Dutch Divergence? : Women’s work, structural change, and household living standards in the Netherlands, 1830-1914
Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): E.J.V. van Nederveen Meerkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431835 - 254
women - work - household budgets - living standards - gender - cultural history - case studies - netherlands - labour market - macroeconomics - microeconomics - western europe - work sharing - participation - vrouwen - werk - huishoudbudgetten - levensstandaarden - geslacht (gender) - cultuurgeschiedenis - gevalsanalyse - nederland - arbeidsmarkt - macro-economie - micro-economie - west-europa - verdeling van werk - participatie
Women’s work has never been a linear process of extending participation. Instead, female labour force participation (FLFP) has extended and curtailed throughout time. This dissertation studies a period of contraction: the nineteenth-century Netherlands. This country makes an important case study to explore the factors influencing the trajectory of women’s work. First, FLFP rates as recorded in occupational censuses were low compared with surrounding countries. Second, Dutch industrialization took off relatively late and until well into the twentieth century a significant part of the labour force worked in agriculture, in contrast to neighbouring countries such as Britain and Belgium.
This dissertation contributes to answering the following question: Why were Dutch female labour force participation rates lower than in surrounding countries during the period 1830-1914? I consider the following explanatory factors: social norms, the opportunity costs of women’s labour, and structural change. My conclusions about the relative weight of each factor are as follows. First, social norms regarding women’s role within the household following from the growing desire for domesticity have affected the trajectory of women’s labour. I show that married women withdrew from the registered labour force and instead, performed work that could be combined with domestic chores and that remained invisible in most statistical sources. However, these social norms were likewise strong in other western European countries, such as Britain, where FLFP was higher. Furthermore, Dutch FLFP was already low around 1850 when the transition to the male breadwinner society in western Europe started. Thus, it is no conclusive explanation for the aberrant Dutch trend in FLFP.
Second, men’s real industrial wages started to rise after 1880 and became increasingly able to take care of a family of four. However, this was not true for men’s agricultural wages. Women’s wages in both sectors hardly increased at all during the nineteenth century in both sectors. I therefore conclude that industrial households were already able to realize a breadwinner-homemaker type of labour division from the 1880s, whereas agricultural households still relied for an important part on other sources of income besides the husband’s wage labour by 1910. Thus, men’s wages profoundly influenced household labour division. However, in Britain, men’s real wages were even higher, but so were FLFP rates in the censuses. Thus, if the extent of men’s real wages was indeed the most important explanatory factor, we would have expected even lower participation rates in Britain than in the Netherlands.
Third, the impact of economic structure and the changing demand for labour on FLFP has been a pivotal factor of influence. I show that the structure of the local economy had a statistically significant effect on the chance that a bride stated an occupation in her marriage record. Furthermore, in agriculture women increasingly performed work in a private business which was usually not registered in the censuses. Moreover, technological change in the textile industry and the transition to the factory system negatively impacted women’s position in the labour market because married women could no longer combine domestic chores with wage labour. Finally, many parts of the production process that had traditionally been women’s work were taken over by men when mechanization progressed.
Considering all my research results, I conclude that the structure of the Dutch economy is the most important explanation for the exceptionally low Dutch FLFP rates during the long nineteenth century.
Marriages are Made in Kitchens : The European Marriage Pattern and Life-Cycle Servanthood in Eighteenth-Century Amsterdam
Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
Feminist Economics 23 (2017)2. - ISSN 1354-5701 - p. 68 - 92.
domestic servants - eighteenth-century Amsterdam - European Marriage Pattern - life-cycle servanthood - living standards - women’s wages
Due to methodological difficulties of historical research on women’s labor, little is known of women’s contribution to household incomes in preindustrial economies. This article is the first to use domestic servants’ wages, as documented in account books from the period 1752–1805, to estimate the capital that women could accumulate during their years of service before marriage. As such, it offers a new perspective on women’s contribution to household resources. Results show that servants working for the most well-off households in eighteenth-century Amsterdam could save a marriage budget that was between one-third and half of the capital that an unskilled man could save in the same amount of time. Furthermore, servants’ wages would in theory have been sufficient to support a family of four at the subsistence level, illustrating that women’s wages and potential savings cannot be ignored.
|Wealth and poverty in European rural societies from the Sixteenth to Nineteenth century
Schuurman, A.J. ; Broad, J. - \ 2014
Turnhout : Brepols - ISBN 9782503545165 - 253
geschiedenis - plattelandssamenleving - agrarische samenleving - landbouw - platteland - vermogensverdeling - armoede - levensstandaarden - consumptie - europa - history - rural society - agricultural society - agriculture - rural areas - wealth distribution - poverty - living standards - consumption - europe
This book sheds new light on old problems of wealth, poverty and material culture in rural societies. Much of the debate has concentrated on north-west Europe and the Atlantic world. This volume widens the geographic range to compare less well known areas, with case studies on the Mediterranean world (Catalonia and Greece), from central Europe (Bohemia and Hungary), and from the Nordic countries (Denmark). Methodologically, several papers link the possession of goods to the use of room space, while others highlight the importance of the channels for the circulation of goods, problems of stocks and flows of goods, and the complexities of urban/rural difference. Finally, this book seeks to stimulate new comparative studies in living standards and lifestyles by providing an overview of achievements up till now. John Broad is visiting academic at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, University of Cambridge. He has published on rural society and poverty in England, and his current research interests include a book on English rural housing, and large-scale surveys of population, religion, and landholding in England in the eighteenth century. Anton Schuurman is associate professor of Rural History at Wageningen University. He has published on the history of material culture and rural transformations in the Netherlands. Currently he is writing a book on the processes of modernisation and democratisation in the Dutch countryside from 1840 till 1920.
Social limitations to livelihood adaptation : responses of maize-farming smallholder households to neoliberal policy reforms in Morelos, Southern Veracruz, Mexico
Groenewald, S.F. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732217 - 222
huishoudens - landbouwhuishoudens - kleine landbouwbedrijven - markten - boerenmarkten - agrarische economie - ontwikkelingseconomie - levensstandaarden - adaptatie - middelen van bestaan - sociaal kapitaal - maïs - ontwikkelingslanden - mexico - households - agricultural households - small farms - markets - farmers' markets - agricultural economics - development economics - living standards - adaptation - livelihoods - social capital - maize - developing countries - mexico
This thesis describes the adaptation of smallholders to market changes shaped by neoliberal policy reforms in the Mexican maize sector. Contrary to expectations about smallholder responses to a liberalised maize market, in the study area maize still is the main source of income. Farmers did not leave the maize sector to produce more profitable crops neither did they exit agriculture. Special attention is given to the role of social capital in shaping households’ adaptation behaviour. By analysing the role of trust in adaptation processes, this study enhances our understanding of the importance of the social and historical context in contemporary livelihood decisions. It demonstrates that new forms of social capital are difficult to sustain if they do not link up with existing, local forms of social capital. Data collection in the field took place between March 2007 and May 2010. The research was conducted in Morelos, Veracruz, Mexico.
Kwaliteit leefomgeving en stedelijk groen
Vreke, J. ; Salverda, I.E. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 169) - 48
stedelijke gebieden - parken - stadsparken - kwaliteit van het leven - levensstandaarden - milieu - perceptie - stadsomgeving - stedelijke bevolking - groenbeheer - openbaar groen - urban areas - parks - urban parks - quality of life - living standards - environment - perception - urban environment - urban population - management of urban green areas - public green areas
De bijdrage van stedelijk groen aan de kwaliteit van de leefomgeving kan verlopen via actief en passief gebruik van het groen, via aanwezigheid van het groen en via doorwerkingen van gebruik of aanwezigheid van groen. Het onderzoek is gericht op mechanismen waarin actief of passief gebruik van stedelijk groen de initiërende factor is en waarbij sprake is van beïnvloeding van de kwaliteit van de leefomgeving voor een bepaalde groep of groepen bewoners. Voor twee cases, Moe’s Tuin in Delft en zelfbeheer van publiek groen in Utrecht, is geïllustreerd hoe stedelijk groen een bijdrage heeft geleverd aan de kwaliteit van de leefomgeving. Dit betreft voorbeelden waarbij via groen of een groen project de leefbaarheid van de buurt wordt aangepakt. Dit leidt tot verbetering, eerst voor de initiatiefnemers van en deelnemers aan het project en vervolgens voor de buurt als geheel
|Lusten en lasten. Gids voor fiscaal-historisch onderzoek naar inkomen en vermogen in de provincie Utrecht
Rommes, R.N.J. ; Pietersma, A. ; Verstegen, W. - \ 2007
Utrecht : Het Utrechts Archief - ISBN 9789076366210 - 64
inkomen - levensstandaarden - eigendomsbelastingen - geschiedenis - nederland - vermogensverdeling - utrecht - income - living standards - property taxes - history - netherlands - wealth distribution - utrecht
Livelihood and food security in rural Bangladesh- the role of social capital
Ali, A. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof. - Wageningen : - ISBN 9789085042969 - 264
voedselzekerheid - levensomstandigheden - relaties - gemeenschappen - samenleving - menselijke relaties - man-vrouwrelaties - huishoudens - inkomen - platteland - levensstandaarden - vrouwen - Bangladesh - positie van de vrouw - sociale relaties - vrouw en samenleving - arbeid in de landbouw - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - food security - living conditions - relationships - communities - society - human relations - gender relations - households - income - rural areas - living standards - women - Bangladesh - woman's status - social relations - woman and society - farm labour - livelihood strategies
This thesis describes the role of social capital of households and individuals in achieving livelihood and food security. In the research the temporal dimension and gender were cross-cutting perspectives. IFPRI panel data collected during 1996-1997 (pre-flood) and 1999-2000 (post-flood) were analyzed. To complement the IFPRI data an additional survey and the qualitative data was collected during 2001-2003. Panel data analysis shows that gender of the household head does not make a difference in achieving food security at the household level. However, gender of the household member is crucial for attaining individual level food security. Social capital plays an important role in averting vulnerability and sustaining livelihood, and is influenced by the landholding status of the house hold, which seems to function as collateral. The qualitative data revealed that women's social capital, when defined in a broader way, does play a crucial role in achieving household food security and averting vulnerability.
|The importance of silvopastoral system in rural livelihoods to provide ecosystem services
Mannetje, L. t; Ramirez, L. ; Ibrahim, M. ; Sandoval, C. ; Ojeda, N. ; Ku, J. - \ 2004
Mérida : Autonomous University of Yucatan - 346
silvopastorale systemen - agroforestrysystemen - vee - biodiversiteit - milieueffect - levensstandaarden - latijns-amerika - agro-ecosystemen - ecosysteemdiensten - silvopastoral systems - agroforestry systems - livestock - biodiversity - environmental impact - living standards - latin america - agroecosystems - ecosystem services
Hay que jornalear: un análisis de las estrategias adaptivas de pequeños productores en la región atlántica de Costa Rica
Alfaro Monge, R.A. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): Ruerd Ruben. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789058087904 - 173
ontwikkelingsstudies - rurale sociologie - landgebruiksplanning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - sociale economie - levensstandaarden - kleine landbouwbedrijven - modernisering - etnografie - costa rica - development studies - rural sociology - land use planning - sustainability - farm management - socioeconomics - living standards - small farms - modernization - ethnography - costa rica
Leefkwaliteit stationsgebied Utrecht
Berg, A.E. van den; Beer, A. ; Hamel, R. ; Manneke, A. ; Schildwacht, P. - \ 2003
Utrecht : Gemeente Utrecht - 101
stedelijke gebieden - levensomstandigheden - levensstandaarden - sociaal welzijn - steden - buurten - kwaliteit - nederland - utrecht - urban areas - living conditions - living standards - social welfare - towns - neighbourhoods - quality - netherlands - utrecht
De LVKK op weg naar een leefbaar landelijk gebied : Een onderzoek naar de positie, organisatie en communicatie van een belangenbehartigingsorganisatie
Gudden, D. ; Uitdehaag, M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 179) - ISBN 9789067546553 - 103
plattelandsgemeenschappen - dorpen - platteland - kwaliteit van het leven - levensstandaarden - organisaties - belangengroepen - communicatie - nederland - rural communities - villages - rural areas - quality of life - living standards - organizations - interest groups - communication - netherlands
|Livelihood diversification of farming households in Northwest Sierra Leone
Tilburg, A. van - \ 2001
Wageningen : Unknown Publisher - ISBN 9789067546454 - 34
landbouwhuishoudens - levensstandaarden - boerengezinnen - menselijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnen - voedselgewassen - diversificatie - platteland - sierra leone - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - documentatie - agricultural households - living standards - farm families - human resources - resources - food crops - diversification - documentation - sustainability - rural areas
Rural livelihood systems : A conceptual framework
Niehof, A. ; Price, L. - \ 2001
Wageningen : UPWARD - ISBN 9789067546430 - 30
huishoudkunde - huishoudens - levensstandaarden - boerengezinnen - hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - platteland - ontwikkelingslanden - home economics - households - living standards - farm families - resources - sustainability - rural areas - developing countries
De stellingen van Wageningen : beleidsaanbevelingen om de bestaanszekerheid van agrarische gezinnen te vergroten
Vinkers, J. ; Hoog, K. de - \ 2000
Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Sociologie van Consumenten en Huishoudens, Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789067546065 - 16
sociaal welzijn - armoede - boerengezinnen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - landbouwhuishoudens - particuliere landbouwbedrijven - sociale zekerheid - nederland - inkomen - levensstandaarden - laag inkomen - economische situatie - welzijn - social welfare - poverty - income - living standards - low income - economic situation - farm families - family farms - agricultural households - private farms - social security - netherlands - well-being
Eiland in evenwicht : Een verkenning van leefbaarheidsaspecten in verband met toeristische ontwikkeling op Texel
Lengkeek, J. ; Velden, K. van der - \ 2000
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 173) - ISBN 9789067546195 - 54
levensomstandigheden - levensstandaarden - impact van toerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - noord-holland - nederlandse waddeneilanden - living conditions - living standards - tourism impact - tourism development - noord-holland - dutch wadden islands
Coping with mother nature : households' livelihood security and coping strategies in a situation of a continuing disaster in Tarlac, Philippines
Mula, R.P. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Niehof. - S.l. : Mula - ISBN 9789058080424 - 167
huishoudens - rampen - natuurrampen - levensstandaarden - kwaliteit van het leven - boerengezinnen - vulkanen - filippijnen - households - disasters - natural disasters - living standards - quality of life - farm families - volcanoes - philippines
Several studies on households and individuals coping with disasters have been made. The Philippines, being a disaster prone area, has to grapple with the yearly damage caused by deluge or drought. The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 has the greatest toll to the country's economy because it did not only claim lives, properties, and resources at that time, but continues to do so up to the present day, which is why the disaster has been characterised as a lingering disaster. This study provides insight into the behaviour of individuals in a household faced with a disaster whose effects may carry through an indefinite period. The two major activities conducted to describe the effects of the disaster on household livelihood are the general household survey and the case study analysis.
The former was done to obtain an understanding of the disaster situation. The micro but in-depth perspective was provided by case study analysis. In both activities, information of the 'before' and 'after' situations were the basis of observations.
As the study shows, the disaster significantly affected the major livelihood sources of the households.Lahar-laden fields made rice farming difficult because of poor soil structure. It made aquaculture and sustenance fishing impractical because of too much deposition of lahar, and livestock raising unfeasible because of lack of pasture. The change in cropping calendar and ecology indicate the changed situation. The changed natural resource base has a corresponding implications for the socio-cultural resources of the households. When households are under stress, negotiation becomes all the more important. The moral dimension of the household economy and kinship relations becomes more prominent and transcends kinship relationships. The social network of an individual or household becomes the source of support, while reciprocity being in the hub of this support system.
Households beset by a disaster are eclectic. As the case studies show, household respond to the changed situation through several mechanisms that are honed through time making these adaptive. Households cope by altering their production management like adjusting their cropping calendar and diversifying crops and mobilising available resources like the forest and other traditional forms of livelihood/food system. Household membership tends to become very loose in a situation of a crisis. The manipulation of social relations and household membership has become a significant form of coping. Negotiations over work and other domestic responsibilities and migration of household members appeared to be part of the available coping strategies. These strategies to attain a secure livelihood do not always represent clear-cut,mutually exclusive alternatives.
Outside intervention like government support in crisis situations should not just contend with emergency relief. Because disasters result in entitlement destruction, an intervention that allows for 'entitlement protection' is essential in the case of a continuing type of a disaster. Responsive disaster management articulates the need to know and understand the situation, and a genuine support programme is sensitive to the plight of vulnerable groups like women and the elderly.
|Nuclear Families and the Changing Income Procurement Role of Married Women.
Ophem, J.A.C. van; Hoog, K. de - \ 1997
Associations 1 (1997)2. - p. 279 - 295.
positie van de vrouw - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - gezinsinkomen - kerngezinnen - gezinsleven - werkgelegenheid - sociale verandering - economische situatie - levensstandaarden - culturele verandering - arbeidsmarkt - tijdsbesteding - huishoudkunde - man-vrouwrelaties - nederland - vrouwenemancipatie - vrouw en samenleving - woman's status - female labour - household income - nuclear families - family life - employment - social change - economic situation - living standards - cultural change - labour market - time allocation - home economics - gender relations - netherlands - emancipation of women - woman and society
In this article the authors argue that the increase in labour force participation of married women in the Netherlands is not to be seen as indicating married women's increased emancipation but rather as an outcome of socio-structural, socio-cultural and socio-economic changes within society that severly restrict wives' freedom of choice in their decisions to allocate their time
|Material culture: consumption, life-style, standard of living, 1500-1900.
Schuurman, A.J. ; Walsh, L.S. - \ 1994
Milano : Universita Bocconi - 174
antropologie - consumptie - cultuur - etnografie - geschiedenis - levensstijl - levensstandaarden - sociale indicatoren - volkscultuur - beschaving - cultuurgeschiedenis - gebruiken - volkenkunde - anthropology - consumption - culture - ethnography - history - lifestyle - living standards - social indicators - folk culture - civilization - cultural history - customs - ethnology
|Onderzoek naar de economische omstandigheden en het arbeidsmarktgedrag van werklozen in Friesland.
Ophem, J.A.C. van; Verhaar, C.H.A. ; Goede, M.P.M. de - \ 1989
Leeuwarden : Fryske Akademy
werkgelegenheid - arbeidsmarkt - levensstandaarden - sociale indicatoren - werkloosheid - Nederland - friesland - personen - employment - labour market - living standards - social indicators - unemployment - Netherlands - friesland - persons
|Proceedings household science and its social and political relevance : research symposium october 17-18, 1985 Wageningen
Meer, A. van der - \ 1987
Wageningen : Agricultural University - ISBN 9789067541022 - 136
samenstelling - consumenten - werkgelegenheid - gezinnen - huishoudkunde - huishoudens - informatietechnologie - arbeid (werk) - arbeidseconomie - levensstandaarden - bedrijfsvoering - werkorganisatie - beleid - sociale indicatoren - structuur - theorie - werk - arbeidskunde - consumentenaangelegenheden - organisatie - composition - consumers - employment - families - home economics - households - information technology - labour - labour economics - living standards - management - organization of work - policy - social indicators - structure - theory - work - work study - consumer affairs - organization