The genus Bipolaris
Manamgoda, D.S. ; Rossman, A.Y. ; Castlebury, L.A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Madrid, H. ; Chukeatirote, E. ; Hyde, K.D. - \ 2014
Studies in Mycology 79 (2014). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 221 - 288.
plant-pathogenic fungi - ascomycota pleosporales-pleosporaceae - phylogenetic species recognition - cochliobolus-sativus - leaf-spot - perfect stage - north-dakota - helminthosporium - sorokiniana - curvularia
The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species’ synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.
Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Xu, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Studies in Mycology 79 (2014). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 121 - 186.
ribosomal dna-sequences - sp-nov - morphological characters - conidial structure - camellia-sinensis - natural-products - twig blight - primer sets - leaf-spot - disease
Species of Pestalotiopsis occur commonly as plant pathogens, and represent a fungal group known to produce a wide range of chemically novel, diverse metabolites. In the present study, we investigated 91 Pestalotiopsis isolates from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) culture collection. The phylogeny of the Amphisphaeriaceae was constructed based on analysis of 28S nrRNA gene (LSU) sequence data, and taxonomic changes are proposed to reflect more natural groupings. We combined morphological and DNA data, and segregated two novel genera from Pestalotiopsis, namely Neopestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis. The three genera are easily distinguishable on the basis of their conidiogenous cells and colour of their median conidial cells. We coupled morphological and combined sequence data of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial ß-tubulin (TUB) and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene regions, which revealed 30 clades in Neopestalotiopsis and 43 clades in Pestalotiopsis. Based on these data, 11 new species are introduced in Neopestalotiopsis, 24 in Pestalotiopsis, and two in Pseudopestalotiopsis. Several new combinations are proposed to emend monophyly of Neopestalotiopsis, Pestalotiopsis and Pseudopestalotiopsis.
Calonectria diseases on ornamental plants in Europe and the Mediterranean Basion: an overview
Vitale, A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Lombard, L. ; Polizzi, G. - \ 2013
Journal of Plant Pathology: rivista di patologia vegetale 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. 463 - 476.
cylindrocladium-crotalariae microsclerotia - forest tree nurseries - 1st report - root-rot - leaf-spot - crown rot - feijoa-sellowiana - soil-temperature - mastic tree - damping-off
Species of Calonectria and their cylindrocladium-like asexual morphs are important plant pathogens of agronomic and forestry crops, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Calonectria species have been associated with a wide range of disease symptoms on a large number of plant hosts. On horticultural crops, most records of Calonectria species come from the Northern Hemisphere, where they occur mainly in gardens and ornamental nurseries. In Europe and the Mediterranean basin, several species are widespread in nurseries and cause extensive damage to ornamental plants. In the past, identification of species was based on phenotypic characters and sexual compatibility using standardised media. More recently, morphological characteristics, phylogenetic studies (DNA sequence data of the ß-tubulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1a gene regions) and mating studies have revealed the presence of several cryptic species complexes that were formerly treated as single Calonectria species. These studies resulted in the introduction of several new species. Other studies aimed at understanding environmental sustainability focused attention on soil solarisation and biological control as means for controlling these pathogens. The potential use of biological control agents (BCAs) and chemicals for controlling Calonectria-induced diseases has recently been addressed. In this review we discuss the Calonectria species detected in Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and the disease management strategies. In view of the mandatory implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) for all European countries by 2014, this paper provides basic information as a platform for the adaptation of more sustainable integrated measures to control Calonectria diseases in European nurseries.
Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses
Groenewald, J.Z. ; Nakashima, C. ; Nishikawa, J. ; Shin, H.D. ; Park, J.H. ; Jama, A.N. ; Groenewald, M. ; Braun, U. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2013
Studies in Mycology 75 (2013). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 115 - 170.
leaf-spot - water hyacinth - phylogenetic analysis - sequence-analysis - ribosomal dna - primer sets - new-zealand - sugar-beet - mycosphaerella - beticola
The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study.
Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora
Crous, P.W. ; Braun, U. ; Hunter, G.C. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Shin, H.D. ; Nakashima, C. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2013
Studies in Mycology 75 (2013). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 37 - 114.
ribosomal dna-sequences - eucalyptus leaves - mycosphaerella-spp. - leaf-spot - genus mycosphaerella - korean cercosporae - taxonomic notes - rdna sequence - allied genera - sooty blotch
Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having Mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1a, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted.
DNA barcoding of Mycosphaerella species of quarantine importance to Europe
Quaedvlieg, W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M. de; Crous, P.W. - \ 2012
Persoonia 29 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 101 - 115.
eucalyptus leaves - ribosomal dna - leaf-spot - phylogeny - nuclear - fungus - genus - anamorphs - taxonomy - sequence
The EU 7th Framework Program provided funds for Quarantine Barcoding of Life (QBOL) to develop a quick, reliable and accurate DNA barcode-based diagnostic tool for selected species on the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) A1/A2 quarantine lists. Seven nuclear genomic loci were evaluated to determine those best suited for identifying species of Mycosphaerella and/or its associated anamorphs. These genes included ß-tubulin (Btub), internal transcribed spacer regions of the nrDNA operon (ITS), 28S nrDNA (LSU), Actin (Act), Calmodulin (Cal), Translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1a) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2). Loci were tested on their Kimura-2-parameter-based inter- and intraspecific variation, PCR amplification success rate and ability to distinguish between quarantine species and closely related taxa. Results showed that none of these loci was solely suited as a reliable barcoding locus for the tested fungi. A combination of a primary and secondary barcoding locus was found to compensate for individual weaknesses and provide reliable identification. A combination of ITS with either EF-1a or Btub was reliable as barcoding loci for EPPO A1/A2-listed Mycosphaerella species. Furthermore, Lecanosticta acicola was shown to represent a species complex, revealing two novel species described here, namely L. brevispora sp. nov. on Pinus sp. from Mexico and L. guatemalensis sp. nov. on Pinus oocarpa from Guatemala. Epitypes were also designated for L. acicola and L. longispora to resolve the genetic application of these names.
Species concepts in Calonectria (Cylindrocladium)
Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wingfield, M.J. - \ 2010
Studies in Mycology 66 (2010)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 13.
spathiphylli sp-nov - root-rot - 1st record - crown rot - collar rot - beta-tubulin - leaf-spot - microsatellite loci - female fertility - genome sequence
Species of Calonectria and their Cylindrocladium anamorphs are important plant pathogens worldwide. At present 52 Cylindrocladium spp. and 37 Calonectria spp. are recognised based on sexual compatibility, morphology and phylogenetic inference. The polyphasic approach of integrating Biological, Morphological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts has revolutionised the taxonomy of fungi. This review aims to present an overview of published research on the genera Calonectria and Cylindrocladium as they pertain to their taxonomic history. The nomenclature as well as future research necessary for this group of fungi are also briefly discussed
Evolutionary dynamics of mating-type loci of Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on banana
Arzanlou, M. ; Crous, P.W. ; Zwiers, L.H. - \ 2010
Eukaryotic Cell 9 (2010)1. - ISSN 1535-9778 - p. 164 - 172.
pathogen septoria-passerinii - cochliobolus-heterostrophus - sex-chromosomes - causal agent - leaf-spot - disease - cloning - genes - idiomorphs - teleomorph
The devastating Sigatoka disease complex of banana is primarily caused by three closely related heterothallic fungi belonging to the genus Mycosphaerella: M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Previous phylogenetic work showing common ancestry led us to analyze the mating-type loci of these Mycosphaerella species occurring on banana. We reasoned that this might provide better insight into the evolutionary history of these species. PCR and chromosome-walking approaches were used to clone the mating-type loci of M. musicola and M. eumusae. Sequences were compared to the published mating-type loci of M. fijiensis and other Mycosphaerella spp., and a novel organization of the MAT loci was found. The mating-type loci of the examined Mycosphaerella species are expanded, containing two additional Mycosphaerella-specific genes in a unique genomic organization. The proteins encoded by these novel genes show a higher interspecies than intraspecies homology. Moreover, M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae contain two additional mating-type-like loci, containing parts of both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1. The data indicate that M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae share an ancestor in which a fusion event occurred between MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences and in which additional genes became incorporated into the idiomorph. The new genes incorporated have since then evolved independently in the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 loci. Thus, these data are an example of the evolutionary dynamics of fungal MAT loci in general and show the great flexibility of the MAT loci of Mycosphaerella species in particular.
Pathogenicity of Stemphylium vesicarium from different hosts causing brown spot in pear
Köhl, J. ; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H. ; Goossen-van de Geijn, H.M. ; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. ; Kastelein, P. ; Hoog, S. de; Ende, B.G. van den - \ 2009
European Journal of Plant Pathology 124 (2009)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 151 - 162.
pleospora-allii - causal agent - leaf-spot - disease - alternaria - california - infection - botryosum - inoculum - alfalfa
Stemphylium vesicarium (teleomorph: Pleospora herbarum) is the causal agent of brown spot disease in pear. The species is also able to cause disease in asparagus, onion and other crops. Saprophytic growth of the fungus on plant debris is common. The objective of this study was to investigate whether isolates of S. vesicarium from different hosts can be pathogenic to pear. More than hundred isolates of Stemphylium spp. were obtained from infected pear fruits, dead pear leaves, dead grass leaves present in pear orchard lawns as well as from necrotic leaf parts of asparagus and onion. Only isolates originating from pear orchards, including isolates from dead grass leaves, were pathogenic on pear leaves or fruits in bioassays. Non-pathogenic isolates were also present in pear orchards. Stemphylium vesicarium from asparagus or onion, with one exception, were not pathogenic to pear. Analysis of the genetic variation between isolates using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) showed significant concordance with host plants. Isolates from asparagus or onion belonged to clusters separate from the cluster with isolates from pear or grass leaves collected in pear orchards. Multilocus sequencing of a subset of isolates showed that such isolates were similar to S. vesicarium.
Colletotrichum - names in current use
Hyde, K.D. ; Cai, L. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Crouch, J.A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. ; Goodwin, P.H. ; Chen, H. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Jones, E.B.G. ; Liu, Z.Y. ; McKenzie, E.H.C. ; Moriwaki, J. ; Noireung, P. ; Pennycook, S.R. ; Pfenning, L.H. ; Prihastuti, H. ; Sato, T. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Weir, B.S. ; Yang, Y.L. ; Zhang, J.Z. - \ 2009
Fungal Diversity 39 (2009). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 147 - 182.
vegetative compatibility groups - iwokrama-forest-reserve - coffea-arabica l. - potato black dot - infection process - molecular characterization - leaf-spot - sp-nov - anthracnose resistance - biological-control
Filamentous fungi in the genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens that cause disease and crop losses in plants worldwide. Taxonomy and nomenclature in the group is confusing, even to scientists working in the field, and inaccurate diagnosis of species is not uncommon. In this review, we provide a overview of the 66 Colletotrichum names that are in common use, and the 19 recently used names which are regarded as doubtful. This paper represents the first comprehensive overview of the genus in 17 years, and is the first summary treatment of Colletotrichum to incorporate data generated through DNA analysis and phylogenetic systematics. Species are listed alphabetically and annotated with their taxonomic entry, teleomorph, hosts and disease, brief summaries of taxonomic and phylogenetic research, and outstanding issues for the genus that are neccesary to stabilize species names. Sequence data and type culture collection resources are also summarized. The paper serves to provide a new starting point for usage of current names in Colletotrichum and indicates future work needed
Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts
Damm, U. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
Fungal Diversity 39 (2009). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 45 - 87.
spored graminicolous colletotrichum - sequence-analysis - infection process - mulberry leaves - primer sets - lily bulbs - leaf-spot - sp-nov - anthracnose - dematium
Colletotrichum (Glomerellaceae, Sordariomycetes) species with dark setae and curved conidia are known as anthracnose pathogens of a number of economically important hosts and are often identified as C. dematium. Colletotrichum dematium has been synonymised with many species, including the type of the genus, C. lineola. Since there is no living strain of the original material of either species available, we re-collected C. lineola from the original location to serve as an epitype of that name, and chose an appropriate epitype specimen and associated strain of C. dematium from the CBS collection. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 97 isolates of C. lineola, C. dematium and other Colletotrichum species with curved conidia from herbaceous hosts resulted in 20 clades, with 12 clades containing strains that had previously been identified as C. dematium. The epitype strains of C. lineola and C. dematium reside in two closely related clades. Other clades represent four previously undescribed species, C. anthrisci, C. liriopes, C. rusci and C. verruculosum, isolated respectively from Anthriscus in the Netherlands, Liriope in Mexico, Ruscus in Italy and Crotalaria in Zimbabwe. The new combinations C. spaethianum and C. tofieldiae are made. Colletotrichum truncatum is epitypified, as well as C. circinans, C. curcumae and C. fructi. Three further unidentified Colletotrichum taxa were detected in the phylogenetic analysis, which may require description after further research. Each species is comprehensively described and illustrated
Multiple Didymella teleomorphs are linked to the Phoma clematidina morphotype
Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Aveskamp, M.M. ; Gruyter, J. de; Spiers, A.G. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
Persoonia 22 (2009). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 56 - 62.
new-zealand - phytomyza-vitalbae - ribosomal dna - leaf-spot - monograph - biology - impact - wilt
The fungal pathogen Phoma clematidina is used as a biological agent to control the invasive plant species Clematis vitalba in New Zealand. Research conducted on P. clematidina as a potential biocontrol agent against C. vitalba, led to the discovery of two perithecial-forming strains. To assess the diversity of P. clematidina and to clarify the teleomorph-anamorph relationship, phylogenetic analyses of 18 P. clematidina strains, reference strains representing the Phoma sections in the Didymellaceae and strains of related species associated with Clematis were conducted. Partial sequences of the ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA gene, the ß-tubulin gene and 28S rRNA gene were used to clarify intra- and inter-species relationships. These analyses revealed that P. clematidina resolves into three well-supported clades which appear to be linked to differences in host specificity. Based on these findings, Didymella clematidis is newly described and the descriptions of P. clematidina and D. vitalbina are amended.
Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi
Crous, P.W. ; Braun, U. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Shin, H.D. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Cumagun, C.J.R. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2009
Persoonia 22 (2009). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 139 - 161.
anamorphic fungi - ribosomal dna - allied genera - leaf-spot - mycosphaerella - dictyosporium - china - combinations - hyphomycete - argentina
The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which a new classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of hyphomycetes were collected. These fungi were subsequently established in culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis of the ITS and LSU nrRNA genes to resolve species and generic questions related to these obscure genera. Brycekendrickomyces (Herpotrichiellaceae) is introduced as a new genus similar to, but distinct from Haplographium and Lauriomyces. Chalastospora is shown to be a genus in the Pleosporales, with two new species, C. ellipsoidea and C. obclavata, to which Alternaria malorum is added as an additional taxon under its oldest epithet, C. gossypii. Cyphellophora eugeniae is newly described in Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), and distinguished from other taxa in the genus. Dictyosporium is placed in the Pleosporales, with one new species, D. streliziae. The genus Edenia, which was recently introduced for a sterile endophytic fungus isolated in Mexico, is shown to be a hyphomycete (Pleosporales) forming a pyronellea-like synanamorph in culture. Thedgonia is shown not to represent an anamorph of Mycosphaerella, but to belong to the Helotiales. Trochophora, however, clustered basal to the Pseudocercospora complex in the Mycosphaerellaceae, as did Verrucisporota. Vonarxia, a rather forgotten genus of hyphomycetes, is shown to belong to the Herpotrichiellaceae and Xenostigmina is confirmed as synanamorph of Mycopappus, and is shown to be allied to Seifertia in the Pleosporales. Dichotomous keys are provided for species in the various genera treated. Furthermore, several families are shown to be polyphyletic within some orders, especially in the Capnodiales, Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales.
Indirect evidence for sexual reproduction in Cercospora beticola populations from sugar beet
Groenewald, M. ; Linde, C.C. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2008
Plant Pathology 57 (2008)1. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 25 - 32.
pathogen mycosphaerella-graminicola - leaf-spot - mating-type - fusarium-oxysporum - genetic-structure - fungi - diversity - dna - recombination - maize
Cercospora beticola is the main causal agent of cercospora leaf spot on sugar beet and has a large negative impact on the yield and quality of sugar beet production worldwide. Previous studies have shown that both mating type idiomorphs of C. beticola are present in natural populations, suggesting that C. beticola is heterothallic and may be reproducing sexually. Cercospora beticola isolates are diverse in the morphology of their conidia, onset of disease symptoms and fungicide resistance. To find the source of this diversity and to determine if sexual reproduction occurs in this fungus, C. beticola populations were collected from Western Europe, Iran and New Zealand. The mating types of these isolates were determined and AFLP analyses were used to study the genetic diversity in these populations. The mating type ratios did not deviate significantly from a 1:1 ratio in most of the populations and AFLP analyses showed high levels of genetic variation within and between the populations, with 86.4% of the isolates having unique genotypes. All populations were in significant linkage disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were low, and loci from only one primer pair were in significant gametic equilibrium in populations from the Netherlands and Italy. From these results there is the possibility that C. beticola reproduces sexually. High levels of gene flow among the samples from Europe demonstrated a single panmictic European population. This study confirms C. beticola to be a genetically highly diverse species, supporting the assumption that some populations are reproducing sexually.
Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana
Arzanlou, M. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Fullerton, R.A. ; Abeln, E.C.A. ; Carlier, J. ; Zapater, M.F. ; Buddenhagen, I.W. ; Viljoen, A. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2008
Persoonia 20 (2008). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 19 - 37.
leaf-spot - var-difformis - eucalyptus - spp. - cercospora - fijiensis - disease - colletogloeopsis - population - speciation
Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is known about these taxa, and for the majority of these species no culture or DNA is available for study. In the present study, we collected a global set of Mycosphaerella strains from banana, and compared them by means of morphology and a multi-gene nucleotide sequence data set. The phylogeny inferred from the ITS region and the combined data set containing partial gene sequences of the actin gene, the small subunit mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and the histone H3 gene revealed a rich diversity of Mycosphaerella species on Musa. Integration of morphological and molecular data sets confirmed more than 20 species of Mycosphaerella (incl. anamorphs) to occur on banana. This study reconfirmed the previously described presence of Cercospora apii, M. citri and M. thailandica, and also identified Mycosphaerella communis, M. lateralis and Passalora loranthi on this host. Moreover, eight new species identified from Musa are described, namely Dissoconium musae, Mycosphaerella mozambica, Pseudocercospora assamensis, P. indonesiana, P. longispora, Stenella musae, S. musicola, and S. queenslandica.
|Foliicolous Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs on Corymbia and Eucalyptus
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Mohammed, C. ; Himaman, W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2007
Fungal Diversity 26 (2007). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 143 - 185.
poorly known taxa - leaf-spot - phylogenetic reassessment - genus mycosphaerella - genera nova - fungi - australia - colletogloeopsis - morphology - taxonomy
The genus Eucalyptus is host to numerous species of Mycosphaerella, several of which are only known as anamorphs, and for which no Mycosphaerella state is known. In this study new Mycosphaerella teleomorph states are described for Nothostrasseria dendritica and Trimmatostroma excentrica. Two new hyphomycete genera are introduced. Of these, Cibiessia gen. nov., with three new species accommodates an arthoconidial synanamorph of Readeriella. Phaeothecoidea gen. nov. is described for species with brown, thick-walled endoconidia. Four additional new species of Mycosphaerella are introduced with several new anamorph species described in Dissoconium, Phaeophleospora, Pseudocercospora, Ramularia and Stenella. Furthermore, an epitype is designated for Mycosphaerella molleriana. This study also presents new Eucalyptus host and distribution records including M. mexicana from Hawaii, M. ohnowa from Australia, M. acaciigena from Australia and Venezuela, M. heimii from Venezuela and Thailand, M. konae from Venezuela, and M. thailandica from Thailand.
Mycosphaerella is polophyletic
Crous, P.W. ; Braun, U. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2007
Studies in Mycology 58 (2007)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 1 - 32.
ribosomal dna-sequences - rdna sequence - gen-nov - phylogenetic reassessment - black fungi - leaf-spot - eucalyptus - anamorphs - cladosporium - spp.
Mycosphaerella, one of the largest genera of ascomycetes, encompasses several thousand species and has anamorphs residing in more than 30 form genera. Although previous phylogenetic studies based on the ITS rDNA locus supported the monophyly of the genus, DNA sequence data derived from the LSU gene distinguish several clades and families in what has hitherto been considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae. Several important leaf spotting and extremotolerant species need to be disposed to the genus Teratosphaeria, for which a new family, the Teratosphaeriaceae, is introduced. Other distinct clades represent the Schizothyriaceae, Davidiellaceae, Capnodiaceae, and the Mycosphaerellaceae. Within the two major clades, namely Teratosphaeriaceae and Mycosphaerellaceae, most anamorph genera are polyphyletic, and new anamorph concepts need to be derived to cope with dual nomenclature within the Mycosphaerella complex.
|The diversity of cercosporoid hyphomycetes - new species, combinations, names and morphological clarifications
Braun, U. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2007
Fungal Diversity 26 (2007). - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 55 - 72.
taxonomic revision - leaf-spot - stenella - mycosphaerella - passalora - phaeoisariopsis - fusicladium - additions - anamorphs - india
The new species Stenella leucothoes and S. pittospori are described, and the new combinations and new names Asperisporium rafinesquiae, Passolora euphorbiicola, P. sterculiacearum, Pseudocercospora campanulae, P. lonicerigena, P. photiniae-serrulatae, P. physostegiae and Stenella prosopidis are introduced. Based on re-examinations of type collections, the taxonomic status of Cercospora saccharini and C. rhagadioli as genuine species of Cercospora, morphologically distinct from C. apii s. l., could be confirmed, and it could be demonstrated that Cercospora pittospori had been correctly reallocated to Pseudocereospora. Furthermore, the nomenclature of Passalora polygonati-maximoviczii, Pseudocercospora dendrobii and P. sacchari is discussed, the status of Cercospora solani-nigri as a synonym of Pseudocercospora atromarginalis is verified, and new records of Passalora bocconiae and Pseudocercospora thouiniae are added.
Biodiversity in the Cladosporium herbarum complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales), with standardisation of methods for Cladosporium taxonomy and diagnostics
Schubert, K. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Braun, U. ; Dijksterhuis, J. ; Starink, M. ; Hill, C.F. ; Zalar, P. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Crous, P.W. - \ 2007
Studies in Mycology 58 (2007)1. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 105 - 156.
multilocus genotype data - sensu-lato - leaf-spot - mycosphaerella - inference - anamorphs - sequence - genera - loci
The Cladosporium herbarum complex comprises five species for which Davidiella teleomorphs are known. Cladosporium herbarum s. str (D. tassiana), C. macrocarpum (D. macrocatpa) and C. bruhnei (D. allicina) are distinguishable by having conidia of different width, and by teleomorph characters. Davidiella variabile is introduced as teleomorph of C. variabile, a homothallic species occurring on Spinacia, and D. macrospora is known to be the teleomorph of C. iridis on Iris spp. The C. herbarum, complex combines low molecular distance with a high degree of clonal or inbreeding diversity. Entities differ from each other by multilocus sequence data and by phenetic differences, and thus can be interpreted to represent individual taxa. Isolates of the C. herbarum complex that were formerly associated with opportunistic human infections, cluster with C. bruhnei. Several species are newly described from hypersaline water, namely C. ramotenellum, C. tenellum, C. subinflatum, and C. herbaroides. Cladosporium pseudiridis collected from Iris sp. in New Zealand, is also a member of this species complex and shown to be distinct from C. iridis that occurs on this host elsewhere in the word. A further new species from New Zealand is C. sinuosum on Fuchsia excorticata. Cladosporium antarcticum is newly described from a lichen, Caloplaca regalis, collected in Antarctica, and C. subtilissimum from grape berries in the U.S.A., while the new combination C. ossifragi, the oldest valid name of the Cladosporium known from Narthecium, in Europe, is proposed. Standard protocols and media are herewith proposed to facilitate future morphological examination of Cladosporium spp. in culture, and neotypes or epitypes are proposed for all species treated.
Molecular diagnostics for the Sigatoka disease complex of banana
Arzanlou, M. ; Abeln, E.C.A. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Carlier, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2007
Phytopathology 97 (2007)9. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 1112 - 1118.
polymerase-chain-reaction - mycosphaerella-fijiensis - black sigatoka - causal agent - m-musicola - leaf-spot - pathogen - dna - pcr - quantification
The Sigatoka disease complex of banana involves three related ascomycetous fungi, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. The exact distribution of these three species and their disease epidemiology remain unclear, because their symptoms and life cycles are rather similar. Disease diagnosis in the Mycosphaerella complex of banana is based on the presence of host symptoms and fungal fruiting structures, which hamper preventive management strategies. In the present study, we have developed rapid and robust species-specific molecular-based diagnostic tools for detection and quantification of M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae. Conventional species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were developed based on the actin gene that detected DNA at as little as 100, 1, and 10 pg/¿l from M. fijiensis, M. musicola, and M. eumusae, respectively. Furthermore, TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed based on the ß-tubulin gene and detected quantities of DNA as low as 1 pg/¿l for each Mycosphaerella sp. from pure cultures and DNA at 1.6 pg/¿l per milligram of dry leaf tissue for M. fijiensis that was validated using naturally infected banana leaves