Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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Evaluation of fungal degradation of wheat straw cell wall using different analytical methods from ruminant nutrition perspective
Nayan, Nazri ; Erven, Gijs van; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2019
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99 (2019)8. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 4054 - 4062.
carbohydrates - in vitro gas production - lignin - lignin quantification - pyrolysis-GC/MS - white-rot fungi

BACKGROUND: White rot fungi have been used to improve the nutritive value of lignocellulose for ruminants. In feed analysis, the Van Soest method is widely used to determine the cell wall contents. To assess the reliability of this method (Method A) for determination of cell wall contents in fungal-treated wheat straw, we compared a combined monosaccharide analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) (Method B). Ruminal digestibility, measured as in vitro gas production (IVGP), was subsequently used to examine which method explains best the effect of fungal pretreatment on the digestibility of wheat straw. RESULTS: Both methods differed considerably in the mass recoveries of the individual cell wall components, which changed on how we assess their degradation characteristics. For example, Method B gave a higher degradation of lignin (61.9%), as compared to Method A (33.2%). Method A, however, showed a better correlation of IVGP with the ratio of lignin to total structural carbohydrates, as compared to Method B (Pearson's r of −0.84 versus −0.69). Nevertheless, Method B provides a more accurate quantification of lignin, reflecting its actual modification and degradation. With the information on the lignin structural features, Method B presents a substantial advantage in understanding the underlying mechanisms of lignin breakdown. Both methods, however, could not accurately quantify the cellulose contents – among others, due to interference of fungal biomass. CONCLUSION: Method A only accounts for the recalcitrant residue and therefore is more suitable for evaluating ruminal digestibility. Method B allows a more accurate quantification of cell wall, required to understand and better explains the actual modification of the cell wall. The suitability of both methods, therefore, depends on their intended purposes.

De toekomst van hout in de biobased economy
Annevelink, E. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2018
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 15 (2018)141. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 7 - 11.
biobased economy - hout - biobrandstoffen - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - cellulose - lignine - vezels - wood - biofuels - biomass - renewable energy - biobased materials - lignin - fibres
De laatste jaren is de biobased economy sterk gegroeid door allerlei activiteiten, variërend van fundamenteel onderzoek naar nieuwe biobased toepassingen, tot het op commerciële schaal vervaardigen van biobased producten. Welke kansen biedt dit voor hout en houtige biomassa en wat zijn de verwachte effecten op de houtmarkt?
Bioasfalt ruikt naar hout
Gosselink, Richard - \ 2017
cycleways - bitumen - lignin - innovations - biobased materials - biobased economy
Samenstelling van blad, stengel en rhizomen in relatie tot optimaal oogst-tijdstip van Miscanthus x giganteus
Kasper, G.J. ; Kolk, J.C. van der; Putten, J.C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1022) - 27
brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - miscanthus - grassen - oogsttijdstip - gewasopbrengst - akkerbouw - plantensamenstelling - suikergehalte - lignine - pectinen - droge stof - koolhydraten - stengels - wortelstokken - fuel crops - grasses - harvesting date - crop yield - arable farming - plant composition - sugar content - lignin - pectins - dry matter - carbohydrates - stems - rhizomes
A plurality of components (such as sugars, lignin, pectin) of Miscanthus x giganteus has been studied in stem, leaf, and rhizomes for the harvest times July and January in view of the optimal harvest time. Additional literature search shows that the end of October is the optimum time for harvesting on the basis of the maximum above-ground dry matter yield and sugar yield, and dry matter yield in the next year. It will have to be investigated whether the optimal harvest time also applies to long-term research.
Lignine : groene grondstof voor chemicaliën en materialen
Dam, Jan van; Harmsen, Paulien ; Bos, Harriëtte ; Gosselink, Richard - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789463430197 - 54
lignine - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - toepassingen - bioraffinage - productieprocessen - lignin - biobased chemicals - applications - biorefinery - production processes
De mogelijkheden voor het gebruik van lignine worden in dit boekje toegelicht. Deze uitgave heeft als doel meer informatie te geven over de eigenschappen van lignine en de vele mogelijkheden die lignine biedt als grondstof voor chemicaliën en materialen voor de biobased economy.
Alkaline pretreatments of lignin-rich by-products and their implications for enzymatic degradation
Murciano-Martinez, P. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Mirjam Kabel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576629 - 156
degradation - enzymes - pretreatment - byproducts - lignin - food chemistry - delignification - sugarcane bagasse - degradatie - enzymen - voorbehandeling - bijproducten - lignine - voedselchemie - delignificatie - suikerrietbagasse

The increasing interest in plant biomass based biofuels and chemicals arouses mainly from the increased awareness of a possible finiteness of fuels. The current main challenge to produce such biofuels and biochemicals is economic efficiency, but also knowledge concerning type and effectiveness of both thermally assisted chemical and enzymatic treatments, needed to generate fermentable sugars, is lacking. The subject of this thesis is to gain understanding of the effect of both sulphuric acid and NaOH catalysed pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches on subsequent enzymatic saccharification, with a focus on the NaOH catalysed pretreatments. The fate of the main polymers present, lignin, cellulose and xylan, was studied and also single-activity xylan degrading enzymes, all from Rasamsonia emersonii, were studied for their mode-of-action.

Evaluation of king oyster mushroom strains (Pleurotus eryngii) on selective lignin degradation in wheat straw: An update
Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Visser, M.H.M. ; Lavrijssen, B. ; Cone, J.W. ; Hendrickx, P.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (PPO/PRI report 2016-4) - 21 p.
mushrooms - edible fungi - lignin - postharvest quality - agaricus bisporus - composts - nutrient use efficiency - pleurotus eryngii - lentinula edodes - wheat straw - miscanthus - straw - paddestoelen - eetbare paddestoelen - lignine - kwaliteit na de oogst - compost - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - tarwestro - stro
The collection of Plant Breeding contains a large number of strains of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edodes, two fungi producing edible mushrooms and also known by their selective degradation of lignin in lignocellulosic materials.
Sugar beet has more to offer
Horsman, Karin ; Haveren, Jacco van - \ 2015
biobased economy - sugarbeet - biomass - feedstocks - biobased materials - sugars - lignin - fibres
Enzymatic modification of different lignins through oxidative coupling with hydrophilic compounds
Fiţigəu, Ionita Firuta ; Boeriu, Carmen Gabriela ; Peter, Francisc - \ 2015
Macromolecular Symposia 352 (2015)1. - ISSN 1022-1360 - p. 78 - 86.
grafting - laccase - lignin - oxidative coupling

The enzymatic oxidative coupling of five technical lignins from different sources and with different molecular properties, with glucosamine and the tripeptide glycil-tyrosyl-glycine was studied in acetone/water mixture, using laccase as catalyst. The modified lignin was isolated and the product was characterized by means of size exclusion chromatography, FT-IR and 31P-NMR, in order to evidence the main lignin modifications after laccase coupling reactions. An important increase of the molecular weight and significant structural modifications were observed for the product obtained after the coupling reactions of Organosolv Hardwood Lignin and Alkali pretreated Wheat straw Lignin with glucosamine and glycil-tyrosyl-glycine, demonstrating the achievement of the modification reactions.

Preferential degradation of polyphenols from Sphagnum – 4-Isopropenylphenol as a proxy for past hydrological conditions in Sphagnum-dominated peat
Schellekens, J. ; Bindler, R. ; Martinez Cortizas, A. ; McClymont, E.L. ; Abbott, G.D. ; Biester, H. ; Pontevedra Pombal, X. ; Buurman, P. - \ 2015
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 150 (2015). - ISSN 0016-7037 - p. 74 - 89.
pyrolysis mass-spectrometry - soil organic-matter - ombrotrophic peat - decomposition - lignin - nitrogen - bogs - vegetation - plants - carbon
The net accumulation of remains of Sphagnum spp. is fundamental to the development of many peatlands. The effect of polyphenols from Sphagnum on decomposition processes is frequently cited but has barely been studied. The central area of the Rödmossamyran peatland (Sweden) is an open lawn that consists mostly of Sphagnum spp. with a very low contribution from vascular plants. In order to determine the effects of decay on sphagnum phenols, 53 samples of a 2.7 m deep core from this lawn were analysed with pyrolysis gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC–MS) and compared with more traditional decomposition proxies such as C/N ratio, UV light transmission of alkaline peat extracts, and bulk density. Factor analysis of 72 quantified pyrolysis products suggested that the variation in 4-isopropenylphenol was largely determined by aerobic decomposition instead of Sphagnum abundance. In order to evaluate the effects of aerobic decay in Sphagnum peat, down-core records from different climatic regions were compared using molecular markers for plant biopolymers and C/N ratio. These included markers for lignin from vascular plants ((di)methoxyphenols), polyphenols from Sphagnum spp. (4-isopropenylphenol), and cellulose (levoglucosan). Our results indicate that polyphenols from Sphagnum are preferentially degraded over polysaccharides; consequently the variability of the marker for sphagnum acid, 4-isopropenylphenol, was found indicative of decomposition instead of reflecting the abundance of Sphagnum remains. The fact that 4-isopropenylphenol is aerobically degraded in combination with its specificity for Sphagnum spp. makes it a consistent indicator of past hydrological conditions in Sphagnum-dominated peat. In contrast, the variability of C/N records in Sphagnum-dominated peat was influenced by both vegetation shifts and decomposition, and the dominant effect differed between the studied peatlands. Our results provide direction for modelling studies that try to predict possible feedback mechanisms between peatlands and future climate change, and indicate that the focus in Sphagnum decay studies should be on carbohydrates rather than on phenolic compounds.
The lignin refinery
Haveren, Jacco van; Gosselink, Richard ; Cone, John - \ 2014
biobased economy - lignin - fibres - biobased chemistry - biomass - sustainability - bioplastics - biobased materials
De lignineraffinaderij
Didde, R. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Haveren, J. van - \ 2014
WageningenWorld 2014 (2014)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 39.
lignine - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - bioraffinage - biomassaconversie - onderzoek - lignin - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - biorefinery - biomass conversion - research
Lignine geeft planten stevigheid, maar deze verbinding is ook een schatkist vol waardevolle basischemicaliën. Wageningse onderzoekers maken die stap voor stap open. Een duurzaam alternatief voor aardolie is daarmee binnen handbereik.
Boom geeft chemie nieuw leven
Gosselink, Richard - \ 2014
biopolymers - lignin - separation technology - wood - papermaking - energy saving - biobased chemistry - biobased economy
Side by Side Comparison of Chemical Compounds Generated by Aqueous Pretreatments of Maize Stover, Miscanthus and Sugarcane Bagasse
Gomez, L.D. ; Vanholme, R. ; Bird, S. ; Goeminne, G. ; Trindade, L.M. ; Polikarpov, I. ; Simister, R. ; Morreel, K. ; Boerjan, W. ; McQueen-Mason, S.J. - \ 2014
Bio Energy Research 7 (2014)4. - ISSN 1939-1234 - p. 1466 - 1480.
cell-walls - bioethanol production - ferulic acid - wheat-straw - energy crop - lignin - saccharification - ethanol - delignification - technologies
In order to examine the potential for coproduct generation, we have characterised chemical compounds released by a range of alkaline and acidic aqueous pretreatments as well as the effect of these pretreatments on the saccharification ability of the lignocellulosic material. Comparative experiments were performed using three biomass types chosen for their potential as second-generation biofuel feedstocks: maize stover, miscanthus and sugarcane bagasse. The release of lignin from the feedstock correlated with the residual biomass saccharification potential, which was consistently higher after alkaline pretreament for all three feedstock types. Alkaline pretreatment released more complex mixtures of pentose and hexose sugars into the pretreatment liquor than did acid pretreatment. In addition, complex mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic compounds were released into pretreatment liquors under alkaline conditions, in a temperature-dependent manner, but far less so under acidic conditions. We show that the three feedstocks characterised interact with the pretreatment conditions in a specific manner to generate different ranges of products, highlighting the need to tailor pretreatments to both the starting feedstock and desired outcomes.
Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process
Snelders, J. ; Dornez, E. ; Benjelloun-Mlayah, B. ; Huijgen, W.J.J. ; Wild, P.J. de; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Gerritsma, J. ; Courtin, C.M. - \ 2014
Bioresource Technology 156 (2014). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 275 - 282.
xylan-degrading enzymes - enzymatic-hydrolysis - lignocellulosic biomass - pretreatment - lignin - fermentation - residues - hemicellulose - bioethanol - cellulose
To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing.
Doodzonde om op te stoken. Lignine de grondstof van de toekomst
Zundert, M. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. - \ 2014
Chemie Magazine 2014 (2014)3. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 24 - 27.
biopolymeren - lignine - toepassingen - bioraffinage - innovaties - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - aromatische koolwaterstoffen - biopolymers - lignin - applications - biorefinery - innovations - biobased chemistry - aromatic hydrocarbons
Onhandelbaar, wee barstig en recalcitrant. Zo staat het houtpolymeer lignine bekend. Maar de stof vervangt steeds vaker fenol. En onderzoekers zijn hoopvol over de ontwikkeling van bio-BTX en koolstofvezels uit lignine.
Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics in central-eastern Brazil: Molecular records from the Pau de Fruta peatland
Schellekens, J. ; Horak-Terra, I. ; Buurman, P. ; Silva, A.C. ; Vidal-Torrado, P. - \ 2014
Organic Geochemistry 77 (2014). - ISSN 0146-6380 - p. 32 - 42.
soil organic-matter - chromatography-mass-spectrometry - pyrolysis-gc-ms - humic substances - minas-gerais - isotopic composition - ombrotrophic peat - lignin - serra - plant
Tropical climate dynamics play a major role in the global climate system. Precipitation patterns in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (Minas Gerais, Brazil) are influenced by both the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This makes the area important for the interpretation of climate dynamics. The composition of the Holocene Pau de Fruta peat deposit was analysed using pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py–GC–MS). Molecular records agreed well with d13C and d15N stable isotopes, C content and mineral content, and pollen records. Changes in peatland plant species composition and fire occurrence indicated several wet and dry periods for the Pau de Fruta peatland during the Holocene; from the beginning of the Holocene to 7400 cal yr BP (phase I; dry and cold), from 7400 to 4200 cal yr BP (phase II; wet and warm), from 4200 to 1000 cal yr BP (phase III; dry and warm), from 1000 to 400 cal yrBP (phase IV; wet and warm) and from 400 cal yr BP to the present (V). The hydrological shifts showed a chronology comparable with that described in other palaeoclimatic studies for central-eastern Brazil, indicating that local conditions agree with regional ones. Analytical Py of the peat deposit provided a multi-proxy record via the identification of specific markers for both peatland plants (vegetation) and charred material (fire), whereas the general chemistry provided information on the degree of decomposition of the organic matter. Molecular chemistry of the peat core sampled at high resolution provided insight into peatland C dynamics, which is important for the interpretation of C sequestration in tropical peatlands. Molecular aspects accurately reflected local environmental change. The general agreement of Py data with pollen and inorganic chemistry supports the use of the molecular approach, because it provides local proxy indicators for peatlands, avoiding a mixture of local and regional signals.
Soil organic matter dynamics in Mediterranean A-horizons-The use of analytical pyrolysis to ascertain land-use history
Schellekens, J. ; Barbera, G.G. ; Buurman, P. ; Perez-Jorda, G. ; Martinez-Cortizas, A. - \ 2013
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 104 (2013). - ISSN 0165-2370 - p. 287 - 298.
chromatography-mass-spectrometry - black carbon - fractionation methods - calcareous soils - nw spain - gc/ms - turnover - biomass - lignin - forest
In archaeology and nature conservation studies, knowledge about (pre)historical land-use is important. The molecular composition of soil organic matter (SOM) supplies information about its history, as its composition is controlled by input material and decay processes. In this study, the molecular composition of SOM of calcareous A-horizons from SE Spain was studied with pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC/MS). The effect of vegetation type (Pinus halepensis forest and Stipa tenacissima grassland), land-use (cultivation with cereals and olive trees) and wildfire were examined. In addition, former grassland and agricultural soils that had been reforested with P. halepensis (35 yr) were selected. Three locations were sampled for each vegetation type, except for the olive tree (two) and cereal (six) fields, resulting in a total of 26 samples. Each sample was a composite of ten sub-samples taken from a plot of I ha. After removal of weakly or non-decomposed particulate OM, two OM fractions were obtained; (i) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) extractable OM and (ii) the OM that remained after extraction, which was isolated after dissolution of minerals by repeated hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment. The NaOH-extractable fraction is generally used in soil chemistry (i.e. humic acid), but surprisingly little is known about the SOM that remains in the residue (i.e. humin plus minerals). Comparison of the two SOM fractions (by factor analyses applied to 82 quantified pyrolysis products) provided insight into soil OM dynamics. Polyaromatic pyrolysis products were more prominent in the extractable OM, while a relative enrichment of aliphatic compounds was found in the non-extractable OM. Although some pyrolysis products were associated with one vegetation type in both SOM fractions (C-3-naphthalene, dimethylphenanthrene and 2,3,5-trimethylphenanthrene, retene, and monoterpenes for both burnt and unburnt P. halepensis forest: benzene, naphthalene and C-1-naphthalene for burnt and unburnt S. tenacissima grassland), lignin content and composition highly differed between agricultural soils and soils under native vegetation in both SOM fractions. These differences were mainly decay characteristics, reinforced by cultivation. In reforested soils it was still possible to identify their former land-use, decades after the vegetation change. The probability of the sites to be correctly attributed to its present land-use was P > 0.7 for grassland and pine forest, while most of the cultivated sites had a P > 0.5 to be assigned correctly. The results obtained suggest that the molecular composition of SOM has a large potential for reconstructing land-use history, at least at the scale of decades/centuries. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Availability of lignocellulosic feedstocks for lactic acid production - Feedstock availability, lactic acid production potential and selection criteria
Bakker, R.R.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 60
melkzuur - lignine - biomassa - oogstresten - beschikbaarheid - inventarisaties - biomassa productie - biobased economy - lactic acid - lignin - biomass - crop residues - availability - inventories - biomass production
The overall objective of this study is to assess the worldwide availability and suitability of agricultural residues for lactic acid production, based on fermentation of carbohydrates. The study focuses on lignocellulosic biomass that is produced as a by-product of agricultural production. The results of the study can be used to rank different biomass types on their lactic acid or fermentable sugar production potential. For each residue, both total production (ton of fermentable sugars per year) and productivity (fermentable sugars produced per ha of agricultural land) are considered. Furthermore, the production of non-fermentable residues (e.g. lignin) is included as well in the study. The study is concluded by series of recommendations on what factors to consider when choosing a suitable lignocellulosic feedstock for production of lactic acid, or for other fermentation processes. The results of this study can be used to further evaluate suitability, cost and sustainability of using agricultural residues as feedstock for fermentative production of lactic acid production, or other biochemical conversion processes.
Effect of fungal treatments of fibrous agricultural by-products on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production
Tuyen, D.V. ; Phuong, H.N. ; Cone, J.W. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2013
Bioresource Technology 129 (2013). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 256 - 263.
white-rot fungi - wheat-straw - rice straw - invitro digestibility - pleurotus-ostreatus - digestion kinetics - sugarcane bagasse - detergent fiber - animal feed - lignin
Maize stover, rice straw, oil palm fronds and sugarcane bagasse were treated with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, or Pleurotus ostreatus at 24 °C for 0–6 weeks. The fungi increased total gas production from oil palm fronds by 68–132%, but none of the fungi improved the in vitro rumen fermentability of maize stover. C. subvermispora and L. edodes increased total gas production of sugarcane bagasse by 65–71%, but P. eryngii and P. ostreatus decreased it by 22–50%. There was a linear relationship (P <0.05) between the proportion of lignin in the original substrate and the increase in in vitro gas production observed for C. subvermispora and L. edodes treatments (R2 = 0.92 and 0.96, respectively). It is concluded that C. subvermispora and L. edodes have a particularly high potential to improve the nutritive value of highly lignified ruminant feeds.
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