Prediction of fruit and vegatable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controntrolled intervantion studies
Souverein, O.W. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R. ; Waltz, B. ; Bub, A. ; Winkels, R.M. ; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)9. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1396 - 1409.
food-frequency questionnaire - beta-carotene - plasma carotenoids - homocysteine concentrations - fractional polynomials - lipid-peroxidation - healthy nonsmokers - serum carotenoids - oxidative stress - controlled-trial
Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose–response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable intake (including and excluding fruit and vegetable juices). The study population in the present individual participant data meta-analysis consisted of 526 men and women. Carotenoid, folate and vitamin C concentrations showed a positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake. Measures of performance for the prediction model were calculated using cross-validation. For the prediction model of fruit, vegetable and juice intake, the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 258·0 g, the correlation between observed and predicted intake was 0·78 and the mean difference between observed and predicted intake was - 1·7 g (limits of agreement: - 466·3, 462·8 g). For the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake (excluding juices), the RMSE was 201·1 g, the correlation was 0·65 and the mean bias was 2·4 g (limits of agreement: - 368·2, 373·0 g). The prediction models which include the biomarkers and subject characteristics may be used to estimate average intake at the group level and to investigate the ranking of individuals with regard to their intake of fruit and vegetables when validating questionnaires that measure intake.
Prolonging the longevity of ex situ conserved seeds by storage under anoxia
Groot, S.P.C. ; Groot, L. de; Kodde, J. ; Treuren, R. van - \ 2015
Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 13 (2015)1. - ISSN 1479-2621 - p. 18 - 26.
long-term storage - atmospheric oxidation - lipid-peroxidation - moisture-content - dry conditions - date seed - oxygen - germination - viability - survival
Plant genetic resources are conserved by genebanks mainly in the form of seeds. In most of the cases, the dried seeds can be stored for a considerable period of time, but eventually seed deterioration results in the inability to generate healthy seedlings. Prolonging seed longevity during storage reduces the frequency of regeneration, which is beneficial from a genetic as well as a management point of view. To reduce the rate of deterioration, cool and dry storage conditions are usually practised for long-term seed storage. In spite of the growing body of evidence that seed deterioration is predominantly caused by oxidative processes, the importance of seed storage under anoxic conditions has received little attention from the genebank community. Herein, we report on the effects of anoxia on seed viability, the oxygen uptake by dry seeds in closed containers and the permeability for oxygen of various seed storage containers. Our results confirm that the ageing of dry seeds is accelerated by the presence of oxygen in the storage environment. Therefore, we recommend that genebanks store dry seeds under anoxic conditions to prolong their longevity during ex situ conservation. To reduce the initial rate of viability loss, we further recommend that the period of temporary storage after seed harvest be minimized and also that the seeds are kept during this period under controlled conditions, including anoxia.
N -(carboxymethyl)lysine: A Review on Analytical Methods, Formation, and Occurrence in Processed Food, and Health Impact
Nguyen, Ha T. ; Fels, H.J. van der; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
Food Reviews International 30 (2014)1. - ISSN 8755-9129 - p. 36 - 52.
glycation end-products - n-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine - performance liquid-chromatography - community-dwelling women - maillard reaction - lipid-peroxidation - protein glycation - milk-products - treated foods - diet
Foods are often heat processed and may contain advanced glycation end products (AGE). One of the most widely studied AGE is Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML); nevertheless, knowledge on dietary CML is fragmentary. This study aimed to review current scientific knowledge on analytical methods to determine CML contents in food, chemical pathways of CML formation in food, occurrence of CML in food, and health implications of dietary exposure to CML. Chemical analyses of CML in food products are carried out by immunochemical assays and instrumental methods, but the former method may interfere with the food matrix. CML is formed in food through various chemical pathways, depending on food ingredients and processing conditions. The compound is present in many cooked foods, with relatively high concentrations in carbohydrate- rich foods and dairy products. Dietary CML is very likely to impair human health, but full cause-effect evidence is not available yet. More studies on metabolic effects and impact of food-derived CML on human health should be performed. Food production should be optimized to minimize CML concentrations, while maintaining acceptable microbiological safety and organoleptic properties of the final food product. To this end, more insights into effects of food composition and processing conditions on CML formation are necessary.
Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet
Yakala, G.K. ; Wielinga, P.Y. ; Suarez, M. ; Bunschoten, A. ; Golde, J.M. ; Arola, L. ; Keijer, J. ; Kleemann, R. ; Kooistra, T. ; Heeringa, P. - \ 2013
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 57 (2013)11. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 2039 - 2048.
e-asterisk-3-leiden transgenic mice - coronary-heart-disease - kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits - reduce plasma-cholesterol - lipid-peroxidation - life-style - atherosclerosis - health - polyphenols - prevention
SCOPE: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice were exposed to the following diet regimens. Group 1: cholesterol-free control diet (CO). Group 2: high-dose (1.0% w/w) control cholesterol (CC). Group 3: CC supplemented chocolate A (CCA) and Group 4: CC supplemented chocolate B (CCB). Both chocolates differed in polyphenol and fiber content, CCA had a relatively high-polyphenol and low-fiber content compared to CCB. Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet showed increased plasma-cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. Both chocolate treatments, particularly CCA, further increased plasma-cholesterol and increased atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, compared to mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, both chocolate-treated groups displayed increased liver injury. Mice on high-cholesterol diet had elevated plasma levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and SAA, which was further increased in the CCB group. Similar effects were observed for renal inflammation markers. CONCLUSION: The two chocolate preparations showed unfavorable, but different effects on cardiometabolic health in E3L mice, which dissimilarities may be related to differences in chocolate composition. We conclude that discrepancies reported on the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic health may at least partly be due to differences in chocolate composition.
Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Houttuynia cordata Tea
Tian, L. ; Shi, X.L. ; Yu, L.H. ; Zhu, J. ; Ma, R. ; Yang, X.B. - \ 2012
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (2012)18. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4641 - 4648.
ccl4-induced liver-damage - carbon-tetrachloride - antioxidant activity - lipid-peroxidation - aqueous extracts - free-radicals - in-vitro - quercetin - rats - cells
This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect, and phenolic composition of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) extracted from Houttuynia cordata tea. EAF was shown to exhibit strong ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity against DPPH radical in vitro, and the antioxidant effects were further verified by suppressing CCl4-induced oxidative stress in mouse liver at three tested doses of EAF (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw). Pretreatment with EAF (1000 mg/kg bw) prior to CCl4 administration significantly (p <0.001) decreased the CCl4-elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and hepatic MDA in mice and prevented the increases in GSH, SOD, and CAT caused by CCl4. HPLC analysis revealed that three predominantly polyphenolic compounds present in EAF were quercitrin (111.7 mu g/mg), quercetin (43.8 mu g/mg), and hyperoside (29.1 mu g/mg). These results combined with liver histopathology indicate that EAF possesses a significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4, which may be due to the strong antioxidant activity of phenolic components.
A physiologically based in silico model for trans-2-hexenal detoxification and DNA adduct formation in rat
Kiwamoto, R. ; Rietjens, I. ; Punt, A. - \ 2012
Chemical Research in Toxicology 25 (2012)12. - ISSN 0893-228X - p. 2630 - 2641.
risk-assessment - ethyl acrylate - 1,n(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts - alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes - pharmacokinetic model - lipid-peroxidation - drug-metabolism - glutathione - cells - vivo
Trans-2-Hexenal (2-hexenal) is an a,ß-unsaturated aldehyde that occurs naturally in a wide range of fruits, vegetables, and spices. 2-Hexenal as well as other a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes that are natural food constituents or flavoring agents may raise a concern for genotoxicity due to the ability of the a,ß-unsaturated aldehyde moiety to react with DNA. Controversy remains, however, on whether a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes result in significant DNA adduct formation in vivo at realistic dietary exposure. In this study, a rat physiologically based in silico model was developed for 2-hexenal as a model compound to examine the time- and dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of this selected a,ß-unsaturated aldehyde. The model was developed based on in vitro and literature-derived parameters, and its adequacy was evaluated by comparing predicted DNA adduct formation in the liver of rats exposed to 2-hexenal with reported in vivo data. The model revealed that at an exposure level of 0.04 mg/kg body weight, a value reflecting estimated daily human dietary intake, 2-hexenal is rapidly detoxified predominantly by conjugation with glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferases. At higher dose levels, depletion of GSH results in a shift to 2-hexenal oxidation and reduction as the major pathways for detoxification. The level of DNA adduct formation at current levels of human dietary intake was predicted to be more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than endogenous DNA adduct levels. These results support that rapid detoxification of 2-hexenal reduces the risk arising from 2-hexenal exposure and that at current dietary exposure levels, DNA adduct formation is negligible
Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions
Groot, S.P.C. ; Surki, A.A. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Kodde, J. - \ 2012
Annals of Botany 110 (2012)6. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 1149 - 1159.
controlled deterioration - moisture-content - vitamin-e - gaseous environment - digitalis-purpurea - lipid-peroxidation - water-content - barley seeds - longevity - germination
Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice
Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications
Vilchez, C. ; Forján, E. ; Cuaresma, M. ; Bédmar, F. ; Garbayo, I. ; Vega, J.M. - \ 2011
Marine Drugs 9 (2011)3. - ISSN 1660-3397 - p. 319 - 333.
helicobacter-pylori infection - long-term supplementation - coronary-heart-disease - beta-carotene - cardiovascular-disease - macular degeneration - alpha-tocopherol - vitamin-e - myocardial-infarction - lipid-peroxidation
Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.
A high intake of trans fatty acids has little effect on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans
Smit, L.A. ; Katan, M.B. ; Wanders, A.J. ; Basu, S. ; Brouwer, I.A. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1673 - 1678.
conjugated linoleic-acid - c-reactive protein - randomized controlled-trial - lipid-peroxidation - systemic inflammation - heart-failure - risk-factors - vitamin-e - 8-iso-prostaglandin f2-alpha - cardiovascular-disease
Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) increases LDL cholesterol, decreases HDL cholesterol, and is strongly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, changes in circulating cholesterol cannot explain the entire effect. Therefore, we studied whether iTFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Sixty-one healthy adults consumed each of 3 diets for 3 wk, in random order. Diets were identical except for 7% of energy provided by oleic acid (control diet), iTFA, or CLA. At the end of the 3 wk, we measured plasma inflammatory markers IL-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (TNF-RI and -RII), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and E-selectin, and urinary 8-iso-PGF2a, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Consumption of iTFA caused 4% lower TNF-RI concentrations and 6% higher E-selectin concentrations compared with oleic acid (control) and had no significant effect on other inflammatory markers. CLA did not significantly affect inflammatory markers. The urine concentration of 8-iso-PGF2a [geometric mean (95% CI)] was greater after the iTFA [0.54 (0.48, 0.60) nmol/mmol creatinine] and the CLA [1.2 (1.1, 1.3) nmol/mmol creatinine] diet periods than after the control period [0.45 (0.41, 0.50) nmol/mmol creatinine; P <0.05]. In conclusion, high intakes of iTFA and CLA did not substantially affect plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, but they increased the urine 8-iso-PGF2a concentration. However, it is unlikely this plays a major role in the mechanism by which iTFA increase the risk of CVD. However, more research is needed to fully understand the implications of these findings
A high intake of industrial or ruminant trans fatty acids does not affect the plasma proteome in healthy men
Roos, B. de; Wanders, A.J. ; Wood, S. ; Horgan, G. ; Rucklige, G. ; Reid, M. ; Siebelink, E. ; Brouwer, I.A. - \ 2011
Proteomics 11 (2011)19. - ISSN 1615-9853 - p. 3928 - 3934.
conjugated linoleic-acid - lipid-peroxidation - insulin-resistance - biomarker discovery - risk-factors - cholesterol - disease - serum - supplementation - inflammation
Consumption of industrial trans fat raises the risk of cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – a trans fatty acid in dairy products – modulates disease development. We investigated the effects of complete diets providing 7% of energy as industrial trans fat or cis9, trans11 CLA, compared with oleic acid, on regulation of plasma proteins in 12 healthy men. Diets were provided for 3¿wk each, in random order. Plasma was collected at the end of each 3 wk intervention period, depleted of its 12 most abundant proteins and analyzed by 2-DE. Principal component analysis of protein spot intensity values revealed that the nature of the dietary intervention did not significantly affect the plasma proteome. The intervention provided in the 1st period produced a significant treatment effect compared with the interventions provided in the other two periods, and there was a significant subject effect. In conclusion, the nature of an extreme dietary intervention, i.e. 7% of energy provided by industrial trans fat or cis9,trans11 CLA, did not markedly affect the plasma proteome. Thus plasma proteomics using 2-DE appears, by and large, an unsuitable approach to detect regulation of plasma proteins due to changes in the diet
Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars
Mafakheri, A. ; Siosemardeh, A. ; Bahramnejad, B. ; Struik, P.C. ; Sohrabi, Y. - \ 2011
Australian Journal of Crop Science 5 (2011)10. - ISSN 1835-2693 - p. 1255 - 1260.
lipid-peroxidation - antioxidative system - oxidative stress - pea-plants - l. - leaves - photosynthesis - peroxisomes - salinity - proline
Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate content, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) activities in three varieties of chickpea (drought tolerant Bivaniej and ILC482 and drought sensitive Pirouz). A field experiment with four irrigation regimes was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included control (well-watering), drought stress imposed during the vegetative phase, drought stress imposed during anthesis and drought stress during the vegetative phase and anthesis. Drought stress imposed during vegetative growth or anthesis significantly decreased soluble protein content and increased water soluble carbohydrate concentration. The tolerant variety accumulated more soluble carbohydrate than the sensitive one. Drought stress at flowering stage had significantly higher POX activity compared to than that at vegetative stage. Compared with the stress, there was significantly more soluble protein after exposure to recovery conditions but POX decreased in all three varieties. These results suggest that CAT and POX activities play an essential protective role against drought stress in chickpea. Antioxidants act as a major defense against radical mediated toxicity by protecting the damages caused by free radicals. An increase was observed in POX and CAT activity of three cultivars under stress conditions throughout the experiment. Results showed that POX acts as the major antioxidant enzyme in chickpea leaves under oxidative stress condition. So activity of this enzyme in stress condition can be used as an index for chickpea cultivars tolerance assessment.
An untargeted multi-technique metabolomics approach to studying intracellular metabolites of HepG2 cells exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Ruiz-Aracama, A. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Kleinjans, J. ; Jennen, D. ; Delft, J. van; Hellfrisch, C. ; Lommen, A. - \ 2011
BMC Genomics 12 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2164
aryl-hydrocarbon receptor - gene-expression analysis - lipid-peroxidation - nongenotoxic carcinogens - protein glycosylation - liquid-chromatography - mass-spectrometry - human hepatocytes - oxidative stress - wasting syndrome
BackgroundIn vitro cell systems together with omics methods represent promising alternatives to conventional animal models for toxicity testing. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been widely applied in vitro but relatively few studies have used metabolomics. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to develop an untargeted methodology for performing reproducible metabolomics on in vitro systems. The human liver cell line HepG2, and the well-known hepatotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), were used as the in vitro model system and model toxicant, respectively.ResultsThe study focused on the analysis of intracellular metabolites using NMR, LC-MS and GC-MS, with emphasis on the reproducibility and repeatability of the data. State of the art pre-processing and alignment tools and multivariate statistics were used to detect significantly altered levels of metabolites after exposing HepG2 cells to TCDD. Several metabolites identified using databases, literature and LC-nanomate-Orbitrap analysis were affected by the treatment. The observed changes in metabolite levels are discussed in relation to the reported effects of TCDD.ConclusionsUntargeted profiling of the polar and apolar metabolites of in vitro cultured HepG2 cells is a valid approach to studying the effects of TCDD on the cell metabolome. The approach described in this research demonstrates that highly reproducible experiments and correct normalization of the datasets are essential for obtaining reliable results. The effects of TCDD on HepG2 cells reported herein are in agreement with previous studies and serve to validate the procedures used in the present work.
Supplementation of iron alone and combined with vitamins improves haematological status, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and oxidative stress in anaemic pregnant women
Aiguo, M. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Ye Sun, Yong ; Yang, Fang ; Xia Han, Xiu ; Zhi Zhang, Feng ; Chen Jiang, D. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2010
The British journal of nutrition 104 (2010)11. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1655 - 1661.
lipid-peroxidation - northeast thailand - a-deficiency - preeclampsia - riboflavin - prevalence - risks - trial
Pregnancy is a condition exhibiting increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and Fe plays a central role in generating harmful oxygen species. The objective of the present study is to investigate the changes in haematological status, oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in anaemic pregnant women after Fe supplementation with and without combined vitamins. The study was a 2 months double-blind, randomised trial. Pregnant women (n 164) were allocated to four groups: group C was the placebo control group; group I was supplemented daily with 60 mg Fe (ferrous sulphate) daily; group IF was supplemented daily with Fe plus 400 µg folic acid; group IM was supplemented daily with Fe plus 2 mg retinol and 1 mg riboflavin, respectively. After the 2-month trial, Hb significantly increased by 15·8, 17·3 and 21·8 g/l, and ferritin by 2·8, 3·6 and 11·0 µg/l, in the I, IF and IM groups compared with placebo. Polarisation (¿) and microviscosity (¿) decreased significantly in other groups compared with placebo, indicating an increase in membrane fluidity. Significant decreases of ¿ and ¿ values compared with group C were 0·033 and 0·959 for group I, 0·037 and 1·074 for group IF and 0·064 and 1·865 for group IM, respectively. In addition, significant increases of glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases of malondialdehyde were shown in all treated groups, as well as increases of plasma retinol and urine riboflavin in group IM. The findings show that supplementation with Fe and particularly in combination with vitamins could improve the haematological status as well as oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane fluidity
Membrane chemical stability and seed longevity
Golovina, E.A. ; Hoekstra, F.A. ; As, H. van - \ 2010
European Biophysics Journal 39 (2010)4. - ISSN 0175-7571 - p. 657 - 668.
nitroxide spin labels - phase-behavior - infrared-spectroscopy - molecular mobility - lipid-peroxidation - doxyl-stearates - viability loss - living cells - reduction - metabolism
Here, we investigate the relationships between the chemical stability of the membrane surface and seed longevity. Dry embryos of long-lived tomato and short-lived onion seeds were labeled with 5-doxyl-stearic acid (5-DS). Temperature-induced loss of the electron spin resonance signal caused by chemical conversion of 5-DS to nonparamagnetic species was used to characterize the membrane surface chemical stability. No difference was found between temperature plots of 5-DS signal intensity in dry onion and tomato below 345 K. Above this temperature, the 5-DS signal remained unchanged in tomato embryos and irreversibly disappeared in onion seeds. The role of the physical state and chemical status of the membrane environment in the chemical stability of membrane surfaces was estimated for model systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) dried alone or in the presence of trehalose or glucose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to follow temperature-induced structural changes in dry POPC. Spin-label technique was used to relate the chemical stability of 5-DS with the dynamic properties of the bilayer and 5-DS motion behavior. In all the models, the decrease in 5-DS signal intensity was always observed above T m for the membrane surface. The 5-DS signal was irreversibly lost at high temperature when dry POPC was embedded in a glucose matrix. The loss of 5-DS signal was moderate when POPC was dried alone or in the presence of trehalose. Comparison of model and in vivo data shows that the differences in longevity between onion and tomato seeds are caused by differences in the chemical status of the membrane surface rather than the degree of its immobilization
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern
Delaplace, P. ; Fauconnier, M.L. ; Sergeant, K. ; Dierick, J.F. ; Oufir, M. ; Wal, F. van der; America, A.H.P. ; Renaut, J. ; Hausman, J.F. ; Jardin, P. du - \ 2009
Journal of Experimental Botany 60 (2009)4. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1273 - 1288.
physiological age index - heat-shock proteins - lipid-peroxidation - oxidative stress - disulfide-isomerase - hydrogen-peroxide - seed-tubers - spectrophotometric method - membrane-permeability - superoxide-dismutase
During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.
Viscous Food Matrix Influences Absorption and Excretion but Not Metabolism of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins in Rats
Walton, M.C. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Broomfield, A.M. ; McGhie, T.K. - \ 2009
Journal of Food Science 74 (2009)1. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. H22 - H29.
dietary cyanidin 3-o-beta-d-glucoside - ischemia-reperfusion injury - antioxidant activity - lipid-peroxidation - weanling pigs - elderly women - ribes-nigrum - human urine - humans - consumption
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a simultaneous intake of food and anthocyanins (ACNs) on ACN absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Blackcurrant ACNs (BcACNs) were dissolved in water with or without the addition of oatmeal and orally administered to rats, providing approximately 250 mg total ACNs per kilogram BW. Blood, urine, digesta, and tissue samples of the stomach, jejunum, and colon were subsequently collected at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 24 h. Identification and quantification of ACNs were carried out by Reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Four major ACNs were present in the blackcurrant extract: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside. In plasma, the 4 ACNs of blackcurrant were identified and quantified. The time to reach maximal total ACN plasma concentration (Cmax BcACN/water = 0.37 ± 0.07 µmol/L; Cmax BcACN/oatmeal = 0.20 ± 0.05 µmol/L) occurred faster after BcACN/water (tmax= 0.25 h), than after BcACN/oatmeal administration (tmax= 1.0 h). In digesta and tissue samples, the 4 original blackcurrant ACNs were detected. The relative concentration of rutinosides in the digesta increased during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, while the glucosides decreased. Maximum ACN excretion in urine occurred later after BcACN/oatmeal than after BcACN/water administration (3 compared with 2 h). The 4 original ACNs of blackcurrant in their unchanged form, as well as several metabolites, were identified in the urine samples of both groups. The simultaneous intake of food affects ACN absorption and excretion in the urine, but not metabolism.
Beta-carotene affects oxidative stress related DNA damage in lung epithelial cells and in ferret lung
Helden, Y.G.J. ; Keijer, J. ; Heil, S.G. ; Pico, C. ; Palou, A. ; Oliver, P. ; Munnia, A. ; Briedé, J.J. ; Peluso, M. ; Franssen-Hal, N.L.W. van; Schooten, F.J. van; Godschalk, R.W.L. - \ 2009
Carcinogenesis 30 (2009)12. - ISSN 0143-3334 - p. 2070 - 2076.
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs - lipid-peroxidation - cleavage products - alpha-tocopherol - repair capacity - in-vitro - cancer - adducts - malondialdehyde - supplementation
Beta-carotene (BC) was found to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers. This adverse effect was unexpected because BC was thought to act as an anti-oxidant against cigarette smoke-derived radicals. These radicals can directly or indirectly damage DNA, leading to the formation of pro-mutagenic DNA lesions such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M(1)dG). Later, it was suggested that high concentrations of BC could also result in pro-oxidant effects. Therefore, we investigated whether high but physiologically feasible concentrations of BC were able to alter (i) the formation of radicals in vitro assessed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, (ii) the levels of 8-oxo-dG and M(1)dG in vitro in lung epithelial cells after incubation with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the smoke-derived carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and (iii) the levels of 8-oxo-dG and M(1)dG in vivo in ferrets' lung after chronic exposure to B[a]P. BC increased in vitro hydroxyl radical formation in the Fenton reaction but inhibited the formation of carbon-centered radicals. Similarly, BC was able to enhance 8-oxo-dG in vitro in lung epithelial cells. On the other hand, BC significantly inhibited M(1)dG formation in lung epithelial cells, especially after induction of M(1)dG by H(2)O(2) or B[a]P. Finally, BC supplementation of ferrets also resulted in a significant decrease in M(1)dG, but in contrast to the in vitro experiments, no effect was observed on 8-oxo-dG levels, probably because of increased base excision repair capacities as assessed by a modified comet assay. These data indicate that the fate of BC being a pro- or anti-oxidant strongly depends on the type of radical involved
Alternaria alternata AT Toxin Induces Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco
Yakimova, E.T. ; Yordanova, Z.P. ; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M. ; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2009
Journal of Phytopathology 157 (2009)10. - ISSN 0931-1785 - p. 592 - 601.
caspase-like activity - plant-disease resistance - host-specific toxin - hypersensitive response - aal-toxin - lipid-peroxidation - hydrogen-peroxide - oxidative burst - polyamines - pathogens
Detached tobacco leaves were infiltrated with an AT toxin preparation from the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata tobacco pathotype. The AT toxin preparation caused formation of necrotic lesions within 5 days post-infiltration in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell death was accompanied by increased levels of the stress metabolites hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, free proline and by enhanced total protease activity. Lesion development and the production of stress metabolites were suppressed if the infiltration site was pre-infiltrated with caspase-specific peptide inhibitors (irreversible caspase-1 inhibitor acyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-CMK) and the broad range caspase inhibitor benzyoxycarbonyl-Asp-2,6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethylketone (Z-Asp-CH2-DCB)), the serine protease inhibitor N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone and the polyamine spermine. Extensive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as determined by staining with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, was found in the AT toxin-challenged lesions. The data show that AT toxin-induced cell death in tobacco is a type of programmed cell death in which caspase-like proteases and ROS signalling play a prominent role.
The FEMA GRAS assessment of a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients
Adams, T.B. ; Lucas-Gavin, C. ; Taylor, S.V. ; Waddell, W.J. ; Cohen, S.M. ; Feron, V.J. ; Goodman, J. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Marnett, L.J. ; Portoghese, P.S. ; Smith, R.L. - \ 2008
Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (2008)9. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 2935 - 2967.
sister-chromatid exchanges - glutathione s-transferases - acid nitrite invivo - long-term toxicity - sorbic acid - lipid-peroxidation - cytochrome-c - dna-damage - allyl alcohol - 1,n(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts
This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear ¿,ß-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume ¿,ß-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix.
Both alpha- and ß-Carotene, but Not Tocopherols and Vitamin C, are Inversely Related to 15-Year Cardiovascular Mortality in Dutch Elderly Men 1,2
Buijsse, B. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kwape, L. ; Kok, F.J. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2008
The Journal of Nutrition 138 (2008)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 344 - 350.
coronary-heart-disease - acute myocardial-infarction - low-density-lipoprotein - antioxidant vitamins - combined supplementation - endothelial dysfunction - oxidation resistance - dietary antioxidants - lipid-peroxidation - randomized-trials
The role of ß-carotene, -tocopherol, and vitamin C in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is controversial. Prospective studies on -tocopherol and carotenoids other than ß-carotene are sparse. We assessed relations between the intake of different carotenoids, - and -tocopherol, and vitamin C with 15-y CVD mortality in elderly men who participated in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Information on diet and potential confounding factors was collected in 1985, 1990, and 1995. In 1985, 559 men (mean age 72 y) free of chronic diseases were included in the current analysis. After 15 y of follow-up, comprising 5744 person-years, 197 men had died from CVD. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other potential lifestyle and dietary confounders, relative risks (RR) (95% CI) of CVD death for a 1-SD increase in intake were 0.81 (0.66¿0.99) for -carotene and 0.80 (0.66¿0.97) for ß-carotene. Carrots were the primary source of - and ß-carotene and their consumption was related to a lower risk of death from CVD (adjusted RR, 0.83; 95% CI = 0.68¿1.00). Intakes of carotenoids other than - and ß-carotene were not associated with CVD mortality, nor were vitamin C and - and tocopherol. In conclusion, dietary intakes of -carotene and ß-carotene are inversely associated with CVD mortality in elderly men. This study does not indicate an important role for other carotenoids, tocopherols, or vitamin C in lowering the risk of CVD death.