Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The design and impact of a marketing training to strengthen customer value creation among Ethiopian pastoralists
Teklehaimanot, Mebrahtu Leake - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): P.T.M. Ingenbleek; Workneh Kassa Tessema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434522 - 195
marketing - training - educational courses - pastoral society - pastoralism - value added - ethiopia - east africa - marketing - opleiding - lerarenopleidingen - pastorale samenleving - pastoralisme - toegevoegde waarde - ethiopië - oost-afrika

As the world population is expected to expand beyond 9 billion by 2050, food production will need to increase by approximately 70% to feed the population. Furthermore, a growing part of that expanding population pertains to an upcoming middle class, leading to an increasing demand for high-value products, animal protein and safer food. To respond to this growing demand in terms of quantity and quality, supply chains are pushing market-frontiers deeper into the rural areas in developing and emerging markets to secure their supplies. As a consequence, rural smallholders including pastoralists, who have been functioning at local markets, are increasingly integrating with international markets. While such integration opens opportunities for the smallholders to access higher purchasing power, it is difficult for remote and isolated pastoralists with limited productive resources and limited institutional support to recognize and seize the opportunities. Because pastoralists are mostly isolated from the other value chain members, they have not developed the knowledge regarding how the market functions and what the value chain members want. By conducting a field experiment among a group of Ethiopian pastoralists, this thesis shows that marketing training is an important approach in enhancing the market knowledge of pastoralists that enable them to understand the market environment, to reproduce their animals as per market requirements and to generate returns. The thesis also has implications for other rural smallholders that share similar characteristics with the pastoralists.

Workshop Bescherm de planten!
Willemen, D. ; Goud, J.C. - \ 2012
Gewasbescherming 43 (2012)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 13 - 13.
docenten - workshops (programma's) - gewasbescherming - lerarenopleidingen - biologie - voortgezet onderwijs - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - teachers - workshops (programs) - plant protection - educational courses - biology - secondary education - intermediate vocational training
Op verzoek van het NIBI, het Nederlands Instituut voor Biologie, verzorgde de landelijke scholierenwebsite www.plantenziektekunde.nl tweemaal een workshop tijdens de jaarlijkse NIBI-conferentie voor biologiedocenten. De bijeenkomst had deze keer als thema ‘Bescherm jezelf!’
Training course 'Fisheries data collection and analysis'
Heijden, P.G.M. van der - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen International - 17
visserij - volwasseneneducatie - lerarenopleidingen - beschrijvingen - methodologie - fisheries - adult education - educational courses - descriptions - methodology
Course description of the course “Fisheries data collection and analysis”, held from October 1st till October 19th 2007 and organised by the Programme for Capacity development & Institutional Change of Wageningen International in cooperation with Wageningen University – Aquaculture and Fisheries Group
Onderwijsvisitatierapport Bedrijfswetenschappen: Faculteit Bedrijf, Bestuur en Technologie, medeauteur QANU (Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities)
Edelman Bos, J.B.M. ; Dopper, J.G. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Sluis, H. ; Vandenberghe, R. ; Zwaan, A. - \ 2007
Utrecht : Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) - 79
onderwijs - onderwijsbeleid - hoger onderwijs - managementonderwijs - bedrijfswetenschap - leerplan - universiteiten - kwaliteitscontroles - lerarenopleidingen - evaluatie - prestatieniveau - monitoring - nederland - education - educational policy - higher education - management education - management science - curriculum - universities - quality controls - educational courses - evaluation - performance - monitoring - netherlands
Dit rapport is onderdeel van de kwaliteitsbeoordeling van universitaire bachelor- en master-opleidingen in Nederland. Het doel van het rapport is om een betrouwbaar beeld te geven van de resultaten van de voor beoordeling voorgelegde opleidingen, alsmede een terugkoppeling te geven naar de interne kwaliteitszorg van de betrokken organisaties en als basis te dienen voor de accreditatie van de betrokken opleidingen door de Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatie Organisatie (NVAO).
Refresher course on water management for sustainable rural development and natural resources
Kselik, R.A.L. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra - 32
waterbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - lerarenopleidingen - water management - sustainability - rural development - natural resources - educational courses
Ondernemen in vraaggestuurde ketens : bouwstenen voor onderwijs en cursussen voor het bouwen van cursussen op HBO, MBO-niveau, (voltijd, deeltijd, duaal, cursorisch), projectverslag RIGO project Green Business School: vraaggestuurde ketens
Meggelen, Ineke van; Vermeulen, Kees ; Vermeulen, P.C.M. ; Hattink, Toine - \ 2006
Den Bosch : HAS Den Bosch - 26
onderwijs - lerarenopleidingen - nederland - bedrijfsmanagement - ketenmanagement - education - educational courses - netherlands - business management - supply chain management
De doelstelling van deze module is het beschikbaar maken van kennis waarmee partijen in de plantaardige productieketens de competentie ontwikkelen om besluitvorming t.a.v. marktkeuze en afzetstrategie bewust en onderbouwd te kunnen uitvoeren. Hierbij moeten deze actoren vooral ook ontwikkelingen in de omgeving en maatschappij leren onderkennen en vertalen naar de bedrijfsvoering.
Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability. Problematics, Promise, and Practice
Corcoran, P.B. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2004
Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 1402021348 - 382
hoger onderwijs - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontwikkeling - onderwijshervorming - onderwijsvernieuwing - milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - higher education - environmental education - sustainability - development - educational courses - educational reform - educational innovation
ESDebate : International debate on education for sustainable development
Hesselink, F. ; Kempen, P. van; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2000
Gland [etc.] : IUCN - ISBN 9782831705279 - 64
milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - wereld - samenleving - interacties - attitudes - milieu - communicatie - natuur - environmental education - educational courses - teaching - environment - communication - society - interactions - development - sustainability - world - nature
Open dagen Praktijkcentrum Raalte: opening van cursusaccommodatie en biologische unit
Bokma, Sj. - \ 1999
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 13 (1999)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 3 - 5.
varkens - biggen - varkensstallen - stallen - kraamstallen - dierenwelzijn - biologische landbouw - alternatieve landbouw - lerarenopleidingen - praktijkonderwijs - proefstations - groepshuisvesting - pigs - piglets - pig housing - stalls - farrowing houses - animal welfare - organic farming - alternative farming - educational courses - practical education - experimental stations - group housing
Het Praktijkcentrum Raalte start het nieuwe millennium met een feestelijke opening van de nieuwe cursusaccommodatie en de nieuwe biologische varkensunit in de bestaande stal-accommodatie.
Cursussen voor de aardappelverwerkende industrie
Uitslag, H. - \ 1999
Aardappelwereld (1999)6. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 18 - 19.
aardappelen - zetmeelverwerkende industrie - aardappelzetmeel - productie - bedrijfsvoering - kwaliteitscontroles - productiecontroles - lerarenopleidingen - scholingscursussen - potatoes - starch industry - potato starch - production - management - quality controls - production controls - educational courses - training courses
De druk op het personeel om binnen korte tijd belangrijke beslissingen te nemen is veelal groot. Om die reden verzorgt ATO-DLO cursussen om een beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de achterliggende oorzaak van bepaalde problemen die men tegenkomt in de praktijk
Environmental education and biodiversity
Wals, A.E.J. - \ 1999
Wageningen : National Reference Centre for Nature Management - ISBN 9789075789034 - 120
milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - biodiversiteit - environmental education - educational courses - teaching - biodiversity
Handreiking voor het strategisch inkopen van opleidingen
Enckevort, A. van; Mulder, M. - \ 1999
's-Gravenhage : Stichting Arbeidsmarkt en Opleidingsfonds Gemeenten - 75
lerarenopleidingen - beleid - leerplan - inkopen - consumptie - educational courses - policy - curriculum - purchasing - consumption
Onderwijzen voor een natuurbetrokken bestaan : didactische uitgangspunten voor natuur- en milieueducatie
Alblas, A. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. van Bergeijk; W. van den Bor. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081193 - 288
milieueducatie - lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - onderwijsmethoden - leertheorie - samenleving - interacties - attitudes - natuur- en milieueducatie - environmental education - educational courses - teaching - teaching methods - learning theory - society - interactions - attitudes - nature and environmental education

This study is aimed at making a contribution toward the didactic development of Environmental Education (EE).

The issue under question is as follows (Part I): Which criteria govern commitment-oriented EE learning processes? To answer this question a number of theories were studied (Part II) and the practical experiences of several EE tutors evaluated (Part III). Then comparisons were made between the results (Part IV). The outcome of the comparison consists of several didactical clues for the didactics of EE learning processes. A brief description of the content of the different parts is given below.

Part I: Underlying principles, issues and research questions

The emergence of nature and environmental education is strongly linked to society's increased concern about the deterioration of nature and the environment. The introduction of EE in schools is believed to contribute toward solving the existing problems of the environment by teaching children to behave in a more environmental-friendly way. In this study we distance ourselves from this one-sided instrumental view. We perceive a form of education which transforms students into active participants in an ever-changing society. It demands a critical attitude and the willingness to shoulder joint responsibility. It does not include the provision of codes of behaviour. With this perception of education we see EE's primary objective as being man's commitment to nature.

Someone committed to nature is taken to mean:

a person prepared to and capable of weighing up the pros and cons of the interests of nature, against personal interests and society's interests;;a person who understands nature and the value of the environment for our mental and material well-being;a person who understands and values nature as the bearer of all life; anda person who is willing to personally take on the responsibility for nature and whose deeds give shape to this responsibility.

Part II: The cornerstone of this study

The question now arises as to how we plan to fulfil the primary objective mentioned above. To answer this question we have steered our study by several social constructivist theories that would give us more insight into a number of aspects regarding the didactics of EE. These theories are:

the cultural historic theory, as introduced by Vygotskij (1987) and further developed by a few kindred spirits. This theory provides us with clues about how the shaping of meaningful, usable concepts can take place;the structuration theory, as developed by Giddens (1985). This theory clearly explains the freedom of action individuals have within the social structure in which they live. It then becomes clearer to see to which extent education contributes to development of the relative freedom of action of the individual;the human valuation theory , as developed by Hermans (1981). This theory contributes to our insight into the nature of our valuation and the manner in which it develops;the 'Bildung' theory (a human development approach) of Klafki (1994). This theory consists of a number of important points of departure for the didactics of education aimed at emancipation of the individual to actively participate in the community.

Some relevant insights gleaned from these theories are summarised as follows:

Man's actions are the result of structural and intentional powers. In educational situations we aim primarily at development of the intention of actions. Intentional actions are created by personally shaping societal practices in a fresh and unique manner. When giving new form to reality our interpretation of reality is tested against that of the surroundings. Reaction of the surroundings to our actions adjusts, refines and consolidates our knowledge. Learning should therefore be understood as the internalising of a socio-cultural dialogue.

Knowledge consists of affective as well as cognitive elements. On the affective side are two fundamental motives , namely the motive of self-determination and self-submission. Our involvement in the world about us is based on these two fundamental motives and is especially stable if based on both of the motives.Learning must also be understood as a longitudinally genetic process in which continuous, gradual changes occur in a human being's potential to act. This view of learning implies a constant linking of the known with the unknown , of existing knowledge with new knowledge or of experiences gained with new experiences.Learning is characterised by the interiorisation of knowledge. At the end of such an interiorising process the knowledge is added to the repertoire of actions of the person concerned, developing into a fully-fledged mental potential to act.Besides social testing personal opinion is an essential component of the interiorising process. Both foreknowledge and appreciation play a dominant role in the formation of personal opinion.Learning must first take place in the zone of proximal development, which implies that students gain insights that they can and want to develop, but those that they cannot make completely and independently their own. It is the task of the teacher to organise and guard this activity.In education personal and social interests need to be weighed up against each other. Here, the young human being stands central as a full member of a democratic society in which self-determination, joint-decision and solidarity are significant and main objectives within which other educational aims must fit.Exemplary themes are required to be included in the curriculum that are clearly related to key social problems (such as the environment, war and peace and medical-ethical issues) as well as linked to specific socio-cultural themes (like religion, economy and science).

Part III: The field research

The field research involved a search for tutors' practical insights into the didactics of EE learning processes. These insights were gathered in two series of field research. Series I consisted of: (1) in-depth research among EE tutors; (2) development research on environment-oriented lesson material; and (3) research conducted at a study conference of environment coordinators. Series II consisted of : (4) an inventory of tutors' opinions of various different agricultural schools; and (5) development research on agricultural education at school level. The results of these two series were combined to provide a practical image of EE didactics. The most important insights gained from this practical research were:

At the core of EE learning processes is knowledge that:

is shaped in a process of personal processing ;contains the development of comprehension as well as commitment ;leads to the development of self-endorsed values ;goes hand-in-hand with feelings of care and responsibility;is close to reality of the learning state;is studied from different angles ;constantly needs to be judged on its merits time and time again ; andincludes ecological aspects as a permanent component should the content of the lesson require it.

The learning process must preferably:

give the highest priority to development of the person ;take place in an open and pluriform environment for learning ;assume a hopeful perspective;be geared to the individual tutor's capabilities and that of the individual student;offer room for development and unpredictable learned questioning;deal with value-laden subjects carefully, but not avoid them;take place in safe, convivially studious surroundings ;allow room for dialogue as essential part of the learning process, andfollow up /make use of positive (nature) experiences.pay attention to caring activities.

Part IV: Toward didactics for meaningful EE

In this part the results of the theory studied (Part II) and the practical research carried out (Part III) are combined to form a comprehensive picture of didactic points of departure for EE learning processes (Part IV). This image can be divided into two main categories of didactics, namely personal closeness and exemplarity, which are further elaborated into several leading principles and didactic criteria. The main categories are briefly explained below.

Personal closeness

In learning processes personal closeness is characterised by the student's active approval of the content and objective of the learning process. Furthermore, much attention must be paid to the meaning that the student personally attaches to the content of the lesson. Focusing attention on personal significance is not really the issue. If the content of the lesson needs to be usable, it should also be placed in a social context. By sharing of meanings with others and by reflection on the social consequences of a specific information, knowledge becomes socially integrated and can be expressed within social reality.

Exemplarity

In exemplary learning processes it is true that the educational learning process begins within a certain context, but subsequently requires extension of the scholar's application. Examples that are recognisably linked with practice are the most suitable. Although the educational learning process first aims at the concrete context, the comprehension of the scholar must also be made abstract and the scholar must then be tested in a new concrete situation. For the quality of the educational learning process therefore, going back and forth several times between concretisation and abstraction would appear to be important. To increase the transferability and the flexibility of knowledge we must not only move between the concrete and the abstract, but also must observe a subject from different interest perspectives and apply it in various different contexts . Moreover, what needs to be sought are ways in which to symbolise the scholars in a diagram or a brief description.

The brief didactic characteristics given above, which a nature and environmental educational learning process must satisfy, are done justice if they are employed from the socio-constructivistic view of learning underlying this study.

Pollution stinks! Young adolescents' perceptions of nature and environmental issues with implications for education in urban settings.
Wals, A.E.J. - \ 1994
De Lier : Academic Book Center - ISBN 9789054780151 - 242
lerarenopleidingen - onderwijzen - milieueducatie - samenleving - interacties - adolescenten - milieu - verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - nadelige gevolgen - schoolvakken - natuur - educational courses - teaching - environmental education - society - interactions - adolescents - environment - pollutants - pollution - adverse effects - subjects - nature
Bos als topattractie: introductie studiedag KNBV.
Dietvorst, A. - \ 1994
Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 66 (1994)6. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 201 - 202.
bosbouw - recreatie - openluchtrecreatie - lerarenopleidingen - scholingscursussen - nederland - forestry - recreation - outdoor recreation - educational courses - training courses - netherlands
Beschouwing over bos als topattractie
Teaching as acting : a reconstructive study of an action theoretical approach to research and development in the domain of teaching = Onderwijzen als handelen : een reconstructieve studie van een handelingstheoretische benadering van onderzoek en ontwikkeling in het domein van het onderwijzen
Beijaard, D. - \ 1990
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. van Bergeijk; J.J. Peters. - S.l. : Beijaard - ISBN 9789071234156 - 287
onderwijzen - lerarenopleidingen - teaching - educational courses

The introduction of this study describes five developments regarding research and development in the domain of teaching. These developments are closely connected with the desire to bridge the gap between the theory and the practice of teaching. Successively, attention is paid to: (1) changes in research on teaching, (2) the impact of research results on the teaching practice, (3) methodological consequences for educational research in general, (4) developments in perspectives concerning teacher education and (5) developments in perspectives concerning teaching.

The general introduction anticipates an action theoretical approach to teaching, which underlied a previously executed research and development project that concerned practical teaching by instructors of the eleven Dutch centres for practical agricultural education. This project ran from August 1984 until August 1987. The research was directed towards practical teaching by instructors. A didactical in-service programme has since been developed for these instructors, based partly on the research results.

The aim of the present study is twofold. on the one hand a description is given of the project mentioned above, on the other the most important starting-points and key-concepts that underlied the project are submitted to a reconstruction. Through reconstruction it is attempted to realize a theoretical surplus value and, consequently, to contribute to the consolidation of an action theoretical paradigm regarding research and development in the domain of teaching.

Part I

The first part encompasses the theoretical and methodological framework of this study and consists of two chapters. In chapter one the aforementioned project is placed within the scope of the development of an action theoretical approach to teaching. It is argued that the development of such an approach is based on replication and continuity and takes place in the context of a research programme. The desire to bridge the gap between theory and practice is attached to this approach. In connection with this it is relevant to obtain (more) knowledge of teaching as a complex activity. It is tried to achieve this through an integrative study of (external) observable teaching. of cognitive processes underlying this teaching, including the conative elements which play a part, and of the contextual influences involved.

The aforementioned project encompassed the following phases: (1) a preparatory study of the Dutch centres for practical education in agriculture, (2) research on practical teaching by instructors, (3) research on student perceptions of this type of education and (4) the development of an in- service programme. These phases are briefly described in chapter one. In this study the reconstruction concerns the research on practical teaching and the developed in-service programme.

In this study reconstruction is seen as a theoretical reflection on' or an 'interpretative evaluation of'. A distinction is made between different levels of scientific activity in order to clarify what exactly is being dealt with. The reconstructive activity takes place at paradigmatic level, that is to say the level of a research programme. At this level the relationship between theory (action theoretical assumptions, including methodological rules for the designing and the execution of empirical research) and the domain (teaching) is emphasized. This relationship forms the object of reconstruction. on the basis of the previously executed project this relationship is the object of reflection from an action theoretical point of view.

The above-mentioned relationship is emphasized in chapter 2. Prior to giving concrete form to this relationship, attention is paid to some general aspects of the concept action. Literature about this concept demonstrates that it is used plurally. Partly because of this, the following is presupposed with regard to the concept action:
- it is based on a vision of man as an ethically, as well as intellectually, competent and active being; social science ought, along with and in coherence with the acquisition of knowledge, to serve this vision;
- an action is a configuration of intentionality, reflexivity and relationship with a context, whereby a subject is presupposed.

These notions formed the basis for the further development of starting- points and key-concepts at paradigmatic level.

In chapter 2 the following five starting-points are described with regard to the domain of teaching:
- intentionality and complexity interplay; intentionality refers to a teacher's cognitive and conative directedness towards his task and task environment; complexity has a bearing on characteristics of the task environment and on a teacher's personality aspects;
- in teaching the following action phases can be distinguished: planning execution and reflection; these three phases can be studied and analysed in conformity with the orientating, executing and controlling functions of an action;
- teaching is an activity whereby at least two people are involved, i.e. the teacher and the student; teacher actions are for an important part determined by student actions and reversed;
- learning to teach takes place on the basis of an exchange between objective and subjective theory; this point of view has the following consequences: (1) teachers should be 'educated' rather than 'trained' and (2) the transmission of knowledge and (learning) to reflect are automatically not compatible;
- by preference research on teaching is practice -oriented, that is to say theory-committed research which is practically relevant and also contributes to the development of objective theory; theory has a search-light function: it guides the collection of data and helps with their analysis and interpretation; in addition, the research design has to be in conformity with the complexity of the situation in practice (ecological validity), to be directed towards a diagnosis of this situation and to emphasize the study of cognitive representations.

The reconstruction focuses on these five starting-points and the key- concepts belonging to them. In connection with this it is attempted to answer the following three questions: To what extent may teaching be understood from an action theoretical perspective? In which way is it possible to give researchbased suggestions for the augmentation of teachers' rationality or professional competency? To what extent is understanding through interpretation an adequate way to approach the complexity of teaching?

Part II

The second part of this study describes in four chapters the design and the execution of the research and development project mentioned above. Chapter 3 deals with theoretical insights (interpretation theories) which have been important for the definite design of the research on teaching by instructors in the centres for practical agricultural education. This chapter starts with an outline of the historical aspect of this part of the project.

Firstly, an overview is given of research on teaching in terms of research programmes related to scientific traditions. Much attention is paid then to recent research on teacher thinking. Arguments are given for the incorporation of this type of research in a broader, more encompassing conception. Action theoretical research is introduced as an appropriate alternative.

Secondly, the concept of action is further explored. For this a brief study has been undertaken of insights as developed by the hermeneutic ('geisteswissenschaftliche') tradition and of two anthropological views on learning, respectively the work of H. Roth and the Russian psychology of learning.

Thirdly, attention is paid to important general didactical theories and models. In connection with this German literature is referred to in particular, as the Dutch didactical theories and models show interfaces with this literature. Special attention is paid to the significance of these theories and models in relationship to educational practice.

Fourthly, the emphasis is placed on the (continuing) discrepancy between the theory and the practice of teaching. Several causes for this discrepancy are described and perspectives are offered for the solution of this problem, including teaching based on 'recipes' and 'everyday didactics'. Both perspectives are discussed and provided with comments. Teaching as a special form of acting is seen as an appropriate alternative. Reflection as an educational principle and the didactical arrangement of this principle form an important part of the interpretation of teaching as a form of acting.

After this historical section a further explanation is given of the way the action theoretical principle of holism has been shaped. For this system theoretical insights have been tentatively used, which enable one to reduce the complex reality to a surveyable structure. Combined with results of the preliminary investigation these insights have led to a heuristic model for research on teaching by instructors. As regards content, this model has been constructed by making use of the didactical theory of Heimann and Schulz, supplemented with insights from the so- called critical didactics'. To this model, which is primarily a structure model, a process model has been added which separates teaching into planning, execution and reflection phases. This process model consists of points of attention for research mainly derived from recent research on teaching.

In chapter 4 the research on teaching by instructors and the research on student perceptions are illustrated. The underlying starting-points of these investigations are described in chapter 2.

The research on teaching by instructors (n=29) tried to answer questions concerning:
- features of the instructors' task environment and the influence of these features on their teaching;
- features of the involved centres for practical agricultural education in general and of teaching practical lessons in particular;
- the nature of instructors' subjective theories which are accessible through reflections;
- suggestions for the development of an in-service programme with reference to the research on the above-mentioned aspects.

A combination of research methods and techniques has been used to collect data, namely: structured open interviews, observations, context- embedded retrospective interviews and logbooks. The processing of data took place in phases: raw data were successively segmented into protocols, systematized with the help of schemes, and interpreted. The processing of data was characterized by reduction and thick description. A summary of research results is restricted in chapter 4 to a presentation of relevant task environmental features and their influence on teaching, to teaching itself and, derived from that, to features of practical agricultural education within the centres involved. The nature of reflections of the instructors involved and the in-service programme developed are reported in chapter 5.

The research on perceptions of students (n=381) should be seen as complementary to the research on teaching by instructors. For this a model was developed from an action theoretical perspective. Based on this model it was attempted to gain insight into:
- the way in which students from senior secondary and higher agricultural schools perceive the teaching and learning situation;
- the coherence between the conditions, the teaching and learning situation and the learning effects of practical agricultural education in the centres involved.

The collection of data took place by using a prestructured and closed questionnaire, consisting of items to be judged by students on a five- point scale. The processing of the data occurred per item as well as per cluster of items. Among other things, the results led to a completion, sharpening and correction of previously gained insights from the research on teaching by instructors.

The nature and content of instructor reflections are considered in more detail in chapter 5. For the analysis of reflection as a phase of teaching a distinction is made between empiric- theoretical reflections on the one hand and normative- theoretical reflections on the other. The former reflections are reflections concerning what went well and what did not go well during the lessons given. Reflections concerning 'what went well' predominantly seem to be of a concrete nature and are directly related to the lessons given. On the other hand, reflections concerning 'what did not go well' frequently seem to exceed the concrete lessons situation.

Empiric-theoretical reflections are formulated in general as well as in specific terms. Generally speaking, empiric-theoretical reflections mostly contain indications about why something did or did not go well.

Normative -theoretical reflections are reflections concerning desired changes. They refer to goals or future images which sometimes lead to adjustments of lessons. The task environment seems to be an important factor in lessons not being adjusted.

Next an analysis of reflection as a source of information (for the investigator) takes place. In this sense reflection refers to underlying reasons or motives of teachers' actions. Subjective or practical theories are distinguished which (1) are abstract and general, (2) represent the 'model-like middle' or blueprints for acting and (3) are specific and close to action. These three-parts ideally form a cognitive structure in which subjective theories are ordered sequentially and hierarchically. Their coherence can be regulative ('top down') as well as constitutive ('bottom up'). Among other things, inconsistencies within this coherence are seemingly caused by an insufficient empirical basis of subjective theories or by subjective theories which are insufficiently thought out from an objective theoretical perspective. It has also become clear that only a few instructors who were involved in the investigation, possess general and abstract theories about teaching and learning. Partly through that it seems that 'model-like thinking' is of an intuitive nature with many instructors; proportionally many instructors act according to didactical principles, rules of thumb or recipes gained in a nonautonomous way or by tradition. These and other findings, including the fact that many instructors did not follow any teacher education, need not necessarily be connected with 'bad' teaching. Due to inconsistencies in the cognitive structure, however, teaching more often appears to be inadequate or to result in unintended effects.

Conclusions like those mentioned above contain important suggestions for the development of a didactical in-service programme, which had to be directed towards enhancing the action competency and to breaking through existing routines. Chapter 5 describes the action theoretical concepts that helped develop this programme. It is essential that this programme meets the criteria of ecological relevance and theoretical reference. The former criterion implies that the programme has to be closely related to the members' own teaching situation. The second criterion refers to the insertion of objective theory in the programme. This objective theory has a bearing upon the 'model-like' middle to give concrete form to acting and upon more general theories of teaching and learning to enable one to legitimate choices made.

Chapter 5 ends with some problems and perspectives regarding research on teacher reflections. Attention is successively paid to (1) the diagnosis of reflections, (2) the relationship between motives and reflections, (3) the differences between people in their ability to stand back when necessary and to look at their everyday reality with some distance, and (4) the use of metaphors by teachers. It is stated that these four problems and perspectives contain relevant implications for current research on teaching.

Chapter 6 deals with methodological and methodical aspects of the research on teaching by instructors. In the first place a description is given of how the informants experienced their participation in the investigation. They generally found their participation positive, pleasant and instructive. None of them seems to have held back information consciously; some instructors emphatically said that they talked about things which they are usually reluctant to discuss. They did so, because they did not want to detract from the quality of the investigation. None of the Informants experienced the observation of a practical lesson as really disturbing: generally instructors as well as students acted as they do normally. This was not the case, however, for logbook keeping. Memories of later lessons appeared to interfere with those of prior lessons. It also became clear that it was not always easy to write down experiences briefly. For many instructors the logbook turned out to be a source of developing awareness and a source of change. Most instructors felt positively about some prestructuring of the logbook in advance.

The research strategy followed implied numerous considerations and choices in connection with the objectivity, reliability and validity of research results. Objectivity is seen in the research on teaching by instructors as disciplined subjectivity and scientific honesty. In this sense and combined with notions of interpretative research, much value is attached to the objective status of theory.

As concerns reliability a distinction is made between internal and external reliability. Several procedures were carried out in each case. The same applies to the internal and external validity of the research results. In general it can be concluded that there are no indications for any doubt about the reliability and validity of the research results; from the perspective of interpretative research and the starting-points as described in chapter 2 there is talk of reliable and valid research results.

Further attention is paid to some methodological issues in chapter 6, namely: the status of the actor's point of view in relation to the importance of doing research on practical theories, the asking of 'why- questions' for gaining insight into informants' motives or reasons and the role of the investigator in interpretative research based on action theoretical starting-points.

Part III

The third part of this study consists of chapter 7, in which proposals are made for an improved action theoretical paradigm regarding research and development in the domain of teaching. First of all, however, the questions formulated in chapter 2 are answered, not in the sense of right or wrong but in an interpretative-evaluative sense.

With respect to the first question, which concerns the suitability of action theory for research on teaching, it can be concluded that this theory has a valuable heuristic function for attempts to understand and describe the complexity of teaching. Among other things, the surplus value of using action theory in the domain of teaching has a bearing upon the teacher's role in the investigation, the process of teaching, how this process can be learned in connection with demands concerning reflection and professional growth.

With respect to the second question, which concerns the relationship between research and development in the domain of teaching, it is stated that the 'voice of the practician' is, under certain conditions, essential in contributing to bridging the gap between theory and practice. For this purpose it is found relevant that research is practice-oriented with an innovationtheoretical perspective.

With respect to the third question, which concerns understanding the complexity of teaching through interpretation, special attention is paid to practical theories in connection with the relevance for practice of the research results in question. It is also pointed out that a scientific detour' is necessary in order to help practice in an accountable way; in connection with this similarities and differences between the investigator's and the actor's perspectives play an important part. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon involved, preference is given to intensive rather than extensive approaches regarding research on teaching.

The remaining part of chapter 7 deals with perspectives with reference to problems which became visible during the reconstructive study. Attention is paid particularly to the relationship between the cognitive and motivational side of intentionality and to action theoretical concepts connected with a concrete perspective of learning to teach. Related to the in-service programme developed it is also emphasized that the innovation- theoretical perspective should be seen explicitly in the context of the course-members' school. In eventual further projects and in line with the development of a research programme these perspectives, including the importance of in-depth research, need to be elaborated in more detail.

Landbouwhuishoudleraressen van dorp tot dorp, 1909-1940.
Burg, M.P.M. van der - \ 1989
In: Vrouwen van het land : anderhalve eeuw plattelandsvrouwen in Nederland / Backerra, F., Flapper, L., Hobbelink, A., - p. 129 - 151.
onderwijs - lerarenopleidingen - boeren - geschiedenis - huishoudkunde - huishoudonderwijs - vrije tijd - nederland - sociale klassen - onderwijzen - opleiding - vrouwen - schoolvakken - education - educational courses - farmers - history - home economics - home economics education - leisure - netherlands - social classes - teaching - training - women - subjects
Het artikel is gebaseerd op het boek van M. van der Burg, Een half miljoen boerinnen in de klas : landbouwhuishoudonderwijs vanaf 1909. Heerlen, 1988
Agrarisch cursusonderwijs: achtergronden en deelname
Bijlmakers, L.A. ; Meijers, J.L. - \ 1989
Wageningen (Agrarisch Onderwijskundige Reeks ) - ISBN 9789071234118 - 191
lerarenopleidingen - scholingscursussen - agrarisch onderwijs - onderwijzen - landbouw - nederland - schoolvakken - educational courses - training courses - agricultural education - teaching - agriculture - netherlands - subjects
Dit eindrapport van het onderzoeksproject "Agrarisch cursusonderwijs" bestaat uit 2 delen: het 1e bevat een overzicht van de organisatorische en uitvoeringsaspecten van het Nederlandse stelsel van agrarisch cursusonderwijs met suggesties voor verbeteringen, en in het 2e deel wordt het onderzoeksresultaat weergegeven naar de wijze, waarop agrariers in Gelderland aan agrarische cursussen en andere leeractiviteiten deelnemen
Milieuvoorlichting: model voor een planmatige voorbereiding.
Meegeren, P. van - \ 1989
Meppel/Amsterdam : Boom - ISBN 9789060099001 - 153
lerarenopleidingen - milieueducatie - voorlichting - informatiediensten - methodologie - modellen - natuurlijke historie - natuurbescherming - planning - bescherming - onderzoek - onderwijzen - milieuwetenschappen - natuur - schoolvakken - educational courses - environmental education - extension - information services - methodology - models - natural history - nature conservation - protection - research - teaching - environmental sciences - nature - subjects
Zorg, zorgelijk, zorgwekkend?
Weeda, C.J. - \ 1987
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 8 (1987)1. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 1 - 3.
lerarenopleidingen - huishoudkunde - huishoudonderwijs - echtelijke verhouding - mannen - relaties - onderwijzen - vrouwen - schoolvakken - educational courses - home economics - home economics education - marital interaction - men - relationships - teaching - women - subjects
Bespreking van verschillende zienswijzen m.b.t. het vak 'Verzorging' in het onderwijs
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