysieke wereld en menselijk ingrijpen. Analytisch gezien bevindt landschap zich vrijwel steeds aan het receiving end van de ketens van fysieke processen en het menselijk handelen. Daarmee willen we tevens zeggen dat landschapsvorming afhankelijk en tevens expressie is van een reeks autonome (fysieke én antropogene) krachten en van beleidsgestuurde ontwikkelingen in andere sectoren. Het landschap ondergaat daarmee een veelheid aan invloeden, waarvan sommige leiden tot verlies aan kwaliteiten en vervlakking. De direct op behoud en herstel van landschapskwaliteiten gerichte interventies van de overheid zijn, gehouden tegen de intenties, beperkt in omvang en effectiviteit. Opvolgende Natuurbalansen van het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau geven daarvan steeds verslag.
    Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing vegetation - landscape structure - resource interactions at different time scales
    Buis, E. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; N. van Breemen, co-promotor(en): B. Boeken. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049463 - 190
    droge gebieden - landschap - bodemmorfologie - neerslag - gradiënten - dynamica - watervoorraden - israël - landschapsanalyse - bodem-landschap relaties - arid lands - landscape - soil morphology - precipitation - gradients - dynamics - water resources - israel - landscape analysis - soil-landscape relationships
    This research is entitled ‘Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing
    vegetation – landscape structure – resource interactions at different time scales’ with as subtitle
    ‘A case study for the Northern Negev Desert of Israel’. Landscape dynamics describes the
    interactions and feedbacks among landscape structure, resource flows and organisms. This study
    focuses on the Northern Negev Desert of Israel, a semi-arid to arid rock desert with local loess
    and sand cover. Climate and humans are important driving factors of landscape dynamics here.
    Semi-arid and arid regions worldwide, are vulnerable to land degradation and desertification. A
    profound knowledge of the processes in these regions can help to avert land degradation and
    desertification. The objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge on landscape dynamics
    and its drivers in semi-arid and arid regions by field and model studies in the Northern Negev
    Desert. This study can contribute to a sustainable future for the inhabitants of these areas.
    • Chapter 1 is the introduction of this thesis and discusses among others the four studied
    catchments along a precipitation gradient: Lehavim receives at average 280 mm precipitation per
    year, Sayeret Shaked 200 mm yr-1, Halluqim 93 mm yr-1 and Avdat 87 mm yr-1. Of the surface of
    Lehavim 53% is covered by vegetation and 15% by bedrock outcrops. The catchment is
    intensively grazed by livestock. Sayeret Shaked is covered by a thick layer of homogeneous
    loess. Vegetation cover is dense (62%). The catchment is taken out of grazing since 1987. In
    Halluqim only 20% of the surface is covered by vegetation. The catchment is very rocky, as
    bedrock crops out at 42% of the surface. Avdat, located close by, is much less rocky (7%). Here
    22% of the surface is covered by vegetation. Both catchments are extensively grazed.
    The thesis can be separated in three parts. In the first part the relationships between landscape
    structure and vegetation in the four catchments is studied by statistical analyses. This part gives
    insight in the landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient and provides a system
    framework for the remainder of the thesis. The second part focuses on simulating water and
    sediment dynamics in the catchments using the landscape evolution model LAPSUS. The model
    is adapted to a semi-arid and arid climate, and vegetation cover is incorporated. The interactions
    between resource flows and vegetation is studied by model simulations. In the third part the
    system knowledge and modelling framework are applied at a longer time scale. Firstly the history
    of a valley fill is reconstructed by field observations, after which this valley fill is simulated with
    LAPSUS. Additionally the effect of land use on the valley fill development is tested by model
    Part 1: System framework
    • In chapter 2 the controls on functional surface cover types are studied in the four catchments
    along the precipitation gradient. First, four functional surface cover types are selected, based on
    their unique functionality in terms of water use and redistribution: shrubs, Asphodelus ramosus,
    other herbaceous plants and surface crusts (biological and physical). Percentage of surface cover
    of these functional surface cover types is estimated, and of bedrock outcrops and loose surface
    stones. Additionally, data is collected on soil depth, relative elevation, insolation, slope, profile
    curvature and plan curvature. Relations between functional surface cover types and landscape
    structure variables are analyzed with descriptive statistics, factor analyses and linear regressions.
    The landscape structure variables bedrock outcrop, relative elevation, soil depth and surface
    stones explain most of the cover variance in the catchments. In catchments with many bedrock
    outcrops, the occurrence of functional surface cover types is best explained by the landscape
    structure variables. In catchments with homogeneous soils reaching beyond the root zone,
    biological interactions between functional surface cover types are more important. Along the
    precipitation gradient the explanatory power of the biological variables decreases with decreasing
    precipitation, while the explanatory power of landscape structure variables appears unrelated.
    Only in homogeneous semi-arid catchments can regular vegetation patterns develop, in arid and
    heterogeneous catchments irregular vegetation patterns dominate.
    Part 2: Model framework
    • In chapter 3 the process of water redistribution at catchment scale is studied with the landscape
    evolution and erosion model LAPSUS. LAPSUS, formerly applied in Mediterranean regions, is
    modified to deal with the arid climate of the Northern Negev Desert of Israel. Daily model runs
    are used instead of yearly model runs, and the infiltration module is adapted to better represent
    the spatial diversity in water availability in an arid catchment. The model is calibrated for
    Halluqim and Avdat. First, a sensitivity analysis of the modified LAPSUS was done. Especially
    pore volume of the soil appears to have a strong influence on the modelling results. Second, the
    capability of LAPSUS to deal with varying surface characteristics was assessed by comparing the
    simulated water redistribution patterns in the two catchments with field data. Simulation results
    demonstrate that the catchments respond very different to precipitation. Water redistribution is
    larger in the dominantly bedrock-covered Halluqim compared to the dominantly sedimentcovered
    catchment of Avdat. Consequently, Halluqim has more positions with water
    accumulation than Avdat, and can sustain a larger vegetation cover including Mediterranean
    species. Finally the modelled infiltration patterns are spatially compared with vegetation cover in
    the catchments. The results indicate that there is a broad agreement between infiltration and
    vegetation patterns, but locally there is a strong mismatch indicating that part of the involved
    processes are still missing in the model.
    • In chapter 4 the interactions between resource flows and vegetation is studied and simulated in
    the loess-covered catchment of Sayeret Shaked. In semi-arid areas vegetation is scarce and occurs
    often as individual shrubs on raised mounds. The formation process of these mounds is still
    debated. In this chapter the hypothesis that shrub mounds are formed in part of the Northern
    Negev Desert by erosion and sedimentation is tested. Height and diameter of shrub canopy and
    shrub mounds are measured and micro-morphological techniques are used to reconstruct the
    formation process of the shrub mounds. The results suggests that shrub mounds are formed by
    accumulation of atmospheric dust and sedimentation of eroded material in the vicinity of the
    shrub, as well as by erosion of the surrounding crust. Model simulations are done for single
    events and longer time scale (100 years). In the simulations, mound formation appears most
    prominent at low shrub density and large shrub canopy diameter. Positive and negative feedbacks
    between shrubs and resource redistribution results in a meta-stable landscape. Long-term model
    simulations of the current climate indicates that initially formation rate of shrub mounds is high,
    but stabilized at lower rates. In dryer and wetter climates mound formation is unlikely to happen,
    as respectively too little or too many resources are redistributed, causing a stable or highly
    erosive landscape. Mound simulation with LAPSUS is successful and simulated shrub mounds
    resemble the actual shrub mounds in Sayeret Shaked. Consequently the model may prove to be
    valuable for the modelling of ecohydrological landscape processes in semi-arid areas.
    Part 3: Long-term application
    • In chapter 5 the interactions between climate change, human occupation and semi-arid
    landscape dynamics are studied to increase the insight in the effect of climate change and human
    land use. A Late Quaternary valley fill in the catchment of Sayeret Shaked is studied. The
    aggradation and incision history is reconstructed based on a transect study. The reconstructed
    valley fill is put in a temporal framework by correlation with local climate records and optically
    simulated luminescence and potsherd dates. Two Late Pleistocene and four Holocene aggradation
    and incision cycles are recognized, of which three in the last 2000 years. Contradictory to the
    expected positive relation between amplitude of climate fluctuations and cycles of aggradation
    and incision, the Late Holocene cycles are stronger than those in the Late Pleistocene and Early
    to Middle Holocene. The most significant cycle coincides with the rise and fall of the Byzantine
    Empire and appears related to the higher pressure on the landscape due to human occupation
    during that time. Human activity appears to have a strongly amplifying effect on aggradation and
    incision phases, which are initially triggered by climate fluctuations. This amplifying effect
    occurs only when human occupation crosses a threshold and triggers destabilization of the
    landscape. It causes collapse of the ecosystem and increases sediment redistribution.
    • Chapter 6 aims to quantify the effect of humans on semi-arid catchments, by reconstructing the
    infill history of Sayeret Shaked using LAPSUS. First, the infill history of Sayeret Shaked
    between about 800 BC and 800 AD is simulated. Second, three land use scenarios are tested to
    quantify the effect of extensive grazing, intensive grazing and intensive grazing combined with
    rainfed agriculture. Especially intensive grazing combined with rainfed agriculture leads to strong
    landscape dynamics. Extensive grazing causes almost no landscape dynamics, resulting in an
    almost stable landscape. The results seem to indicate that this catchment is formed by coevolution
    of human and natural induced processes. Rainfed agriculture leads to valley
    aggradation by tillage translocation, whereas intensive livestock grazing causes gully incision by
    increased slope runoff. Humans appear to be the main driven factor of landscape dynamics in this
    semi-arid catchment, much more than climate fluctuations. Only a short time period of strong
    human land use can irreversibly alter the development trajectory of a catchment. It is thus of high
    importance to manage the land sustainable, both in the present and future, to avoid further
    degradation of drylands.
    • In chapter 7 the results of the different chapters are combined and the most important
    conclusions discussed. The four catchments display very different landscape dynamics, caused by
    a high variation in climate, land use and landscape structure. In Lehavim and Halluqim the
    landscape dynamics is strongly influenced by the landscape structure, because bedrock outcrops
    regulate positions for vegetation grow and stimulate water redistribution. In Sayeret Shaked water
    redistribution depends mainly on biological surface cover. In Sayeret Shaked interactions
    between shrub and crust patches can, under a more intensive grazing regime, lead to regular
    vegetation patterns. When grazing pressure is released the herbaceous plant coverage recovers, as
    is happening today. Avdat is a divers catchment, with steep rock outcrop, a flat plateau and a
    loess covered wide gully. Though the whole catchment is characterized by a high aridity, each
    zone experiences different landscape dynamics.
    At a larger spatial scale, in the whole Northern Negev Desert, the most relevant interactions and
    feedbacks between landscape structure, resource flows and organisms are related to water
    availability and redistribution as well. Since the Late Holocene, the main driving factor of
    landscape dynamics is human land use, especially tillage and intensive livestock grazing. Climate
    fluctuations seem to have much less influence on the region. The influence of humans, even
    confined in a small period in time, strongly affects landscape development in the whole Northern
    Negev Desert, causing co-evolution and formation of cultural landscapes.
    Verkenning Europese versie van de website
    Goossen, C.M. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. ; Franke, G.J. ; Kuyper, M.C. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 86) - 24
    landschap - vragenlijsten - informatiesystemen - landschapsbeleving - landschapsanalyse - landscape - questionnaires - information systems - landscape experience - landscape analysis
    In Europa wordt het landschap steeds belangrijker. Er wordt op allerlei manieren onderzoek gedaan naar wensen die mensen hebben voor de leef- of recreatieomgeving. Vaak in de vorm van (dure) enquêtes. Een nieuwe methode via het principe van ”first give, then ask and save” is in Nederland succesvol toegepast met de website Een Europese versie van de website daarmoetikzijn kan de preferenties van Europeanen voor landschappen onderzoeken. Er is een verkenning uitgevoerd om te onderzoeken welke Europese GIS-data er zijn en of deze data gebruikt mogen worden. Ook is onderzocht of het technisch mogelijk is om met een acceptabele resolutie en tijd een kaartje van Europa te genereren met daarop de weergave van de gepersonaliseerde landschapsvoorkeuren. Er is een demonstratie-applicatie gebouwd met een klein aantal landschapskenmerken. Het blijkt mogelijk te zijn om binnen 3 seconden een kaartje te genereren met een voldoende hoge resolutie.
    Branch resultaten : case study Kent
    Rooij, Sabine van - \ 2007
    biodiversity - climatic change - landscape analysis - england
    Europe's living landscapes, Essays exploring our identity in the countryside
    Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Doorn, A.M. van; Blust, G. de; Wascher, D.M. ; Bunce, F. - \ 2007
    Zeist, NL : KNNV Publishing - ISBN 9789050112581 - 432
    landschap - europa - platteland - landschapsanalyse - nationale landschappen - identiteit - landscape - europe - rural areas - landscape analysis - national landscapes - identity
    European landscape is diverse, however it is changing rapidly. The old activities still reflected in the landscape are no longer efficient, and new functions tend to be dominated by new consumer demands, followed and enhanced by national and European policies. Balancing the existing assets of the European landscape against the societal need for change is the challenge. For this book, members of the Landscape Europe, international network of expertise on landscapes give their experiences
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