Effects of Oral and Gastric Stimulation on Appetite and Energy Intake
Wijlens, G.M. ; Erkner, A. ; Alexander, E.A. ; Mars, M. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Obesity 20 (2012)11. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. 2226 - 2232.
sugar-sweetened beverages - postprandial lipid-metabolism - libitum food-intake - eating behavior - ghrelin concentrations - liquid food - body-weight - fat - satiety - humans
Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P = 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 1367 - 1374.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dorsal striatum - energy-balance - human amygdala - sweet taste - liquid food - bite size - reward
Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is expected to modulate taste activation in reward areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the amount of oro-sensory stimulation and energy content on consumption-induced changes in taste activation. Ten men participated in a 2 × 2 randomized crossover study. Subjects were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging: after fasting for at least 2 h and after treatment, on four occasions. Treatment consisted of the ingestion of 450 mL of orangeade (sweetened with 10% sucrose or non-caloric sweeteners) at 150 mL/min, with either small (5 mL) or large (20 mL) sips. During scanning, subjects alternately tasted orangeade, milk and tomato juice and rated its pleasantness. Before and after the scans, subjects rated pleasantness, prospective consumption, desire to eat and sweetness for all tastants. Main findings were that, before treatment, the amygdala was activated more by non-caloric than by caloric orangeade. Caloric orangeade activated part of the striatum before, but not after treatment. We observed no main effects of sip size on taste activation and no interaction between sip size and caloric content. In conclusion, the brain responds differentially to caloric and non-caloric versions of a sweet drink and consumption of calories can modulate taste activation in the striatum. Further research is needed to confirm that the observed differences are due to caloric content and not to (subliminal) differences in the sensory profile. In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established
Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 789 - 799.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dietary-sodium - bite size - ingestive behavior - energy density - liquid food - taste - satiation
Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption
Hidden fat facilitates passive overconsumption
Dongen, M. van; Graaf, C. de; Siebelink, E. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2009
The Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 394 - 399.
human dietary responses - energy-intake - food-intake - portion size - liquid food - midday meal - density - satiety - humans - carbohydrate
Food intake regulation may be disturbed when sensory signals from foods are disconnected from their metabolic properties. Consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods may stimulate passive overconsumption, because these foods do not provide sensory signals in accordance with the actual nutrient content. We examined the effects of perception of fat on energy intake in adults after overfeeding (Study 1) and on energy intake during a meal (Study 2). In study 1, 57 participants consumed 6 mandatory lunches differing in energy level (100, 200, and 300% of a standard lunch intake) and fat condition (visible fat and hidden fat). Ad libitum energy intake was measured during subsequent meals. In Study 2, 51 participants consumed 2 lunches that were high in visible or hidden fats. We measured ad libitum energy intake during lunch. In Study 1, the energy intake at dinner was 8% higher in the hidden fat condition than in the visible fat condition (P = 0.0046). A main effect was also found for the energy level of the lunch (P <0.0001), with the highest intake following the 100% energy level and the lowest intake following the 300% energy level. In Study 2, the energy intake was 9% higher in the hidden fat condition than in the visible fat condition (P = 0.013). Perception of fat influences energy intake. In the presence of visible fats, energy intake was lower than in the presence of hidden fats, suggesting that hidden fats may contribute to overconsumption. Appropriate sensory signals may be important in preventing overconsumption.
Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A. ; Osch, M.J.P. ; Nievelstein, R.A.J. ; Grond, J. van der - \ 2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1297 - 1305.
human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - gender-differences - liquid food - eating behavior - sex-differences - stimuli - appetite - humans - fmri
Background:The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Design:Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. Results:In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P <0.005). Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.