Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The life cycle carbon balance of selective logging in tropical forests of Costa Rica
    Alice-Guier, Federico E. ; Mohren, Frits ; Zuidema, Pieter A. - \ 2019
    Journal of Industrial Ecology (2019). - ISSN 1088-1980
    carbon neutrality - climate change mitigation - harvested wood products - industrial ecology - life cycle assessment - tropical selective logging

    The effect of logging on atmospheric carbon concentrations remains highly contested, especially in the tropics where it is associated to forest degradation. To contribute to this discussion, we estimated the carbon balance from logging natural tropical forests in Costa Rica through a life cycle accounting approach. Our system included all major life cycle processes at a regional level during one rotation period (15 years). We used mass flow analysis to trace biogenic carbon. Data were gathered from all logging operations in the Costa Rican NW region (107 management plants), a sample of industries transforming wood into final products (20 sawmills), and national reports. We estimated a surplus of −3.06 Mg C ha−1 15 year−1 stored within the system. When accounting for uncertainty and variability in a Monte Carlo analysis, the average balance shifted to −2.19 Mg C ha−1 15 year−1 with a 95% CI of −5.26 to 1.86. This confidence interval reveals probabilities of a net increase in atmospheric carbon due to harvesting although these are smaller than those from a system that acts as a reservoir. Our results provide evidence for the carbon neutrality of bio-materials obtained from natural forests. We found that anthropogenic reservoirs play a determinant role in delaying carbon emissions and that these may explain differences with previous carbon balance studies on tropical forest management. Therefore, the climate mitigation potential of forest-derived products is not exclusive to forest management, but measures should be considered throughout the processes of wood transformation, use, and disposal.

    Life cycle assessment of ethanol production from miscanthus : A comparison of production pathways at two European sites
    Lask, Jan ; Wagner, Moritz ; Trindade, Luisa M. ; Lewandowski, Iris - \ 2019
    Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 269 - 288.
    biofuel - environmental performance - life cycle assessment - lignocellulosic ethanol - marginal land - miscanthus - perennial crop - pretreatment

    Lignocellulosic ethanol represents a renewable alternative to petrol. Miscanthus, a perennial plant that grows on marginal land, is characterized by efficient use of resources and is considered a promising source of lignocellulosic biomass. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to determine the environmental impacts of ethanol production from miscanthus grown on marginal land in Great Britain (Aberystwyth) and an average-yield site in Germany (Stuttgart; functional unit: 1 GJ). As the conversion process has substantial influence on the overall environmental performance, the comparison examined three pretreatment options for miscanthus. Overall, results indicate lower impacts for the production in Stuttgart in comparison with the corresponding pathways in Aberystwyth across the analysed categories. Disparities between the sites were mainly attributed to differences in biomass yield. When comparing the conversion options, liquid hot water treatment resulted in the lowest impacts, followed by dilute sulphuric acid. Dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment represented the least favourable option. Site-dependent variation in biomass composition and degradability did not have substantial influence on the environmental performance of the analysed pathways. Additionally, implications of replacing petrol with miscanthus ethanol were examined. Ethanol derived from miscanthus resulted in lower impacts with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil resource depletion, natural land transformation and ozone depletion. However, for other categories, including toxicity, eutrophication and agricultural land occupation, net scores were substantially higher than for the fossil reference. Nevertheless, the results indicate that miscanthus ethanol produced via dilute acid and liquid hot water treatment at the site in Stuttgart has the potential to comply with the requirements of the European Renewable energy directive for greenhouse gas emission reduction. For ethanol production at the marginal site, carbon sequestration needs to be considered in order to meet the requirements for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Sustainability assessment tools for organic greenhouse horticulture
    Foresi, Lucia ; Schmutz, U. ; Anton, Assumpcio ; Vieweger, Anja ; Bavec, Martina ; Meier, Matthias ; Shadid, Muhammad ; Pena, Nancy ; Petrasek, Richard ; Stajnko, Denis ; Vukamaniĉ, T. ; Landert, Jan ; Weißhaidinger, Rainier ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
    [Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462575370 - 50
    greenhouse horticulture - organic farming - tools - life cycle assessment - sustainability - ecological assessment - glastuinbouw - biologische landbouw - gereedschappen - levenscyclusanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecologische beoordeling
    This booklet describes different tools currently employed for sustainability evaluation, according to the field of expertise and experience of the authors. Each method serves a different purpose and covers different aspects of sustainability (environmental, economic, social or all together). This body of work will attempt to show the complexity of assessing sustainability in a comprehensive way, by giving a short background and describing the main features of each tool, and supplying the reader with a practical example of application whenever possible.
    'Duurzame voedselvoorziening onmogelijk zonder veehouderij'
    Boer, I.J.M. de; Kernebeek, H.R.J. van - \ 2015
    food supply - sustainability - livestock farming - food consumption - life cycle assessment - land use - animal protein

    Voor optimaal landgebruik is matige consumptie van dierlijk eiwit vereist. Bij een hoge populatiedruk is een veganistische dieet net zo min mogelijk als een dieet met veel dierlijk eiwit. Het aandeel dierlijke producten in het dieet is bij hoge populatiedruk afhankelijk van het aandeel van marginaal land in de beschikbare grond. Zo luidden de conclusies van de lezing van prof. Imke de Boer op een studiedag van FrieslandCampina eerder dit jaar.

    Robustness of life cycle assessment results : influence of data variation and modelling choices on results for beverage packaging materials
    Harst-Wintraecken, E.J.M. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze, co-promotor(en): Jose Potting. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575097 - 217
    levenscyclusanalyse - onzekerheid - modelleren - gegevensanalyse - gegevens verzamelen - afvalverwerking - recycling - milieueffect - life cycle assessment - uncertainty - modeling - data analysis - data collection - waste treatment - recycling - environmental impact

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of product and service systems throughout their life cycles. However, it can happen that LCAs for the same product have different and even conflicting outcomes. LCA results need to be robust and trustworthy if they are used in decision making. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate whether the use of multiple data sets and multiple modelling options can increase the robustness of LCA results.

    The research starts with identifying reasons for differences in LCA results for the same product. The results of ten existing LCAs for disposable beverage cups are compared to each other as to examine the consistency and robustness of these results. The comparison of the LCAs shows no consistent best or worst cup material. And, the quantitative results for cups made from the same material vary across the LCAs. The evaluation of the methodological choices and the used data sources in each LCA made it possible to identify possible sources for discrepancies in the LCA results. Reasons for differences in results include the variation in the properties of the cups, production processes, waste treatment options, allocation options, choices in system boundaries, impact indicators, and potentially also the data sets that are used.

    The thesis next describes a novel method to evaluate and include the influence of data sets and modelling choices on the LCA results. The method is applied in a case study of a disposable polystyrene (PS) beverage cup. The study purposely uses different data sets from various sources for processes with an influential contribution to the LCA results. The study includes two waste treatment options (incineration and recycling). The multiple data sets represent the variability among processes, and the waste treatments represent choices in the modelling of the life cycle of the PS cup.

    This variability among the data sets for a similar process is presented as a spread in the results. This spread in the results for the PS cup is caused by differences in the amount and type of the used resources and energy, reported emissions, the origin of the production location, the time period of data collection, or choices in the value of recycled PS. The overlapping spread in the quantitative results for incineration and recycling prevents a decisive conclusion on the preferred waste treatment option for the PS cups.

    Next, the method for the use of multiple data sets and modelling choices is applied in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups. Three cups are compared: a PS cup, a polylactic acid cup (PLA, a biobased plastic), and a cup made from biopaper (paper with a lining of biobased-plastic). The waste treatment options consist of incineration and recycling for all three cups, and additionally composting and anaerobic digestion for the PLA and biopaper cup.

    The use of multiple data sets and modelling choices leads to a considerable spread in the LCA results of the cups. The results do not point to the most environmentally friendly cup material, and neither to a preferred waste treatment option. The results clearly identify composting, however, as the least preferred waste treatment option for the PLA and biopaper cups. The spread in the results makes the comparison of the results for the cups more complex, but the results provides more robust information for decision makers. The combined inclusion of the variability among data sets and the waste treatment options makes the results more trustworthy.

    The thesis then dives deeper into the methodological modelling of recycling in LCA and describes and evaluates six widely used recycling modelling methods: three substitution methods, an allocation method, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. The main difference among the six methods lies in the assumption on where and how to apply credits for recycled material in the life cycle of the product.

    These six methods are applied in two case studies: a disposable PS beverage cup and an aluminium beverage can. The results for the aluminium can clearly depend on the applied recycling modelling method, the recycling rate of the disposed cans, and the amount of recycled material used in the cans. The results for the PS cup additionally depend on the consideration of a drop in the quality of the recycled PS compared to the original PS, and the other waste treatments (landfilling and incineration) for the cups. Including several recycling modelling methods in the LCA incorporates the various underlying modelling philosophies of the methods, and thus makes the results more robust.

    This thesis demonstrates the added value of including multiple data sets and multiple modelling choices in LCA. The use of multiple data sets is especially useful if general processes instead of specific processes are used in the representation of the product system. The use of multiple data sets increases the accuracy of the results, and is a supplemental tool next to statistical methods which increase the precision of the results. The simultaneous handling of variability among data sets and modelling choices is hardly performed in LCA. The method presented in this thesis fills this gap and provides a transparent tool to capture these uncertainties. The trade-off between an increase in the robustness of the results and the additional demand for resources (time, money, effort) should be assessed, and depends on the goal of the study and on the intended use of the results. This thesis shows that inclusion of the uncertainty in the LCA results provides the decision maker with valuable information. This thesis thus provides a useful method to increase the robustness of LCA results.

    Insects as food and feed: nutrient composition and environmental impact
    Oonincx, D.G.A.B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van Huis; Joop van Loon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571785 - 198
    insecten als voedsel - voer - voedselsamenstelling - levenscyclusanalyse - milieueffect - insects as food - feeds - food composition - life cycle assessment - environmental impact


    Because of an increasing world population, with more demanding consumers,

    the demand for animal based protein is on the increase. To meet this increased

    demand, alternative sources of animal based protein are required. When

    compared to conventional production animals, insects are suggested to be an

    interesting protein source because they have a high reproductive capacity, high

    nutritional quality, and high feed conversion efficiency, they can use waste as feed

    and are suggested to be produced more sustainably.

    This thesis starts with a historical perspective on insects as food and feed,

    and explains why insects are expected to be more suitable production animals.

    In Chapter 2 the nutritional quality of insects is discussed based on a

    variety of insects that are commonly used as feed or food. Additionally, various

    environmental and dietary factors which are known to significantly affect insect

    chemical composition are reviewed.

    In Chapter 3 the direct production of greenhouse gases (GHG) and

    ammonia, as well as carbon dioxide emission and average daily weight gain of

    five insect species is quantified. Differences regarding the production of GHGs

    (expressed as CO2 equivalents) between insect species were mainly due to the

    production of methane. All species tested emitted lower amounts of GHG than

    cattle, had a higher growth rate than cattle or pigs, and emitted lower amounts of

    ammonia and either comparable or lower amounts of GHG than pigs.

    Results from Chapter 3 were used in a Life Cycle Assessment conducted

    in Chapter 4. For a mealworm production system total GHG production, energy

    use, and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of

    animal protein. This chapter shows that mealworms should be considered a more

    sustainable source of edible protein, and that a large part of their environmental

    impact is due to the feed they consume.

    In Chapter 5 four diets composed from industrial organic by-products

    were formulated such that they varied in protein and fat content. These diets were

    offered to four insect species and their feed conversion efficiency was determined.

    Diets used in large scale production systems were included and served as

    controls. Diet composition affected feed conversion efficiency in all species. It

    is concluded that the four investigated species are efficient production animals

    and can therefore be considered interesting for the production of feed or food.

    Furthermore, diet composition affected insect composition, indicating possibilities

    to tailor the composition of these insects to best meet consumers’ needs.

    In Chapter 6 the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure was compared

    as feed for larvae of the Black Soldier Fly, which in turn could be used as feed for

    conventional production animals. Newly hatched larvae were directly inoculated

    on moistened manure. Whereas survival was high on all three tested substrates,

    the development time was greatly prolonged compared to the control diet. On

    pig manure, more nitrogen was utilised than on chicken and cow manure, while P

    utilisation was highest on cow manure. A large proportion of manure nitrogen was

    lost in all treatments, indicating that the production system would require a way

    to prevent this in order to make it ecologically sound. Furthermore, to improve

    economic viability, shorter development times would be required.

    In Chapter 7 the suggestions why insects would make suitable production

    animals are evaluated based on both literature data, and data gathered in this

    thesis. Furthermore, prospects for insects as food or feed are put forward,

    with emphasis on the knowledge and legislation requirements for the further

    development of the insect production sector.

    Consideration of life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in road infrastructure planning processes: Examples of Sweden, Norway, Denmark and The Netherlands
    Miliutenko, Sofiia ; Kluts, Ingeborg ; Lundberg, Kristina ; Toller, Susanna ; BrattebØ, Helge ; Birgisdóttir, Harpa ; Potting, José - \ 2014
    Journal of environmental assessment policy and management 16 (2014)4. - ISSN 1464-3332
    energy use - environmental assessment - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - life cycle assessment - road infrastructure planning

    Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with life cycle stages of road infrastructure are currently rarely assessed during road infrastructure planning. This study examines the road infrastructure planning process, with emphasis on its use of Environmental Assessments (EA), and identifies when and how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be integrated in the early planning stages for supporting decisions such as choice of road corridor. Road infrastructure planning processes are compared for four European countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands). The results show that only Norway has a formalised way of using LCA during choice of road corridor. Only the Netherlands has a requirement for using LCA in the later procurement stage. It is concluded that during the early stages of planning, LCA could be integrated as part of an EA, as a separate process or as part of a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Duurzaamheid van biobased producten uit plantaardige olie: energiegebruik en broeikasgasemissie
    Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Patel, M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789461737045 - 52
    chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levenscyclusanalyse - plantaardige oliën - energiegebruik - broeikasgassen - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - biodiesel - sustainability - life cycle assessment - plant oils - energy consumption - greenhouse gases
    Dit boek gaat in op een vergelijking van producten uit natuurlijke olie. Drie oliegewassen zijn in de studie vergeleken: oliepalm, koolzaad en soja. Uit deze gewassen kan een veelheid van biobased producten gemaakt worden: biodiesel, polyol voor polyurethaan en harsen zijn in de studie als eindproduct omschreven. Voor alle onderzochte producten geldt, dat vervanging van een fossiel product door een vergelijkbaar biobased product leidt tot een verlaging van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en van het gebruik van fossiele energie.
    State of the Art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture, Country data on energy consumption in different agroproduction sectors in the European countries
    Visser, C.L.M. de; Buisonje, F.E. de; Ellen, H.H. ; Stanghellini, C. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2012
    agrEE - 68
    energiegebruik - landbouwproductie - dierlijke productie - gewasproductie - energie - efficiëntie - levenscyclusanalyse - finland - duitsland - griekenland - nederland - polen - portugal - energy consumption - agricultural production - animal production - crop production - energy - efficiency - life cycle assessment - finland - germany - greece - netherlands - poland - portugal
    Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture, reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate change on a broad scale and local weather patterns, and farming management practices. There is not a single measure to describe, ensure, or improve energy efficiency. Instead, in the energy balance for a given production process, a variety of indicators may serve and support energy efficiency analysis. The results of this study are based on the specific input of primary energy per cultivation area (GJ ha-1) and on the specific input of primary energy per ton of agricultural product (GJ t-1). All the measures that are suitable to reduce the specific energy input, will improve energy efficiency (the energy efficiency measures). Improving energy efficiency of agricultural production contributes directly to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide.
    Effecten van kringlooplandbouw op ecosysteemdiensten en milieukwaliteit : een integrale analyse van People, Planet & Profit, effecten op gebiedsniveau, en de potentie voor zelfsturing, met de Noardlike Fryske Wâlden als inspirerend voorbeeld
    Boer, H.C. de; Dolman, M.A. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Kros, J. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Stuiver, M. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Vries, W. de; Bouma, J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 61
    duurzame veehouderij - melkveehouderij - kringlopen - bedrijfssystemenonderzoek - levenscyclusanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bodemkwaliteit - milieu-analyse - friese wouden - sustainable animal husbandry - dairy farming - cycling - farming systems research - life cycle assessment - sustainability - soil quality - environmental analysis - friese wouden
    Kringlooplandbouw is een vorm van landbouw waarbij de nadruk ligt op het gebruik van op het bedrijf aanwezige hulpbronnen en voorraden, en het behalen van voldoende inkomen over langere termijn met het behoud van de kwaliteit van natuurlijke ecosystemen. In Nationaal Landschap ‘Noardlike Fryske Wâlden’ (NFW) wordt in de melkveehouderij een vorm van kringlooplandbouw bedreven die zich onder andere kenmerkt door het voeren van de melkkoeien met een structuurrijk en eiwitarm dieet, minder gebruik van kunstmest, het bovengronds uitrijden van dierlijke mest en de focus op een hogere bodembenutting van stikstof (N) uit dierlijke mest. Bij deze vorm van kringlooplandbouw ligt de focus op levering van ecosysteemdiensten door de bodem, vanuit haar diverse functies. Belangrijke ecosysteemdiensten, waarbij door de bodem een aanzienlijke bijdrage wordt geleverd, zijn de voedsel- en biomassaproductie, de grondwaterkwaliteit, de opslag van koolstof en de regulering van nutriënten. De maatschappelijke doorwerking van kringlooplandbouw is in potentie zeer groot, en de belangstelling vanuit de maatschappij voor deze vorm van landbouw neemt toe.
    De milieuprestaties van wild gevangen vis, aquacultuur en vlees vergeleken
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Bakker, T. ; Taal, C. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Viets, T.C. - \ 2012
    Aquacultuur 27 (2012)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 11 - 18.
    aquacultuur - vleesproductie - visproducten - milieueffect - visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levenscyclusanalyse - wild gevangen vis - kweekvis - aquaculture - meat production - fish products - environmental impact - fisheries - sustainability - life cycle assessment - wild caught fish - farmed fish
    In dit artikel worden de resultaten van onderzoek naar de milieu-impact van wild gevangen witvis uit de Noordzee beschreven. De resultaten worden vergeleken met de milieu-impact van geïmporteerde kweekvis en vlees.
    Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana
    Eshun, J.F. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Jose Potting. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732118 - 115
    houtproductie - bos- en houtproductenindustrieën - levenscyclusanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieueffect - houtkap - ghana - timber production - forest products industries - life cycle assessment - sustainability - environmental impact - logging - ghana

    The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in Ghana is associated with an increasing environmental burden in terms of use of resources, and production of emissions and waste. The overall objective of this thesis was to quantify the environmental performance of the sector and to explore the possible options and strategies to sustain and improve the environmental performance of the timber sector in Ghana. To achieve this objective, the following research questions are addressed in successive chapters: (1) Is the timber sector in Ghana sustainable?, (2) What is the most dominant environmental pressure for the five major production lines in the Ghanaian timber industry, and what is the influence of the choice of functional unit?, (3) What does the most dominant environmental pressure contribute to the life cycle impact of the timber sector in Ghana?, and (4) Which potentials improvement options and strategies are available for reducing the major environmental impact in the timber sector in Ghana?

    The research for question 1 identified a sustainability gap that has been created as a result of aggressive competition between the informal and formal timber sectors for raw material supply. The subsequent life cycle assessment (LCA), in response to research question 2 and 3, showed land use and wood waste as the most dominant environmental pressure for five major production lines (air dried lumber, kiln dried lumber, plywood, veneer and furniture parts). Land use and wood waste pressures will eventually lead to complete deforestation in the year 2025 if major policies are not implemented. The LCA results were sensitive to the choice of the functional unit (1m3, 1kg and 1euro). The money-based functional unit, that was seen as more appropriate, favors the value-added products. This holds a promising future in terms of sustainability for the timber industry in Ghana. The impact assessment results showed a strong correlation between wood waste and land use as proxy for biodiversity loss, and also positive correlations between wood waste and the other five impacts results. Wood waste production was concluded as a major driving force for biodiversity loss, and a sufficiently good single indicator for all other environmental impact in the timber sector of Ghana. The research for question 4 showed that combining technological changes, good operational practices and recycling measures could reduce wood waste by approximately 50%.

    This thesis presents a first step in exploring the possible options and strategies to sustain and improve the environmental performance of the timber sector in Ghana. The understanding of the link between sustainability and environmental assessment can help to design and implement good and working sustainability policies in Africa. The presented research therefore contributes to the development of integrated policy support approaches, which aim at strengthening the sustainable management of the timber sector in Ghana. This research may serve as a guide for policy-makers as well as for companies in elaborating measures to sustain and reduce environmental impacts in terms of possible future developments in the timber sector in Africa and particularly Ghana.

    Environmental performance of wild-caught North Sea whitefish : A comparison with aquaculture and animal husbandry using LCA
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Taal, C. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Bakker, T. ; Viets, T.C. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086155552 - 55
    vis - visvangsten - aquacultuur - levenscyclusanalyse - milieueffect - energiegebruik - vergelijkend onderzoek - noordzee - fish - fish catches - aquaculture - life cycle assessment - environmental impact - energy consumption - comparative research - north sea
    Dit onderzoek heeft tot doel om de kwaliteiten van wild gevangen witvis uit de Noordzee in kaart te brengen en te vergelijken met de kwaliteiten van geïmporteerde, gekweekte vis en van vlees. We richten ons daarbij in het bijzonder op de milieuprestaties. In dit onderzoek doorlopen we de volgende stappen: 1. We voeren een levenscyclusanalyse (LCA) uit om de milieuprestaties van schol en kabeljauw in kaart te brengen en te vergelijken met die van zalm, tilapia en pangasius. Deze analyse is te beschouwen als de kern van het onderzoek; 2. We vergelijken de resultaten van de LCA met de resultaten van LCA-onderzoek naar rundvlees, varkensvlees en kip; 3. We beschrijven welke impact verwachte verbeteringen in de visserij en aquacultuur zullen hebben op de LCA. Omdat er geen data voor tong beschikbaar waren, hebben we ons voor Noordzeevis gericht op schol en kabeljauw.
    Synthesis of the research within the framework of the Mineral Concentrates Pilot
    Velthof, G.L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2224) - 72
    mest - kunstmeststoffen - stikstof - levenscyclusanalyse - economische analyse - concentraten - eu regelingen - manures - fertilizers - nitrogen - life cycle assessment - economic analysis - concentrates - eu regulations
    The agronomic, economic and environmental impacts of the production of mineral concentrate and its use as mineral fertilizer were examined in a pilot in 2009 and 2010. In this pilot, the mineral concentrates were applied as fertilizer above the application standard for manure, but within the nitrogen application standard of the Nitrates Directive. The study consisted of i) monitoring of products from slurry treatment, ii) research on agricultural and environmental impacts of application of mineral concentrate as fertilizer, iii) research on user experience and an economic analysis and iv) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report is a synthesis of the results of the various studies. The research data will serve for consultation with the European Commission on a possible permanent permission to use of mineral concentrates as replacement of mineral fertilizers.
    Samen rekenen aan duurzaamheid
    Boone, J.A. - \ 2011
    Kennis Online 8 (2011)nov. - p. 8 - 9.
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedingsmiddelen - producten - duurzame ontwikkeling - levenscyclusanalyse - meting - sustainability - foods - products - sustainable development - life cycle assessment - measurement
    Internationale bedrijven, van Walmart en Ahold tot Unilever en McDonalds, gaan samen standaardmethoden vaststellen voor het meten van de duurzaamheid van hun producten. Wageningen UR wordt het Europese centrum van de samenwerking.
    LCA analyse aardappel en pompoen : vergelijking duurzaamheid & milieuvriendelijkheid van biologische aardappel en pompoen: Nederlandse teelt & bewaring versus import
    Wijk, C.A.P. van; Stilma, E.S.C. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 39
    aardappelen - consumptieaardappelen - pompoenen - levenscyclusanalyse - biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - ketenmanagement - energiegebruik - emissie - kooldioxide - potatoes - table potatoes - pumpkins - life cycle assessment - organic farming - organic foods - supply chain management - energy consumption - emission - carbon dioxide
    Voor een goed ketenbeheer in de biologische landbouw is het voor de sector van belang te weten welke optie het meest duurzaam en milieuvriendelijk is: in Nederland geteeld product met bewaring of import product ? Daarvoor zijn levenscyclusanalyses (LCA’s) uitgevoerd naar de duurzaamheid en milieuvriendelijkheid van in Nederland geteeld biologische product (inclusief bewaring) in vergelijking met biologisch importproduct. Het resultaat maakt het voor de biologische sector mogelijk ook in het ketenbeheer duurzame keuzes te maken. Het importproduct vraagt zowel bij aardappel als bij pompoen veel meer energie en veroorzaakt meer CO2 uitstoot dan Nederlands product uit bewaring. Bij beide gewassen wordt het hogere energiegebruik en de hogere emissie van het importproduct vooral veroorzaakt door de grotere transportafstand. De brede vraag en discussie voor de biologische sector is of men de tekorten van deze biologische producten via importen wil aanvullen, of dat aan de marktvraag gewoonweg niet voldaan moet worden door “nee” te verkopen.
    Synthese van het onderzoek in het kader van de Pilot Mineralenconcentraten
    Velthof, G.L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2211) - 74
    mestverwerking - bemesting - dierlijke meststoffen - omgekeerde osmose - scheiding - proefprojecten - akkerbouw - milieueffect - economische aspecten - levenscyclusanalyse - concentraten - manure treatment - fertilizer application - animal manures - reverse osmosis - separation - pilot projects - arable farming - environmental impact - economic aspects - life cycle assessment - concentrates
    Eén van de mogelijkheden van mestverwerking is dat mest wordt gescheiden en dat het mineralenconcentraat, dat ontstaat uit omgekeerde osmose van de dunne fractie, gebruikt wordt als kunstmestvervanger. In 2009 en 2010 zijn, met instemming van de Europese Commissie, in een pilot de landbouwkundige, economische en milieukundige effecten van de productie en het gebruik van mineralenconcentraten als kunstmest onderzocht. In de pilot zijn de mineralenconcentraten als kunstmest boven de gebruiksnorm van dierlijke mest toegepast, maar binnen de stikstofgebruiksnorm in het kader van de Nitraatrichtlijn. De gegevens uit het onderzoek dienen voor overleg met de Europese Commissie over een eventuele permanente voorziening van gebruik van het mineralenconcentraat als kunstmestvervanger. De volgende studies zijn uitgevoerd: monitoring van producten die ontstaan bij de mestverwerking; landbouwkundige en milieukundige effecten van toepassing van mineralenconcentraten en andere producten uit de mestverwerking als meststof; gebruikerservaringen en een economische analyse van het gebruik van mineralenconcentraten in de pilot; Levens Cyclus Analyse (LCA). In dit rapport wordt een synthese gegeven van de resultaten van de verschillende deelonderzoeken.
    De Carbon Footprint : een belangrijk criterium voor duurzaamheid
    Putten, K. van der - \ 2011
    BloembollenVisie 2011 (2011)227. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 20 - 21.
    broeikaseffect - sierteelt - cultuurmethoden - broeikasgassen - levenscyclusanalyse - milieueffect - sociaal bewustzijn - greenhouse effect - ornamental horticulture - cultural methods - greenhouse gases - life cycle assessment - environmental impact - social consciousness
    De moderne consument vindt het steeds belangrijker om bewuste keuzes te maken. Met 'Ecobranding' en 'Green marketing' kunnen producenten hier handig op inspelen. Door te investeren in milieuvriendelijke teeltmethoden kunnen zij hun producten laten onderscheiden op gebied van duurzaamheid. Maar duurzaamheid is een breed begrip. Er kan bijvoorbeeld gekeken worden naar waterverbruik, ecotoxiciteit, diervriendelijkheid of levensduur. Een steeds vaker gebruikt criterium voor duurzaamheid is de Carbon Footprint.
    LevensCyclusAnalyse (LCA) pilot mineralenconcentraten = Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) mineral concentrates pilot
    Vries, J.W. de; Hoeksma, P. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 480) - 61
    mestverwerking - levenscyclusanalyse - milieueffect - kunstmeststoffen - emissie - fijn stof - concentraten - intensieve veehouderij - drijfmest - manure treatment - life cycle assessment - environmental impact - fertilizers - emission - particulate matter - concentrates - intensive livestock farming - slurries
    This study assessed the change in the environmental impact of producing and using the end products, including mineral concentrate, from several pilot facilities as mineral fertilizer and substrate for anaerobic digestion. The LCA methodology was applied to assess the environmental consequences of four pig and dairy cattle slurry scenario’s. The scenarios were compared to a reference. Results showed that no mineral fertilizer was replaced in the scenarios. Without anaerobic digestion, no change in the environmental performance was observed for fattening pig slurry. Digestion reduced greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use. The sensitivity analysis showed higher ammonia and particulate matter emissions in all scenarios when processing more manure than only a surplus.
    Ontwikkeling van een rekenmethodiek voor broeikasgasemissies tijdens transport : toepassing binnen het project Venlog
    Kernebeek, H.R.J. van; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2011
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap )
    tuinbouwgewassen - landbouwproducten - verse producten - broeikasgassen - emissie - zeetransport - railtransport - binnenvaart - levenscyclusanalyse - berekening - horticultural crops - agricultural products - fresh products - greenhouse gases - emission - sea transport - rail transport - inland waterway transport - life cycle assessment - calculation
    Voor het berekenen van de carbon footprint wordt gebruik gemaakt van de levenscyclusanalyse (LCA). Met deze methode kunnen de (broeikasgas)emissies worden berekend die in iedere schakel in de productieketen optreedt. Het Productschap Tuinbouw beschikt over een protocol dat specifiek is ontwikkeld voor het berekenen van broeikasgasemissies van tuinbouwproducten. Dit protocol bevat nog geen rekenmethodiek voor broeikasgasemissieberekeningen tijdens transport per trein, binnenvaartschip en shortseaschip. In dit rapport wordt een methodiek voor deze transportmodaliteiten ontwikkeld. Met de rekenregels behorende bij de ontwikkelde methodiek kunnen broeikasgasemissies per ton per kilometer worden berekend. Bij de rekenregels worden parameters van standaardwaarden uit de literatuur voorzien maar heeft de gebruiker zelf de vrijheid om eigen parameterwaarden te gebruiken.
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