Above- and Below-ground Cascading Effects of Wild Ungulates in Temperate Forests
Ramirez, Ignacio ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Ouden, Jan den; Moktan, Laxmi ; Herdoiza, Natalie ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2020
Ecosystems (2020). - ISSN 1432-9840
decomposition - invertebrate - litter - mineralization - regeneration - rodent - soil quality - temperate forest - Ungulate
Ungulates have become abundant in many temperate forests, shifting tree species composition by browsing and altering soil physical conditions by trampling. Whether these effects cascade down to other trophic levels and ecosystem processes is poorly understood. Here, we assess the paths through which ungulates have cascading effects on other trophic levels (regeneration, litter, invertebrates, rodents and organic matter decomposition). We compared ungulate effects by comparing 15 response variables related to different trophic levels between paired fenced and unfenced plots in twelve temperate forest sites across the Netherlands, and used pathway analysis model to identify the (in)direct pathways through which ungulates have influenced these variables. We found that plots with ungulates (that is, unfenced) compared to plots without (that is, fenced) had lower litter depth, sapling diversity, sapling density, rodent activity, macro-invertebrate biomass, decomposition rate of tea bags, pine and birch litter and higher soil compaction. These findings were used in a path analysis to establish potential causal relationships, which showed that ungulate presence: decreased sapling density, which indirectly decreased rodent activity; decreased litter depth, which indirectly reduced invertebrate diversity; increased soil compaction, which also decreased invertebrate diversity. Soil pH decreased invertebrate biomass, which also increased nitrogen mineralization. Yet, we did not find cascading effects of ungulates on decomposition rates. Importantly, an increase in ungulate abundance strengthens the cascading effects in this system. Our results suggest that ungulates can trigger cascading effects on lower trophic levels, yet decomposition and mineralization rates are resilient to ungulate browsing and trampling. Therefore, temperate forests conservation could benefit by limiting ungulate abundance.
Leaching of microplastics by preferential flow in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) burrows
Yu, Miao ; Ploeg, Martine Van Der; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Yang, Xiaomei ; Zhang, Shaoliang ; Ma, Xiaoyi ; Ritsema, Coen J. ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2019
Environmental Chemistry 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1448-2517 - p. 31 - 40.
floating method - groundwater - litter - soil column
In the current study, we examine how the activities of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) affect microplastic (MP) distribution and concentration in soil, with a focus on low density polyethylene (LDPE). We also want to determine if MPs can be flushed out with water. We used a laboratory sandy soil column (polyvinyl chloride tube) experimental set-up and tested five different treatments: (1) treatment with just soil (control) to check if the saturated conductivity (Ksat) could be impacted by MP, (2) treatment with MP, (3) treatment with MP and litter, (4) treatment with earthworms and litter as a second control for treatment 5 and (5) treatment with MPs, earthworms and litter. Each treatment consisted of eight replicates. For the treatments with MP, the concentration of MP added at the start of the experiment was 7 % by weight (3.97 g, polyethylene, 50 % 1 mm-250 μm, 30 % 250 μm-150 μm and 20 % <150 μm) based on 52.78 g of dry litter from Populus nigra. In the treatments using earthworms, two adult earthworms, with an initial average weight of (7.14 ± 0.26) g, were placed in each column. Results showed that LDPE particles could be introduced into the soil by the earthworms. MP particles were detected in each soil sample and within different soil layers for the earthworm treatments. Earthworms showed a tendency to transport the smaller MP particles and that the amount of MPs in size class <250 μm increased in soil samples with increasing soil depth in comparison to the other size classes. After leaching, MPs were only detected in the leachate from the treatments with the earthworms, and the MP had similar size distributions as the soil samples in the 40-50 cm layer of the treatment with MP, earthworms and litter. The results of this study clearly show that biogenic activities can mobilise MP transport from the surface into the soil and even be leached into drainage. It is highly likely that biogenic activities constitute a potential pathway for MPs to be transported into soil and groundwater.
Sea floor litter monitoring : International Bottom Trawl Survey 2016
Hal, Ralf van - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C021/17) - 60
litter - environmental monitoring - marine environment - marine sediments - surveys - north sea - ligstro - milieumonitoring - marien milieu - mariene sedimenten - karteringen - noordzee
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures taken, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch monitoring program for this descriptor includes amongst others the collection of data on the presence, abundance and distribution of litter on the seafloor. According to the Dutch program, the data on seafloor litter must be collected by statutory task fish surveys using standardized GOV fishing net, as a part of the International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS). This report presents the results of the seafloor litter monitoring during the IBTS survey of Quarter 1 2016. Seafloor litter data is collected annually during this survey since 2013, and the new data is presented in perspective of the data collected in previous years. This is done for the composition and the spatial distribution of the seafloor litter from the catch. The composition of the litter collected in 2016 is similar compared to earlier years; plastic and specifically rope/lines are the most dominant litter items found. The survey was again carried out on board the UK vessel CEFAS Endeavour, and the standard Dutch IBTS area including the Channel area was covered. Even though, due to a survey design based on random sampling within ICES rectangles, comparison in spatial distribution of litter as well as in estimates of the amount of litter between years is difficult. The spatial distribution of the litter seems random with small and large catches close to each other. It might be a result of small probability of actually catching litter items with a GOV trawl not designed for this purpose, or by differences in seafloor structure. It is possible to register additional habitat information and use this information in the data analysis After four years of litter sampling as part of the IBTS, inconsistencies in categorising the litter items are still found between national observers. In 2015 and 2016, close cooperation with CEFAS staff showed that these inconsistencies also exist between countries. The inconsistencies exist for a small number of subcategories, for which there is some arbitrary in how to divide items between them. Analysing the Dutch IBTS data by itself indicates a number of limitations, e.g. the spatial differences owing to a semi-randomized survey design between years, which could be overcome by combining the international data of the IBTS. This data can be found in the database developed and accessible via the ICES datacentre and combining the data is done within OSPAR.
Effects of litter provision during early rearing and environmental enrichment during the production phase on feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens
Tahamtani, F.M. ; Brantsæter, M. ; Nordgreen, J. ; Sandberg, E. ; Hansen, T.B. ; Nødtvedt, A. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Moe, R.O. ; Janczak, A.M. - \ 2016
Poultry Science 95 (2016)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2747 - 2756.
feather damage - feather pecking - laying hen - litter - welfare
Feather pecking is a multi-factorial behavioral disorder and a serious welfare issue in the poultry industry. Several studies report early life experience with litter to be a major determinant in the development of feather pecking. The current study aimed to test the large-scale on-farm efficiency of a simple and cheap husbandry procedure applied during the rearing period with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of feather pecking and plumage damage during the production stage in laying hens. Five laying hen-rearing farmers from across Norway participated in the study. These farmers were asked to create divisions within their hen rearing houses and to separate their chicks into 2 groups: one reared with access to a paper substrate from the first d of age, the other a control group without access to paper substrate during rearing. All flocks were visited at the production farms at 30 wk of age and observed for pecking behavior and feather damage. Birds in the control group had higher odds of having more feather damage compared to the birds from the treatment group. In addition, flocks provided with environmental enrichment at the production farms had a reduced incidence of feather pecking, irrespective of the treatment. These results indicate that husbandry procedures during both rearing and production stages have the potential to alleviate feather pecking and increase laying hen welfare.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Langenkamp-Niens in 2014/2015
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 936) - 42
melkvee - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - samenstelling - stikstofverliezen - vervluchtiging - verontreiniging - dierlijke productie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - composition - nitrogen losses - volatilization - pollution - animal production
Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Kasper, G.J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 45
melkvee - loopstallen - vloeren - ligstro - organische stof - houtspaanders - bagger - ammoniakemissie - utrecht - dierenwelzijn - dairy cattle - loose housing - floors - litter - organic matter - wood chips - dredgings - ammonia emission - utrecht - animal welfare
De afgelopen jaren heeft de huisvesting van melkvee een grote ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. In de jaren 60 van de vorige eeuw werd de ligboxenstal geïntroduceerd als vervanger van de grupstal. Het belangrijkste doel hiervan was het verbeteren van de arbeidsefficiëntie waardoor boeren meer koeien konden houden. Met de ligboxenstal veranderde ook de mestopslag van een gescheiden systeem voor gier en vaste mest in een systeem voor drijfmest. Ook kregen de koeien meer bewegingsruimte. De afgelopen jaren namen de eisen ten aanzien van welzijn en milieu steeds verder toe, wat geleid heeft tot aanpassing van afmetingen, vloeren, mestopslagsystemen en ventilatie in ligboxenstallen. Toch hebben sommige melkveehouders behoefte aan een stal die enerzijds de koeien nog meer bewegingsruimte geeft dan een ligboxenstal en anderzijds mest oplevert met een hoger organische stof gehalte dan drijfmest. De Provincie Utrecht stimuleert innovatieve stallenbouw.
Abatement of Particulate Matter Emission from Experimental Broiler Housings Using an Optimized Oil Spraying Method
Winkel, A. ; Cambra-Lopez, M. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2014
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 57 (2014)6. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 1853 - 1864.
carcass characteristics - litter - houses - ascites - growth - health
In this follow-up study, we investigated effects of two rapeseed oil application rates (8 or 16 mL m-2 d-1) in combination with two spraying frequencies (daily or every other day) in four oil treatments: 8 mL m-2 (24 h)-1, 16 mL m-2 (48 h)-1, 16 mL m-2 (24 h)-1, and 32 mL m-2 (48 h)-1 during two growth cycles of broilers. Oil treatments were randomly assigned to four rooms, whereas two rooms served as control (0 mL m-2). Oil spraying started on day 21. Prior to the second growth cycle, the spraying system was optimized to improve the distribution of oil and reduce the generation of small oil particles. We measured ventilation rate and concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, ammonia, and odor. Furthermore, we recorded bird performance and birds' exterior quality. PM10 emission was significantly reduced by 59% at 8 mL m-2 d-1 and by 64% at 16 mL m-2 d-1. For PM2.5, these values were 81% and 74%, respectively. In the two every other day treatments, PM10 emission was 44% higher on days after spraying than on spraying days. No significant effect of oil spraying was found on ammonia emission, odor emission, bird performance, and birds' exterior quality. The latter finding confirms that the incidence of foot-pad lesions is not increased at an application rate of 16 mL m-2 d-1. It is recommended to validate the effects of oil spraying inside full-scale commercial broiler houses at a daily application rate of 16 mL m-2 or less.
Bedded pack barns for dairy cattle in the Netherlands
Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Ouweltjes, W. ; Poelarends, J.J. ; Driehuis, F. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 15
dierenwelzijn - melkveehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - melkvee - dierlijke productie - ligstro - loopstallen - compost - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - animal welfare - dairy farming - cow housing - dairy cattle - animal production - litter - loose housing - composts - sustainability
The bedded pack barn offers good perspective on animal welfare, animal health and public perception, but has disadvantages in terms of mineral management (nitrogen losses and fertilising value) and the presence of TAS (Thermophilic Aerobic Spore formers). Bedded packs with compost have a too high ammonia emission in the barn and lead to too high concentrations of TAS in sterile dairy products and therefore have no perspective. A controlled composting process with wood chips may have more future perspective. However, the availability and/or the price of wood chips can be a bottleneck if demand is increasing. The search for alternative TAS-poor bedding materials deserves continuation.
Effects of large herbivores on wood pasture dynamics in a European wetland system
Cornelissen, P. ; Bokdam, J. ; Sykora, K.V. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2014
Basic and Applied Ecology 15 (2014)5. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 396 - 406.
sambucus-nigra l - associational susceptibility - red deer - vegetation - facilitation - mosaics - grassland - neighbors - patterns - litter
Whether self-regulating large herbivores play a key role in the development of wood-pasture landscapes remains a crucial unanswered question for both ecological theory and nature conservation. We describe and analyse how a ‘partly self-regulating’ population of cattle, horses and red deer affected the development of the woody vegetation in the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve (Netherlands). Using aerial photographs from 1980 to 2011, we analysed the development of shrubs and trees. Before the large herbivores were introduced in the Oostvaardersplassen in 1983, the woody vegetation increased and vegetation type significantly affected the number of establishments. Cover of woody species increased further from 1983 to 1996, not only by canopy expansion but also by new establishments. After 1996, cover of the woody vegetation decreased from 30% to
Linkages between plant traits and soil ecology in the rhizosphere and through litter decomposition
Brolsma, K.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ellis Hoffland, co-promotor(en): Ron de Goede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571068 - 112
bodemecologie - rizosfeer - ligstro - decompositie - wortels - bodembiologie - nematoda - solanum tuberosum - globodera pallida - biofumigatie - genotypen - soil ecology - rhizosphere - litter - decomposition - roots - soil biology - nematoda - solanum tuberosum - globodera pallida - biofumigation - genotypes
Broiler excreta composition and its effect on wet litter : aspects of nutrition
Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Verstegen; Wouter Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738646 - 160
vleeskuikens - excreten - samenstelling - ligstro - vochtgehalte - pluimveevoeding - diervoeding - voer - microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - vleeskuikenresultaten - voedingsfysiologie - broilers - excreta - composition - litter - moisture content - poultry feeding - animal nutrition - feeds - gastrointestinal microbiota - broiler performance - nutrition physiology
In commercial broiler farms, birds are usually housed on litter, composed of bedding materials like wood shavings. Wet litter is a condition in which the litter reaches its saturation threshold for water and cannot hold more moisture. It causes increased microbial activity and, as a result, ammonia is produced and emitted into the air. Wet litter can result in negative welfare issues (e.g., footpad dermatitis) and also a reduced performance. Wet litter is a multifactorial problem, involving management, housing, disease, diet, and gut health factors. In this thesis, nutritional aspects on excreta moisture content were studied in four different experiments. Different dietary compositions were evaluated and the results show that reductions in excreta water content were related to increased transit time and/or reduced water reabsorption in the hindgut. Insoluble fibers, if they are combined with a coarse diet, can be used to slow down transit time and optimize digestibility, thereby improving both excreta and litter quality. Minerals (e.g., Mg) and other undigested nutrients increase the osmotic load of the digesta in the hindgut and, as a result, more water is moving into the gut lumen. Changing the type or level of nutrients that reach the hindgut by varying dietary ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) had limited effects on the ileal microbiota composition. Additionally, no effects of variations in commensal bacteria and excreta quality were observed. In this thesis, different parameters to assess the status of water in excreta and litter samples were evaluated. Water in the excreta or litter can be present in free form or bound, therefore solely total moisture content may not be sufficient to describe excreta and litter quality. Water activity correlates well with microbial growth. However, its use is limited in high moisture (> 30%) content samples. Free water, even though this parameter is dependent of the centrifugal speed applied, seems to be a more valuable parameter to assess excreta quality. The results from this thesis show that nutrition can be used to manipulate excreta and litter moisture content. The effects of nutritional manipulation can be related to (in)digestibility of nutrients, although transit time also seems to be an important factor determining excreta moisture output. Current feed strategies need to aim at optimizing the gastro-intestinal tract functions via the diet. Besides assessment of litter quality, also monitoring excreta quality throughout the growing period is highly recommended for managing litter quality, broiler health, and environmental impact. This should not be limited to measuring total excreta moisture, as the results of this thesis show that the status of the water in the excreta can be different.
Soil pH and earthworms affect herbage nitrogen recovery from solid cattle manure in production grassland
Rashid, M.I. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Corral Nunez, G.A. ; Brussaard, L. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2014
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 68 (2014). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 1 - 8.
carbon-dioxide - decomposition - mineralization - acidification - population - mesocosms - emissions - litter - slurry - oxide
Long term use of inorganic fertilisers and reduced organic matter inputs have contributed to acidification of agricultural soils. This strongly affects the soil dwelling fauna and nutrient mineralisation. Organic fertilisers such as solid cattle manure (SCM) resurge as an option to overcome this acidification problem and to provide the required blend of essential macro- and micronutrients for plant growth. We assessed the effects of earthworm density (400 or 700 m-2) at two levels of soil pH (ambient and increased), with or without application of solid cattle manure (SCM), on herbage nitrogen (N) uptake, and CO2 and N2O emissions over a period of 134 days using undisturbed soil cores from an acid peat grassland in a mesocosm experiment. Liming proved to be beneficial for earthworm performance and grassland productivity. A higher soil pH and earthworm density resulted in a higher soil biological activity measured as soil respiration. The combined application of lime and earthworms increased herbage apparent N recovery from SCM by 83% compared to SCM only. In the manured treatments, herbage N uptake was positively correlated with earthworm density (R2 = 0.92). N2O emissions increased by 37% when SCM was applied compared to the unfertilised control. Following SCM application, the cumulative increase in herbage N uptake was almost ten times greater than the measured total N2O losses. No relationship was observed between earthworm density and level of N2O emission. N mineralisation and herbage N uptake from SCM in acidic peat grasslands were greatly stimulated by the combined increase in soil pH and earthworm density. This stimulated the activity of soil biota, resulting in an increased herbage N recovery from the applied SCM.
Diversity patterns of leaf-associated aquatic hyphomycetes along a broad latitudinal gradient
Jabiol, J. ; Bruder, A. ; Gessner, M.O. ; Makkonen, M. ; McKie, B.G. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Vos, V.C.A. ; Chauvet, E. - \ 2013
Fungal Ecology 6 (2013)5. - ISSN 1754-5048 - p. 439 - 448.
species-diversity - community structure - fungal communities - stream - litter - biodiversity - temperature - leaves - colonization - decomposition
Information about the global distribution of aquatic hyphomycetes is scarce, despite the primary importance of these fungi in stream ecosystem functioning. In particular, the relationship between their diversity and latitude remains unclear, due to a lack of coordinated surveys across broad latitudinal ranges. This study is a first report on latitudinal patterns of aquatic hyphomycete diversity associated with native leaf-litter species in five streams located along a gradient extending from the subarctic to the tropics. Exposure of leaf litter in mesh bags of three different mesh sizes facilitated assessing the effects of including or excluding different size-classes of litter-consuming invertebrates. Aquatic hyphomycete evenness was notably constant across all sites, whereas species richness and diversity, expressed as the Hill number, reached a maximum at mid-latitudes (Mediterranean and temperate streams). These latitudinal patterns were consistent across litter species, despite a notable influence of litter identity on fungal communities at the local scale. As a result, the bell-shaped distribution of species richness and Hill diversity deviated markedly from the latitudinal patterns of most other groups of organisms. Differences in the body-size distribution of invertebrate communities colonizing the leaves had no effect on aquatic hyphomycete species richness, Hill diversity or evenness, but invertebrates could still influence fungal communities by depleting litter, an effect that was not captured by the design of our experiment. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.
Can a fastgrowing earlysuccessional tree (Ochroma pyramidale, Malvaceae) accelerate forest succession?
Vleut, I. ; Levy-Tacher, S.I. ; Boer, W.F. de; Galindo-Gonzalez, J. ; Ramirez-Marcial, N. - \ 2013
Journal of Tropical Ecology 29 (2013)2. - ISSN 0266-4674 - p. 173 - 180.
tropical rain-forest - species richness - costa-rica - overstory composition - abandoned pastures - growth-responses - restoration - plantations - regeneration - litter
Species-specific traits of trees affect ecosystem dynamics, defining forest structure and understorey development. Ochroma pyramidale is a fast-growing tree species, with life-history traits that include low wood density, short-lived large leaves and a narrow open thin crown. We evaluated forest succession in O. pyramidale-dominated secondary forests, diverse secondary forests, both 10–15 y since abandonment, and rain forests by comparing height, density and basal area of all trees (> 5 cm dbh). Furthermore, we compared species richness of understorey trees and shrubs, and basal area and density of trees of early- and late-successional species (<5 cm dbh) between forest types. We found that tree basal area (mean ± SD: 32 ± 0.9 m2 ha-1) and height (12.4 ± 1.8 m) of canopy trees were higher, and density (1450 ± 339 ha-1) lower in O. pyramidale forests than in diverse forests, and more similar to rain forest. Understorey shrub diversity and tree seedling density and diversity were lower in O. pyramidale forests than in diverse forests, but these forest types had a similar density of early- and late-successional trees. Canopy openness (> 15%) and leaf litter (> 10 cm) were both highest in O. pyramidale forests, which positively affected density of understorey trees and shrubs and negatively affected density of late-successional trees. In conclusion, O. pyramidale forests presented structural features similar to those of rain forest, but this constrained the establishment of understorey tree species, especially late-successional species, decreasing successional development
Calibration and validation of models for short-term decomposition and N mineralization of plant residues in the tropics
Nascimento, A.F. do; Mendona, E.D. ; Leite, L.F.C. ; Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Neves, J.C.L. - \ 2012
Scientia agricola 69 (2012)6. - ISSN 0103-9016 - p. 393 - 401.
soil organic-matter - nitrogen mineralization - nutrient release - simulation - lignin - litter - polyphenol - quality - systems - forest
Insight of nutrient release patterns associated with the decomposition of plant residues is important for their effective use as a green manure in food production systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of the Century, APSIM and NDICEA simulation models for predicting the decomposition and N mineralization of crop residues in the tropical Atlantic forest biome, Brazil. The simulation models were calibrated based on actual decomposition and N mineralization rates of three types of crop residues with different chemical and biochemical composition. The models were also validated for different pedo-climatic conditions and crop residues conditions. In general, the accuracy of decomposition and N mineralization improved after calibration. Overall RMSE values for the decomposition and N mineralization of the crop materials varied from 7.4 to 64.6 % before models calibration compared to 3.7 to 16.3 % after calibration. Therefore, adequate calibration of the models is indispensable for use them under humid tropical conditions. The NDICEA model generally outperformed the other models. However, the decomposition and N mineralization was not very accurate during the first 30 days of incubation, especially for easily decomposable crop residues. An additional model variable may be required to capture initial microbiological growth as affected by the moisture dynamics of the residues, as is the case in surface residues decomposition models.
Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management
Thiele-Bruhn, S. ; Bloem, J. ; Vries, F.T. de; Kalbitz, K. ; Wagg, C. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)5. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 523 - 528.
microbial-community structure - plant diversity - land-use - productivity - ecosystems - sulfadiazine - quality - biomass - litter - ratios
Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend on plant biodiversity and vice versa. Soil biota govern nutrient cycling and storage, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and turnover. Agriculture manipulates plants, soils and SOM. With intensification, regulation of functions through biodiversity is replaced by regulation through agricultural measures. Fertilizers and agrochemicals exert strong effects on soil biodiversity and functioning. Resulting community shifts feed back on soil functions such as carbon and nutrient cycling and pest control. Therefore, agricultural systems with less inputs may promote self-regulating systems and higher biodiversity.
Covered storage reduces losses and improves crop utilisation of nitrogen from solid cattle manure
Shah, G.M. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Oenema, O. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2012
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 94 (2012)2-3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 299 - 312.
ammonia emission - n mineralization - feedlot manure - organic-matter - soil - nutrient - availability - grassland - litter - carbon
A 2-year study was carried out to examine the effects of solid cattle manure storage method on (1) total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses, (2) first-year and residual manure dry matter (DM) and N disappearance after litterbag placement on grassland, and (3) apparent herbage N recovery (ANR) after a single surface application to a sandy grassland field. About twelve tonnes of fresh (FRE) manure taken from a litter barn were stored per treatment as stockpiled (STO), composted (COM) and covered (COV) heaps for 130 days, and total C and N losses were estimated. Thereafter, patterns of DM and N disappearance from FRE, COM and COV manures were monitored using litterbags with three mesh sizes (45 µm, 1 mm and 4 mm). Herbage ANR from these manures was measured at application rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg N ha-1. During the storage period, only about 10 % of the initial Ntotal was lost from the COV heap, whereas these losses were 31 % from the STO heap and 46 % from the COM heap. The respective Ctotal losses were 17, 59 and 67 %. After field placement, overall manure DM and N disappearance rates from all mesh sizes of the litterbags were in the order: COV > FRE > COM (P <0.05). Independent of N application rate, total herbage ANR was the highest from COV and the lowest from COM manure over two growing seasons (23 vs. 14 %; P <0.05). Including the N losses during storage, an almost three times higher herbage ANR (20 vs. 7 %) of the manure N taken from the barn was observed by using COV versus COM manure. In case of FRE manure this ANR fraction was 17 %. It is concluded that COV storage reduced storage C and N losses to a minimum. After field application, manure stored under this method decomposed faster and more N was available for plant uptake, especially when compared to COM manure.
Bodemmaterialen voor vrijloopstallen: eigenschappen in relatie tot compostering en gasvormige emissies bij menging met mest en urine = Exploratory study of bedding materials for freestall animal housing; their composting potential and gaseous emissions after mixing with dairy cattle excreta
Smits, M.C.J. ; Blanken, K. ; Bokma, S. ; Galama, P.J. ; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Szanto, G.L. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 608) - 45
melkkoeien - melkveehouderij - loopstallen - ligstro - ammoniakemissie - compostering - ademhalingssnelheid - melkvee - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - dairy cows - dairy farming - loose housing - litter - ammonia emission - composting - respiration rate - dairy cattle - animal production - animal housing - animal health
Chemical characteristics of bedding materials, their composting potential and the related gaseous emissions when mixed with cattle feces and urine were compared.
Onbeschadigde en schone koeien : Strooiselsoort niet alleen bepalend
Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 40.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - ligboxen - melkveehouderij - huisvesting op dik strooisel - ligstro - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal housing - animal health - cubicles - dairy farming - deep litter housing - litter
Er wordt voortdurend gezocht naar verhoging van het dierenwelzijn door aanpassingen in ligboxenstallen. Een van de aspecten daarbij is het ligbed. Naast allerlei kunststof materiaal in de vorm van matten en matrassen wordt er ook steeds gezocht naar het juiste materiaal in diepstrooiselboxen.
Effect of Bedding Material on Dust and Ammonia Emission from Broiler Houses
Harn, J. van; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Riel, J.W. van; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 55 (2012)1. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 219 - 226.
foot-pad dermatitis - particulate matter - air-pollution - laying hens - livestock buildings - northern europe - lung-function - litter - poultry - chickens
Ammonia emission, Bedding material, Broilers, Dust emission The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different bedding materials on fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) and ammonia emissions from broiler houses. The effects on broiler performance and footpad lesions were also studied. The study was carried out in a mechanically ventilated broiler house with eight identical rooms, each accommodating 2260 broilers; it compromised two production cycles (rounds) of 35 days. The broilers were raised on four bedding materials: white wood shavings, chopped wheat straw, ground rapeseed straw, and silage maize. PM10, PM2.5, and ammonia concentrations and ventilation rates were measured. Production results and the incidence of footpad lesions were assessed. The results showed that compared with wood shavings, silage maize had 19% lower PM2.5 emission (p <0.05). The PM2.5 emissions of silage maize were not different from those of wheat straw and rapeseed straw. Type of bedding had no effect on PM10 emission. PM2.5 mass was on average 4.8% of PM10 mass and increased with the age of the birds (p <0.001). Ammonia emission from silage maize was 36% lower than from wood shavings, 47% less than from wheat straw, and 34% less than from rapeseed straw. Bedding material had no effect on broiler performance or on footpad lesions. It was concluded that silage maize can be a good alternative bedding to wood shavings and wheat straw in broiler houses